Friday, 15 March 2019

(368) Barclay of Bury Hill and Eastwick Park

Barclay of Bury Hill
The Barclay family were established in Scotland from the medieval period, and the Barclays of Mathers and Ury will be the subject of a future post. In 1698, however, David Barclay (1682-1769), the second son of Robert Barclay of Ury, the Quaker apologist, moved south to make his career in London, and was apprenticed to a draper. He was made free of the Drapers Company in 1706, and established himself as a linen draper in Cheapside. Over time, the firm became increasingly focused on supplying German, Scottish and Irish linen products to the colonies in America, and when he retired in 1767, his firm was one of the largest in the north American trade, owning ships, and trading to New York, Pennsylvania, the Chesapeake, and the West Indies. He remained an active Quaker throughout his long life, and at his death was reputedly worth over £100,000. He married twice, and had two sons by each marriage. This post concerns the family established by the second son of his first marriage, Alexander Barclay (1711-71), who was initially a disappointment to his father, since he quickly ran through his modest inheritance from his mother. David therefore secured his appointment as Comptroller of Customs in Philadelphia, and sent him out to America to assist with the management of the American end of his firm alongside his Government post. In America, Alexander seems to have developed a new purposefulness and maturity, and he was soon regarded as a pillar of the Philadelphia community. He remained in America for the rest of his life and married twice, producing a son and daughter by his first marriage, but no children by his second.

Alexander's son, Robert Barclay (1751-1830), was sent to England in 1763 to be brought up in the Quaker tradition in the household of his half-uncle, David Barclay (1729-1809), and he was educated at the Friends' School in Wandsworth (Surrey). He entered the world of business by joining the firm of American merchants founded by his grandfather, the London end of which was run by his half-uncle from 1767 onwards. Perceiving more clearly than most the dangers inherent in the deepening rift between the British government and the American colonists, David and Alexander Barclay first gave up their commission merchant business, and then gradually wound down their linen export business (which finally ceased trading in 1783). In 1773 Robert went back to America for a couple of years to tidy up his father's affairs and in 1776 David became a partner in the Freame bank, the oldest-established Quaker bank in London. In 1781, David Barclay and his nephews, Robert Barclay and Silvanus Bevan, bought the Anchor Brewery in Southwark from Mrs Hester Thrale for £135,000. Although David was for some years a sleeping partner in the firm, the brewery became Robert's enterprise. He took the Thrales' manager, John Perkins, into partnership, and in the 1790s the firm became Barclay Perkins & Co. Thrales had already been one of the major London brewers, but under Robert's management, the firm grew rapidly and became famous for its Russian Imperial Stout which was widely sold on the continent. By the time Robert retired from the day-to-day management of the firm in 1812, Barclay Perkins was the leading brewer in London, producing more than 330,000 barrels of beer a year. 

Northrepps Hall. Image: Literary Norfolk/'Mr Whiskey'.
Robert's success in business allowed him to buy a country house. His wife was Rachel Gurney (1755-94), a member of one of the leading Quaker families in Norfolk, and in 1790 he bought Northrepps Hall in Norfolk, perhaps at her urging. After she died, however, he sold it to his brother-in-law, Richard Gurney, and in 1803 he took a lease on Bury Hill near Dorking in Surrey, where there was an elegant mid 18th century house. In 1814, he bought the freehold and began enlarging both the house and the estate. 


In 1812, Robert Barclay began handing over the management of Barclay Perkins to his eldest son, Charles Barclay (1780-1855), and devoted the last twenty years of his life to the pleasures of his estate, pursuing his interests in science and history, and supporting a range of philanthropic and religious causes. The initiative for which the historian has most to thank him was his decision to commission artists to record the notable buildings of Surrey, apparently with a view to producing an extra-illustrated copy of Manning & Bray's history of Surrey. The collection of over 500 watercolours by John and Edward Hassall which resulted is now in the Surrey History Centre.

Charles Barclay was brought up as a Quaker, but during the Napoleonic Wars he decided to join one of the many local volunteer regiments which were created around the country for home defence purposes in the event of an invasion. This was contrary to the Quaker tradition of pacificism, and when the matter came to the attention of his monthly meeting, he was 'disowned' by the Quakers, although it does not seem to have ruptured his relations with his family. In 1804 he married an Anglican, and subsequent generations of the family were brought up in the Church of England.

In 1830, Charles Barclay inherited Bury Hill from his father, and he put in hand further improvements to the building in 1831-33 to the designs of Decimus Burton. At much the same time, he was involved in building work for the firm, for an accidental fire at the Anchor Brewery in May 1832 caused an estimated £40,000 worth of damage. Fortunately, the premises were insured, but there was a great deal of work to be done in overseeing the rebuilding.

In the 1840s, Charles Barclay gradually handed over control of the brewery to his eldest son, Arthur Kett Barclay (1806-69) and turned his attention to other matters. He made improvements to the Bury Hill estate (which he shared with Arthur from 1847) and devoted time to his charitable works, becoming President of the Governors of Guy's Hospital for seven years. On the death of the last male heir of the Barclays of Mathers and Urie in 1854, Charles Barclay became titular representative of that Scottish family, and this honour is still held by his descendants today. 

Arthur had initially been privately educated, and one of his early tutors had kindled in him a wide-ranging interest in science, and particularly astronomy. In 1847-48 Decimus Burton built an observatory for him on the hill behind the house at Bury Hill, but sadly he was only able to make use of it for a few years before a paralysing stroke in 1855 obliged him to withdraw from business and public life. Arthur died in 1869, still relatively young, of a second stroke, and was succeeded by his son, Robert Barclay (1837-1913). Robert saw the Barclay Perkins brewery through incorporation in 1896, and was the first chairman of the limited company until 1911. He was, however, less engaged in the day-to-day management of the business than his predecessors, and found time for a good deal of fishing in the lake at Bury Hill and elsewhere. His son, Lt-Col. Robert Wyvill Barclay (1880-1951), took over as Chairman of the brewery and held this position until 1950, but having been active in the yeomanry as a young man he served with the Life Guards throughout the First World War. In 1914, before the war broke out, he attempted to sell the Bury Hill estate, although in the end only one of the estate farms and the wooded hill behind the house (which became a public open space) were sold. The motives for the attempted sale are not clear, for although there will have been substantial death duties on Robert Barclay's estate, his wealth at death was too great to make a sale essential. No further efforts to sell the estate were made after the war, but with the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939 the house was requisitioned for military use. After the Second World War, the family decided to convert the house into flats, and while work was in progress on this in 1949-50, a fire destroyed the central block of the building. The ruins were demolished, leaving the two wings of the house - which have been flats ever since - as rather bizarre fangs. It is remarkable that no scheme for rebuilding the main block between them has apparently ever been proposed. The remainder of the estate was finally sold in 1952 by Col. Barclay's son, Robert Edward Barclay (1906-59), who in 1955 also merged the Barclay Perkins brewery with Messrs Courage Ltd.

When Robert Barclay (1751-1830) died, he divided his holding in Barclay Perkins between his surviving sons, Charles and David, who each received a one-eighth share. Charles, as we have seen, was active in the business and became the senior partner, but David Barclay (1784-1861) pursued other business and political interests. From 1817 he was a partner in a firm of import-export merchants (Barclay Brothers & Co.) which was regarded as a significant player in its field. His business expertise was sufficiently well-regarded for him to become a director of the Bank of England and to be recruited onto other boards of directors. He was a Liberal in politics, unlike his brother, who inclined to the Tories, and he served as MP for Penryn in Cornwall (where he had connections by marriage) and Sunderland at different times. In 1833 he bought Eastwick Park, an early 18th century house not far from his brother at Bury Hill, and undertook a substantial remodelling of the building, possibly to the designs of his brother's architect, Decimus Burton. In 1847, however, some unwise investments with unscrupulous partners brought Barclay Brothers down, and the firm had to be wound up. David experienced a significant reduction in income, and although he was not obliged to sell Eastwick, he did eventually decide to let it out and move to a smaller house in Cornwall. His eldest son, Hedworth David Barclay (1820-73), who inherited his shares in the brewery, resumed occupation of the house, built up pedigree herds of cattle and sheep on the estate, and gradually recovered the financial position of this branch of the family. When he died, however, he left a young family, and on coming of age his eldest son, Hedworth Trelawny Barclay (1859-1944), sold Eastwick in favour of renting properties in Leicestershire, where the hunting was better. H.T. Barclay and his brothers were all, apparently, keener on the military life and on sport than on attention to business, and built their lives around these activities, which were financed by their shareholdings in the brewery. H.T. Barclay's only son was killed in the First World War, and his brothers had no sons, so this branch of the family died out in 1945 with the death of Reginald Barclay (1861-1945).


Bury Hill, Dorking, Surrey


Bury Hill: the house as first built, from J.P. Neale's engraving of 1823.

The estate, lying south-west of Dorking town, was formed from 1751 onwards around a small farm called Chardhurst by Edward Walter (1727-80), who in 1753 also inherited the Jacobean Stalbridge Park (Dorset) from his brother. Within a few years he had built up a substantial estate near Dorking and built the mansion house which he called Bury Hill. After his death, the estate was let to short-term tenants until in 1803 Robert Barclay (1751-1830), a prosperous Southwark brewer, settled there. He bought the freehold in 1814, and subsequently further expanded the estate until by 1914 it occupied some 969 acres. As first built the house consisted of a seven bay central block with lower two-storey wings to either side, which were further continued by low flanking walls. The entrance front faced north into the rising ground behind the house, and was of two storeys, but the show front was that overlooking a large lake to the south, where the fall of the ground meant that there was an extra storey. 

Bury Hill: an engraving by J.D. Harding published in 1844 (but probably drawn in 1837-38) shows the house as extended by Robert Barclay.

After he acquired the property in 1814, Robert Barclay is recorded as having 'greatly improved' both the house and grounds, and by 1828 the flanking walls had become arcaded colonnades linking the wings to large square pavilions containing the stables and kitchens, with pyramidal roofs and cupolas, which were fronted by three-bay verandahs, possibly initially of trelliswork. Charles Barclay (1780-1855) inherited the estate in 1830 and at once brought in Decimus Burton to make further changes to the house, perhaps including the addition of stucco to the house. In 1847-48 Decimus Burton was back at Bury Hill, designing an observatory for Charles Barclay's son and successor, Arthur Kett Barclay (1806-69), and it was perhaps he who, around this time, added a third storey to the wings of the house to the great detriment of its proportions. The observatory became ruined in the 20th century, but was subsequently restored as a house.


Bury Hill: entrance front in the early 20th century, from an old postcard.

Bury Hill: a photograph, possibly of 1914, showing the garden front as altered by Decimus Burton.

The grounds of the house were of some note and offered fine views both within the park and outwards from it. There seem to have been a number of small ornamental buildings in addition to the observatory tower, including a rustic temple with seats, offering several extensive prospects in different directions, which stood on the hill called The Nower behind the house. 


Bury Hill: bailiff's cottage by John Perry, from a drawing by J.D. Harding, 1837-38. Image: Dorking Museum.
Bury Hill: Gothick cottage, perhaps by John Perry, from a drawing  by J.D. Harding, 1837-38. Image: Dorking Museum.
At much the same time as Burton was altering the house, John Perry of Godalming was engaged to design a picturesque bailiff's house and a farm in a similar style, and he may have also have been responsible for the estate lodges and a rather pretty Gothick cottage which were recorded by James Duffield Harding in a series of views of the estate made in 1837-38. 


Bury Hill: the house after the demolition of the central block in 1952. Image: Historic England.
The centre of the house was gutted by fire in 1949 or 1950 and subsequently pulled down, leaving the three-storey wings which have been converted into apartments. These have a stuccoed and rusticated ground floor, but are cement-rendered above, perhaps as a result of post-fire patching up. On the south side, the ground floors project with a balustraded parapet over forming a balcony, and there are pediments over the central windows on the first floor. All the windows are in moulded architrave surrounds but they have lost their glazing bars. The surviving wings are linked by corridors with round-headed arches (the ones on the east side glazed) to single-storey garden pavilions in front of the former stables and offices. These pavilions have three Venetian windows across the front with small round windows in the corners, and replace the trelliswork verandas which existed in the same position in the 1820s. The east and west ends of the house have coupled Ionic pilasters rising the whole height of the house with a pediment over containing a circular window in the pediment: frontispieces which look very much like the work of Decimus Burton. The two wings still look down over the large lake, which is now used by Bury Hill Fisheries, and in which the most monstrous carp are sometimes caught.

Descent: Edward Walter (1727-80); to daughter Henrietta, wife of James Bucknall Grimston (1747-1808), 3rd Viscount Grimston; sold 1812/15 to Robert Barclay (1751-1830); to son, Charles Barclay (1780-1855); to son, Arthur Kett Barclay (1806-69); to son, Robert Barclay (1837-1913); to son, Robert Wyvill Barclay (1880-1951); to son, Robert Edward Barclay (1906-59), who sold in 1952.


Eastwick Park, Great Bookham, Surrey


This was the manor house of the manor of Eastwick, and it is thought that there was already a house of some consequence here in the early 17th century, when it was the property of John Browne of Esher. His heirs sold the estate to Sir Francis Howard (d. 1651), who already owned the main manor of Great Bookham, but who made Eastwick his seat. Nothing is known of the appearance of the house at this time.

On the death of Thomas Howard, 6th Baron Howard of Effingham, in 1725, the estate passed to his widow for life, and she and her second husband, Sir Conyers D'Arcy of Aske Hall (Yorks NR) seem at once to have employed the French Huguenot architect, Nicholas Dubois (c.1665-1735), to design a new house for the estate. He was a retired military engineer who turned to architecture, and is known chiefly as the translator of Palladio into English, although his preface to that work does not suggest that he was a committed advocate of the Palladian movement. The new Eastwick was a two storey house of red brick, apparently seven bays by seven, although since no illustration has been found showing it in its original form it is hard to be sure how closely it originally conformed to the Palladian canon. The house descended in the Howard family to the 4th Earl of Effingham, who in 1801 sold it to John Laurell. He is said to have altered the house and refaced it with stucco, and the earliest record of the building shows it in this form. To judge by this view (drawn by John Hassell for Robert Barclay), the external alterations were not extensive, although the Diocletian windows in the pediments were probably his work.


Eastwick Park: the house from the west in 1904, from an old postcard.

In 1833 the house was sold to David Barclay, who at once undertook further alterations and additions. It seems very likely that his architect was Decimus Burton, who worked at Bury Hill for his brother Charles Barclay, and whose Italianate classicism is exactly the style of the changes to Eastwick. The house grew a large service wing with a belvedere tower, and the rear elevation sprouted a full-height bow window; a glazed porte-cochere was added to the entrance front. Inside, the house seems to have been largely remodelled in the 19th century, although it is hard to judge what was done when. Only the severely plain top-lit staircase seems certainly to have survived unaltered from the original house (although even here the walls were given a new, more architectural treatment), while the neo-classical decor of the dining room may represent the taste of John Laurell in the 1800s. A tripartite saloon, divided by columns of porphyry scagliola with heavy Corinthian capitals, was created along the south-east front of the house. The elaborate ceilings here were in the style of the early 18th century, but inconsistency in their modelling suggests that they were wholly 19th century work. Such decoration seems unlikely for the 1830s or 1840s, and it was perhaps later work, as was the ceiling of the entrance hall, which was given a frankly Victorian treatment. Two smaller rooms had Etruscan style ceilings, which are more credible for the 1830s, but are perhaps also more likely to be later.


Eastwick Park: the saloon in the early 20th century.
The house changed hands several times in the late 19th and 20th century, and in 1922 was sold to a property developer, who sold of much of the estate for house-building. Bookham Common was bought by local residents to preserve its amenities, and the house and grounds were sold to H.R. Fussell, who transferred Southey Hall Prep School here from its original home in Worthing (Sussex). The house was requisitioned for Canadian troops during the Second World War, but the school returned afterwards and occupied the building until the increasing cost of repairs and maintenance caused it to close in 1955. The house then stood empty for a number of years before being acquired by Surrey County Council as the site for a new junior school. It was demolished between 1958 and 1960.


Eastwick Park: the shell during demolition, 1958.
Descent: John Browne of Esher (fl. 1615), whose heirs sold 1626 to Sir Francis Howard (d. 1651), kt.; to son, Sir Charles Howard (d. 1673), kt.; to son, Francis Howard (1643-95), 5th Baron Howard of Effingham; to son, Thomas Howard (1682-1725), 6th Baron Howard of Effingham; to widow, Elizabeth (d. 1741), later wife of Sir Conyers D'Arcy (d. 1758) of Aske Hall (Yorks NR) for life and then to brother, Francis Howard (1683-1743), 7th Baron Howard of Effingham and 1st Earl of Effingham; to son, Thomas Howard (c.1714-63), 2nd Earl of Effingham; to son, Thomas Howard (1747-91), 3rd Earl of Effingham; to brother, Richard Howard (1748-1816), 4th Earl of Effingham, who sold 1801 to James Laurell; sold 1809 to Louis Bazalgette (1750-1830); sold 1833 to David Barclay (1784-1861); to son, Hedworth David Barclay (1820-73); to son, Hedworth Trelawny Barclay (1859-1944); sold 1882 to William Keswick (1834-1912); to widow Alice (1874-1966), later wife of Cyril Cameron Pyke (c.1873-1951); sold 1918 to Hipplyte Louis Wiehe du Coudray Souchon; sold 1922 to Percy Portway Harvey, who sold off land for building and sold house to Henry Reginald Fussell (1879-1943) as Southey Hall Preparatory School, which closed 1955; demolished c.1958-60.


Barclay family of Bury Hill


Alexander Barclay (1711-71)
Barclay, Alexander (1711-71). Second son of David Barclay (1682-1769) [for whom see my forthcoming post on the Barclays of Knotts Green etc.], and his first wife Anne, daughter of James Taylor of London, born in Cheapside, London, 11 November 1711. As a young man he seems to have been rather extravagant and quickly ran through the money left him by his mother. He then went to America to act as an agent for his father's London export business, and also held the appointment of Comptroller of Customs in Philadelphia, 1749-71. He married 1st, 29 January 1750 at Christ Church, Philadelphia, Anne (1729-53), daughter of Robert Hickman, a London cabinet-maker (who was staying with her uncle, John Hyatt, in Philadelphia); and 2nd, 8 February 1759, Rebecca (c.1716-84), daughter of Peter Evans and widow of Peter Robertson, sheriff of Philadelphia, and had issue:
(1.1) Robert Barclay (1751-1830) (q.v.);
(1.2) Patience Barclay (1753-81); married 1st, 4 August 1772, Joseph Worrell, and 2nd, 6 June 1780, as his second wife, Reynold Keen (b. c.1738); died 4 January 1781 and was buried at Christ Church, Philadelphia.
He lived in London and later in Philadelphia. In 1769 bought the mansion known as Woodford in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, which was sold to his brother-in-law, David Franks after his death. While in America he acquired some 20,000 acres of coal-rich lands on the Susquehanna river in Pennsylvania which remained in his family for several generations.
He died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA), 12 January 1771. His first wife died in Philadelphia and was buried at Christ Church, Philadelphia, 23 June 1753. His widow died in Philadelphia, 25 April 1784.

Robert Barclay (1751-1830)
Barclay, Robert (1751-1830). Only son of Alexander Barclay (1711-71) and his first wife Anne, daughter of Robert Hickman, born in Philadelphia (USA), 15 May and baptised at Christ Church, Philadelphia, 12 June 1751. In 1763 he was sent to England and brought up in the Quaker tradition by his half-uncle, David Barclay (1728-1809). Educated at the Friends' School, Wandsworth. He began work in the Cheapside offices of his father's firm of American merchants, and after the deaths of his father and grandfather he went to America in 1773 for about two years to wind up their affairs. On the death of Henry Thrale, the great London brewer (and husband of Mary Delany) in 1781, he bought the Anchor Brewery in Southwark for £135,000 with the financial support of his uncle, David Barclay and his cousin, Silvanus Bevan, and he took the former manager John Perkins into partnership; they traded as Barclay Perkins & Co. from 1798. He handed over management of the business to his eldest son in about 1812, but was Master of the Worshipful Company of Brewers in 1813. From childhood he had an interest in science, and in the 1780s he developed a taste for botany and gardening, becoming a founder member of the Linnean Society in 1788. At Bury Hill, he made a number of farming experiments as well as improving the house and grounds. He commissioned John Hassell and other topographical artists to make over 700 watercolours of Surrey buildings, apparently with a view to creating a Graingerised copy of Manning & Bray's history of Surrey. He was a supporter of many social and philanthropic causes, especially the abolition of slavery, the Bible Society, and missionary work. He married 1st, 2 October 1775 at Norwich Monthly Meeting of the Society of Friends, Rachel (1755-94), daughter of John Gurney of Keswick (Norfk), and 2nd, 10 July 1805 at St Leonard, Shoreditch (Middx), Margaret Hodgson (c.1764-1837), and had issue:
(1.1) Elisabeth Barclay (1776-78), born 10 July 1776; died in infancy of smallpox, 22 June 1778 and was buried at Bunhill Fields, 24 June 1778;
(1.2) Agatha Barclay (1778-1854), born 8 November 1778; married, 30 July 1827 at Brighton (Sussex), George Hillhouse, but had no issue; died 14 January and was buried at Budock (Cornw.), 21 January 1854;
(1.3) Anna Barclay (1779-1810), born 21 December 1779; married, 15 August 1799 at Kingston (Surrey), Jacob Foster Reynolds (1775-1851) of Carshalton House (Surrey), bleacher, and had issue one son and two daughters; died at Brighton, 26 May 1810;
(1.4) Charles Barclay (1780-1855) (q.v.);
(1.5) Rachel Barclay (1782-1824), born 13 March 1782; died unmarried, 1 January, and was buried at Wotton, 6 January 1824;
(1.6) twin, Lucy Barclay (1783-1859), born 24 April 1783; married, 27 December 1810, George Croker Fox (1785-1850) of Grove Hill, Falmouth (Cornw.), shipping agent, but had no issue; died 4 February 1859; will proved 17 February 1859 (effects under £8,000);
(1.7) twin, Elizabeth Barclay (1783-1827), born 24 April 1783; died unmarried, 4 December, and was buried at Brighton, 11 December 1827;
(1.8) David Barclay (1784-1861) [for whom see below, Barclay family of Eastwick Park];
(1.9) Maria Barclay (1785-1858), born 11 December 1785; married, 28 April 1814, Robert Were Fox FRS (1789-1877) of Penjerrick (Cornw.), shipping agent, and had issue two sons and two daughters; died 4 June 1858;
(1.10) Gurney Barclay (1786-1820), born at Clapham, 20 December 1786; partner in a wholesale tea merchants (Sanderson & Barclay) in London; married, 31 March 1818 at Redenhall (Norfk), Mary Elizabeth (1791-1871) (who m2, June 1825 at St James, Piccadilly, Westminster (Middx), Col. De Lancey Barclay (c.1780-1826), and m3, 11 January 1831 at St George, Hanover Square, London, Charles Augustus Stewart, and had further issue one son), daughter of John Freshfield, and had issue one son; died of apoplexy* at Youghal (Ireland), 10 September and was buried at Wotton (Surrey), 29 September 1820;
(1.11) Martha Barclay (b. & d. 1788), born 9 January 1788; died in infancy, 31 May 1788 and was buried at Bunhill Fields;
(1.12) Martha Barclay (1789-1833), born 8 December 1789; married, 14 June 1821 at Dorking, Lt-Col. John Bromhead CB (1776-1837) and had issue one son and three daughters (who when orphaned were left in the guardianship of her nephew, Arthur Kett Barclay); died 20 April and was buried at Swindon (Glos), 27 April 1833;
(1.13) Alexander Barclay (1791-1812), born 21 February 1791; died unmarried, 6 September 1812;
(1.14) Alfred Barclay (1793-95), born 21 December 1793; died in infancy, 1 July and was buried at Winchmore Hill (Middx), 4 July 1795.
He lived at Clapham (Surrey) from c.1783 and bought Northrepps Hall, Cromer (Norfk) in 1790, but sold this after his first wife's death to his brother-in-law, Richard Gurney (1743-1810). He leased the Bury Hill estate from 1803, purchased the freehold in 1814, and made alterations to the house.
He died at Bury Hill, 22 October and was buried at Winchmore Hill, 29 October 1830; his will was proved 6 December 1830. His first wife died 2 January 1794. His widow died 17 January 1837.
* Some family histories say he died in a duel in Phoenix Park, Dublin, but I have found no evidence to support this.


Charles Barclay (1780-1855)
Barclay, Charles (1780-1855). Eldest son of Robert Barclay (1751-1830) and his first wife, Rachel, daughter of John Gurney of Keswick (Norfk), born in London, 26 December 1780. Educated at Wandsworth (Surrey) and Alton (Hants). He was disowned in 1804 by the Quakers after joining the militia the previous year, and was baptised in the Church of England at Clapham (Surrey), 6 February 1815. He was an officer in the Loyal Britons Volunteers (Capt.). He was a partner in Barclay Perkins & Co and effectively running the business from 1812, and inherited a one-eighth share of the business from his father in 1830. An accidental fire at the brewery caused a reported £40,000 worth of damage in May 1832, but the firm was well insured and rebuilding was rapidly instigated. He was also a director of the Imperial Insurance Co. A moderate Tory in politics, he was MP for Southwark, 1815-18, Dundalk, 1826-30 and West Surrey, 1834-38, and campaigned against slavery, but opposed Catholic emancipation and parliamentary reform. He was a JP and DL for Surrey, High Sheriff of Sussex, 1842-43, and served as Master of the Worshipful Company of Brewers, 1826. Among his charitable activities, he supported an assisted emigration scheme from Dorking to Canada in the 1820s, and later published a vindication of it in the form of Letters from the Dorking Emigrants who went to Upper Canada (1833); he was also President of the Board of Governors of Guy's Hospital, London, 1848-55. He commissioned James Duffield Harding to make drawings of the estate in 1837-38, some of which were later published as engravings. In 1854, he succeeded his kinsman, Capt. Robert Barclay Allardice (1779-1854) as head of the family of Barclay of Urie and Mathers [which will be the subject of a future post]. He married, 1 August 1804 at Seething (Norfk), Anna Maria (1781-1840), eldest daughter of Thomas Kett of Seething, and had issue:
(1) Arthur Kett Barclay (1806-69) (q.v.);
(2) Robert Barclay (1808-43), born 10 August 1808 and baptised at Clapham, 11 June 1810; educated at Harrow (head of the school; left 1825); travelled in Europe with his brother, 1829-30; in partnership with David Barclay [see below, Barclay of Eastwick Park] and Robert Gurney Barclay as Barclay Bros & Co. (which failed in 1847, leaving his widow and children in financial difficulties); he was also a director of the Imperial Insurance Co. and Treasurer of Total Abstinence Life Association; married, 16 February 1830 at Coggeshall (Essex), Rachel, daughter of Osgood Hanbury of Holfield Grange, Coggeshall, and had issue two sons and two daughters, who were provided for in his father's will; died in Tooting (Surrey), 6 April and was buried at Wotton (Surrey), 13 April 1843; will proved 4 May 1843;
(3) Charles Barclay (1810-23), born 6 April and baptised at Clapham, 11 June 1810; died young while at Harrow School, 28 November, and was buried at Wotton (Surrey), 5 December 1823;
(4) Anna Maria Barclay (1812-13), born and baptised at Clapham, 4 March 1812; died young, 1812; died in infancy and was buried at Clapham, 5 January 1813;
(5) Caroline Barclay (1814-78), born 23 January and baptised at Clapham, 25 March 1814; married, 18 March 1837 at Dorking, John Gurney Hoare (1810-75) of Hampstead (Middx), and had issue three sons and three daughters; died 7 July and was buried at Hendon (Middx), 12 July 1878; will proved 5 August 1878 (effects under £16,000);
(6) Rachel Juliana Barclay (1816-86), born 27 July and baptised at Clapham, 21 August 1816; married, 20 April 1847 at Dorking, Joseph Hoare (1814-86) of Childs Hill House, Hampstead (Middx), but had no issue; died 27 February 1886; will proved 29 April 1886 (effects £27,822);
(7) Thomas George Barclay (1819-94), born 15 July and baptised at St Leonard, Streatham (Surrey), 11 August 1819; educated at Harrow; auditor; given a moiety of his father's share in Barclay Perkins & Co. by his elder brother after his father's death in 1855; Master of the Worshipful Company of Brewers in 1863; JP for Hertfordshire; lived at of Lower Woodside, Hatfield (Herts); married, 15 February 1844 at Dorking, Emily, daughter of Rev. James Joyce, vicar of Dorking, but had no issue; died 25 November 1894; will proved 28 January 1895 (effects £263,751).
He rented Betchworth Castle (Surrey) until he inherited the Bury Hill estate and coal-rich lands in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA) from his father in 1830. He commissioned Decimus Burton to alter the house and John Perry to design ornamental buildings for the estate.
He died as a result of a riding accident, 5 December, and was buried at Wotton (Surrey), 11 December 1855; his will was proved in January 1856 (effects under £60,000). His wife died 15 March and was buried at Wotton, 21 March 1840.

Barclay, Arthur Kett (1806-69). Eldest son of Charles Barclay (1780-1855) and his wife Anna Maria, eldest daughter of Thomas Kett of Seething (Norfk), born 20 June 1806. Educated privately and at Harrow (left 1822), and travelled extensively in Europe (with his brother Robert), 1829-30, visiting Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Germany and Belgium. A partner in Barclay Perkins & Co from 1826 (eventually senior partner). He had scientific interests, and was a keen amateur astronomer, building an observatory in the grounds of Bury Hill in 1847-48; he was a member of the Meteorological Society from 1850 and became a Fellow of the Geological Society, 1827; the Royal Geographical Society, 1840, the Royal Astronomical Society, 1845 (Vice-President, 1854) and the Royal Society, 1852. An officer in the Surrey Volunteer Cavalry (Capt., 1833). He was Master of the Worshipful Company of Brewers in 1840 and acted as one of the Treasurers to the Commissioners for the 1851 Exhibition. JP and DL for Surrey. He was a Conservative in politics, but declined to stand for Parliament. He succeeded his father as head of the Scottish house of Barclay in 1855 and proved his right to the name and arms of that family in 1858. He suffered a paralysing stroke in 1855, and although his mind remained unaffected he was obliged to withdraw from business and public life. He married, 20 December 1836 at Basford (Notts), Maria Octavia (1808-1902), daughter of Ichabod Wright of Mapperley (Notts), and had issue:
(1) Robert Barclay (1837-1913) (q.v.);
(2) Charles Arthur Barclay (1839-1901), born 16 January 1839; educated at Harrow (left 1855); Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society; a director of the Economic Life Assurance Society and a shareholder in Barclay Perkins & Co. Ltd.; married, 7 June 1864, Emma Rhoda (1842-1927), daughter of John Bentley of Birch House (Lancs) and had issue three sons and two daughters; died at Lausanne (Switzerland), 31 August 1901; will proved November 1901 (estate £123,329);
(3) Henry John Barclay (b. & d. 1840), born 12 July and baptised at St James, Croydon Common (Surrey), 15 August 1840; died in infancy, 22 August and was buried at St James, Croydon Common, 25 August 1840;
(4) Frederick Kett Barclay (1841-93), born 7 August and baptised at St James, Croydon Common, 17 September 1841; educated at Harrow (left 1855) and Trinity College, Cambridge (matriculated 1861; BA 1865); rice, oil and cake merchant (in partnership with Joseph Wace Gray as Barclay, Gray & Co. of Shad Thames, Southwark) until bankruptcy, 1881; married, 14 May 1878 at St James, Piccadilly, Westminster (Middx), Annie Nabbs (1851-80), daughter of Thomas Nabbs Dallimore, publican, and widow of Ebenezer John Ramsey (1849-76); died 20 July 1893;
(5) Harriet Maria Barclay (1842-1937), born 21 December 1842 and baptised at St James, Croydon Common, 12 February 1843; from about 1869 she dedicated her life to evangelical missionary work in Bermondsey (Surrey), where she lived and founded two mission halls; author of several works on Christian upbringing of children; died unmarried aged 94 on 3 February 1937; will proved 19 March 1937 (estate £3,746);
(6) Rachel Caroline Barclay (1844-88), born 24 March and baptised at St James, Croydon Common, 29 May 1844; married, 24 August 1864, Col. Sir James Gildea (1838-1920), kt., son of the Very Rev. George Robert Gildea, rector of Marylough and provost of Tuam (Galway), and had issue three sons and two daughters; died 4 June 1888;
(7) Adeline Henrietta Barclay (1845-99), born 1845 and baptised at St James, Croydon Common, 14 January 1846; married, 29 July 1864, her cousin, Col. Hanbury Barclay (1836-1909), eldest son of Robert Barclay (1808-43), and had issue three sons and two daughters; died 7 December 1899;
(8) Emily Octavia Barclay (1847-1926), born 4 August and baptised at Dorking, 29 September 1847; married, 14 July 1868, Sir Reginald More Bray (1842-1923) of Shere (Surrey), judge, and had issue four sons and four daughters; died 17 April 1926; will proved 19 June and 29 July 1926 (estate £7,753);
(9) Margaret Barclay (1849-1914); author of a novel, Stranger in a Strange Land (1882) and co-author of Failure and Fortune in Farming (1883); married, 1 July 1869 at Westcott, Sir Arthur Temple Felix Clay (1843-1928), 1st bt., and had issue two sons; died 25 December 1914; administration of her goods granted to her husband, 29 January 1916 (estate £922);
(10) Neville Juliana Barclay (1851-1933), born 16 January and baptised at Dorking, 21 April 1851; married, 1876, Rev. Charles Lea-Wilson (1851-1936) of Glenwillyn, Northwood (Middx), and had issue seven sons and four daughters; died 17 September 1933; will proved 23 October 1933 (estate £1,402);
(11) Rev. Charles Wright Barclay (1853-1926), born 8 November and baptised at Westcott, 18 December 1853; educated at Harrow (left 1871) and Trinity College, Cambridge (matriculated 1872; BA 1876; MA 1880); vicar of Little Amwell (Herts), 1881-1920; author of a history of the Barclay family; married, 10 March 1881 at St Anne, Limehouse (Middx), Florence Louisa (d. 1921), novelist, daughter of Rev. Samuel Beddowe Charlesworth, rector of Limehouse (Middx), and had issue two sons and six daughters; died 27 January 1926; will proved 19 March 1926 (estate £44,869).
He lived with his father at Bury Hill from 1847 and inherited the estate on his father's death in 1855, and also coal-rich lands in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA).
He died of a second stroke, 20 November 1869; his will was proved 12 February 1870 (effects under £160,000). His widow died 19 October 1902; her will was proved 26 November 1902 (estate £501).

Barclay, Robert (1837-1913). Eldest son of Arthur Kett Barclay (1806-69) and his wife Maria Octavia, daughter of Ichabod Wright of Mapperley (Notts), born 7 October and baptised at Dorking, 25 December 1837. Educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge (matriculated 1855; BA 1859; MA 1862). An officer in the Surrey Rifle Volunteers (Lt., 1860). JP and DL for Surrey; High Sheriff of Surrey, 1878. He succeeded his father as chief of the Scottish house of Barclay in 1869. He was senior partner in Barclay Perkins & Co., brewers and, after the firm was made into a limited company in 1896, served as its first Chairman, 1896-1911; he was also a director of the Royal Exchange Assurance Co., 1861-1913. He was Master of the Worshipful Company of Brewers in 1871, a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and President of the Dorking Angling Society, 1905-13. He was a Conservative in politics and was Chairman of the Dorking Conservative Association for many years. He married, 28 November 1877 at Denton (Yorks NR), Laura Charlotte Rachel (1850-1938), eldest daughter of Marmaduke Wyvill MP of Constable Burton (Yorks NR), and had issue:
(1) Robert Wyvill Barclay (1880-1951) (q.v.);
(2) Ellen Rachel Barclay (1881-1970), born 16 December 1881; married, 28 December 1922, Canon Alfred Ellis Farrow (1882-1961), vicar of St Cuthbert, Sheffield, only surviving son of Rev. John Ellis Farrow, rector of Flaxton (Yorks), but had no issue; died 3 October 1970; will proved 7 December 1970 (estate £18,397);
(3) Maj. Thomas Hubert Barclay (1884-1917), born 13 April and baptised at Westcott, 11 May 1884; educated at Harrow; an officer in the Surrey Yeomanry (2nd Lt., 1903; Lt., 1908; Capt., 1912; Maj., 1916); served in First World War; was unmarried and without issue; died of exhaustion after being rescued from the sea following the torpedoing of HMS Transylvania in the gulf of Genoa, 4 May 1917, and was buried at Savona, Liguria (Italy); posthumously awarded the Board of Trade Silver Medal for Gallantry in Saving Life at Sea; will proved 12 September 1917 (estate £20,607);
(4) Capt. Arthur Victor Barclay (1887-1963), born 11 August and baptised at Westcott, 14 August 1887; educated at Harrow; an officer in the Surrey Imperial Yeomanry (2nd Lt, 1906; resigned, 1909; returned 1914; Lt., 1917; retired 1921) and King's African Rifles (Capt.; retired 1919); served in First World War; married, 7 October 1918, Katherine Helen (d. 1943), only daughter of Arthur Valentine Willcox of Haverford, Montgomery (USA) and Lisnabrucke, Ballinafad (Galway) and had issue one daughter; died 27 November 1963; will proved 3 February 1964 (estate £74,944);
(5) Capt. George Eric Barclay (1889-1917), born 25 July and baptised at Westcott, 24 August 1889; educated at Harrow and Royal Military College, Sandhurst; an officer in King's Own Lancaster Regiment (2nd Lt., 1909; Lt., 1913; Capt., 1915); died unmarried when he was killed in action at Morogoro (Tanzania), 24 January 1917; will proved 11 April 1917 (estate £9,381).
He inherited the Bury Hill estate from his father in 1869.
He died 3 April and was buried at Westcott, 8 April 1913; his will was proved 4 June 1913 (estate £267,891). His widow died 13 August, and was buried at Westcott, 16 August 1938; her will was proved 9 September 1938 (estate £5,793).

Barclay, Lt-Col. Robert Wyvill (1880-1951). Eldest son of Robert Barclay (1837-1913) and his wife Laura Charlotte Rachel, eldest daughter of Marmaduke Wyvill of Constable Burton Hall (Yorks NR), born 23 November 1880 and baptised at Dorking, 1 January 1881. Educated privately and at Trinity College, Cambridge (matriculated 1900; athletics blue, 1901-03). An officer in the Surrey Yeomanry (Lt., 1902; Capt., 1904; Maj. by 1913; Lt-Col.) and 2nd Life Guards (Capt.), 1914-18. He succeeded his father as chief of the Scottish house of Barclay in 1913. Director of Barclay Perkins & Co. Ltd., brewers by 1913 (Chairman until retirement, 1950). JP (from 1914) and DL for Surrey; High Sheriff of Surrey, 1923-24. His chief recreations were shooting and fishing and he succeeded his father as President of the Dorking Angling Society in 1913. He married, 20 October 1904 at Shere (Surrey), Elsa Mary (1881-1956), daughter of His Honour Sir Edward Bray, kt., and had issue:
(1) Mary Priscilla Rachel Barclay (1905-94), born 7 August 1905; gave public performances of a marionette theatre in the 1930s; lived at Bramley House, Westcott (Surrey); died unmarried 24 December 1994; will proved 30 March 1995 (estate £137,104);
(2) Robert Edward Barclay (1906-59) (q.v.);
(3) John Stephen Barclay (1908-68), born 24 December 1908 and baptised at Mickleham, 21 February 1909; educated at Harrow, Trinity College Cambridge (BA 1930) and Inner Temple (called 1932); barrister-at-law; served in Second World War with Westminster Dragoons, 1939-45 (2nd Lt., 1939; Lt., c.1940; Capt., 1949; honorary Maj.); clerk to the Fishmongers Company in the city of London, 1949; clerk to Governors of Gresham School, Holt (Norfk); Hon. Sec. of Salmon & Trout Assoc., the Oyster Merchants & Planters Assoc. and Central Council for Rivers Protection; succeeded his older brother as head of the family of Barclay of Mathers & Urie, 1959; lived at Shere (Surrey); married, 18 May 1940, Patricia, youngest daughter of George Slade of London, solicitor, and had issue one son (Humphrey John Barclay (b. 1941), television producer, current head of the family of Barclay of Mathers & Urie) and two daughters; died 5 August 1968; will proved 20 December 1968 (estate £33,828);
(4) Malcolm Eric Barclay (1912-72), born 12 March 1912; educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge (BA 1933); served with Surrey & Sussex Yeomanry and Royal Artillery in Second World War (Capt. 1939; temporary Maj.); manager of Style & Winch, brewers, which had been taken over by Barclay Perkins & Co. in 1929; lived at Gabriels Manor, Edenbridge (Kent); married 1st, 7 July 1934 at St Dunstan's RC Church, Woking (Surrey), Monica Mary Johnstone (1914-66), daughter of Gerald Trevor Johnstone Bevan of Blunts Hill, Witham (Essex) and had issue four sons; married 2nd, 1967, June Trowell (d. 1974) and had further issue one son; died 25 January 1972; will proved 16 May 1972 (estate £46,610).
He inherited the Bury Hill estate from his father in 1913 and attempted to sell it in 1914, but only one farm was actually sold at the auction, while the wooded hill called the Nower was bought by Dorking Urban District Council as a public open space later in the year. The house was requisitioned during the Second World War and converted into flats in 1949-50, when much of the house was destroyed by fire.
He died 19 November 1951; his will was proved 5 February 1952 (estate £373,218). His widow died 6 October 1956; her will was proved 7 December 1956 (estate £10,745).

Barclay, Robert Edward (1906-59). Eldest son of Lt-Col. Robert Wyvill Barclay (1880-1951) and his wife Elsa Mary, daughter of Sir Edward Bray, kt., judge, born 12 August and baptised at Mickleham (Surrey), 10 September 1906. Educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge (BA 1928). An officer in Surrey & Sussex Yeomanry and Royal Artillery (Maj.). Managing Director of Barclay Perkins & Co. from 1950 until the firm merged with Messrs. Courage Ltd. in 1955. Racehorse owner. He married, 20 April 1932 at Cranleigh (Surrey), Nesta Anne (1909-2004), elder daughter of Maj. James Robert Bury-Barry OBE of Ballyclough, Kilworth (Co. Cork) and Elvington Hall (Yorks), and had issue:
(1) Annette Barclay (b. 1934), born 29 March 1934; married, 6 April 1961 at Holy Trinity, Brompton (Middx), Rear-Adm. Sir Oswald Nigel Amherst Cecil (1925-2017), kt., only son of Cmdr. the Hon. Henry Mitford Amherst Cecil OBE RN, and had issue one son;
(2) Isabel Gillian Barclay (b. 1939), born 5 April 1939; married, 29 April 1961 (div.), Christopher Charles Clifford (later Clifford-Kingsmill) (1934-2008), son of Maj. Frederick Edward Clifford of Long Crendon (Bucks), and had issue two daughters.
He inherited the Bury Hill estate from his father in 1951 but sold it in 1952.
He died 26 March 1959; will proved 2 June 1959 (estate £100,152). His widow died 5 May 2004; her will was proved 13 September 2004.


Barclay family of Eastwick Park


Barclay, David (1784-1861). Second son of Robert Barclay (1751-1830) and his first wife, Rachel, daughter of John Gurney of Keswick (Norfk), born 29 September 1784. He was born a Quaker but was disowned by the Westminster Monthly Meeting in May 1817, and his children were brought up in the Church of England. He was a partner in Barclay Bros. & Co., merchants, from 1817-47 when the firm became insolvent as a result of ill-advised investments in Mauritius, and was wound up. He was also a director of the Bank of England, 1821-23, 1824-26 and of the Anglo-Mexican Mining Association, 1825-28. In 1830 he inherited from his father one eighth of the Barclay Perkins & Co. brewery and a substantial part of his personal estate. He was MP for Penryn, 1826-30 and (as a Liberal) for Sunderland, 1835-37 and 1841-47. His nephew, Robert Barclay Fox, judged him to be ‘a gentlemanly and kind hearted man with good sense’, who ‘lacks force of character’. In April 1850 he had a narrow escape from drowning when his horse took fright during a violent storm and carried him into a mill-pool, from which he was rescued with great presence of mind by a youth working in the mill. He married, 20 October 1818 at Whitburn (Durham), Maria Dorothea (1798-1846), daughter of Sir Hedworth Williamson, 6th bt., of East Markham, and had issue:
(1) Hedworth David Barclay (1820-73) (q.v.);
(2) Alexander Charles Barclay (1823-93), born 1823 and baptised at Long Ditton (Surrey), 15 June 1824; educated at Harrow, Trinity College, Cambridge (matriculated 1842) and the Inner Temple (admitted 1850); shareholder in Barclay Perkins & Co., brewers; Liberal MP for Taunton, 1865-80; a noted racehorse owner; lived at Scraptoft Hall (Leics) which he leased and also at Beeby (Leics), which he owned; died unmarried, 10 January 1893 and was buried at Beeby; will proved 27 February 1893 (effects £142,533);
(3) Maria Dorothea Barclay (1826-1900), born 26 February 1826 and baptised at St Mary, Bryanston Square, London, 27 March 1826; lived at St. Nicholas House, Richmond (Yorks NR), which she inherited in 1873 from the Earl of Zetland (brother-in-law to her mother); died unmarried, 8 January 1900; will proved 6 March 1900 (estate £31,066);
(4) Robert William Barclay (1828-96), born 23 January 1828 and baptised at Dorking, 14 October 1832; East India merchant in partnership with William Turck (as Turck & Barclay) until 1864, when the firm went into liquidation; died 15 November, and was buried at Carshalton (Surrey), 19 November 1896; lived latterly at Hackbridge Lodge, Carshalton (Surrey); will proved 28 December 1896 (effects £40,823);
(5) Capt. David Barclay (1831-90), born 13 August 1831 and baptised at Dorking, 14 October 1832; an officer in the 16th Lancers (Cornet, 1849; Lt., 1850; Capt., 1853; retired 1863); lived with his brother at Scraptoft Hall; died unmarried as result of falling from his horse while hunting at Great Dalby (Leics), 21 February 1890, and was buried at Beeby (Leics);
(6) Elizabeth Anne Barclay (1834-95), born 30 November and baptised at Great Bookham, 28 December 1834; lived at Mendon Vean, Falmouth (Cornw.); died unmarried in London, 12 March 1895; will proved 20 April 1895 (estate £14,117).
He purchased the Eastwick Park estate in 1833 and remodelled it, possibly to the designs of Decimus Burton. His improvements to the estate are said to have doubled its value. After 1855 he let the house and lived at Roskrow, near Penryn (Cornw.).
He died at Roskrow, Penryn, 1 July and was buried at Great Bookham, 6 July 1861; his will was proved 7 August 1861 (effects under £40,000). His wife died in Paris, 25 June 1846, and was buried at Great Bookham, 2 July 1846.

Barclay, Hedworth David (1820-73). Eldest son of David Barclay (1784-1861) and his wife Maria Dorothea, daughter of Sir Hedworth Williamson, 6th bt., of East Markham, born 15 October and baptised at Clapham (Surrey), 9 November 1820 and again at Long Ditton (Surrey), 15 June 1824. Educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge (matriculated 1838). Partner in Barclay Perkins & Co., brewers, of Southwark. Chairman of the Licensed Victuallers School Society, 1857-58. An officer in 3rd Royal Surrey Militia (Capt., 1853; resigned 1860). In the 1860s and 1870s he maintained pedigree herds of cattle and sheep. He married, 30 March 1857 at St James, Piccadilly, Westminster (Middx), Agnes Caroline (1827-1915), daughter of Henry Brereton Trelawny of Shotwick (Cheshire) and widow of John James Calley (1810-54) of Burderop Park (Wilts), and had issue:
(1) Agnes Emma Barclay (1858-1932), born at 10 Bruton St., London, 1 April 1858; married, 7 October 1895 at St Peter, Cranley Gardens, Kensington (Middx), Frederick Holland (1846-1927), eldest surviving son of Augustus Holland of Abele Grove, Epsom (Surrey) and St. Mary's, Uplyme (Devon), but had no issue; died 23 January 1932; will proved March 1932 (estate £25,449);
(2) Hedworth Trelawny Barclay (1859-1941) (q.v.);
(3) Harry David Barclay (1860-1940), born at Eastwick, 7 August, and baptised at Great Bookham, 28 August 1860; educated at Eton; an officer in the army (2nd Lt., 1877; Lt., 1878;  resigned 1884; returned to serve as Capt., 1914; retired as Maj.); lived in London and later at Plumstead Hall near Norwich; inherited his uncle's property at Beeby and Scraptoft (Leics) and his partnership in Barclay Perkins & Co, brewers in 1893; married 1st, 22 February 1890 at the British Embassy in Paris (France) (div. 1910), Ida Florence (1870-1945) (who m2, 1913, Walter Ernest Lawrence), eldest daughter of Joseph Crisp Clarke of Birstall Hall (Leics), and had issue one daughter; married 2nd, Jul-Sept 1911, Marie Louise (1884-1967) (who m2, Oct-Dec 1942, John Balfour), daughter of Raphael Ambrose Bialé; died 27 October 1940 at his brother's house in Scotland; will proved 8 March 1941 (estate £36,699);
(4) Reginald Barclay (1861-1945), born at 10 Grosvenor Sq., London, 24 December 1861; educated at Eton; an officer in the army (2nd Lt., 1880; Capt., 1884; Maj., 1894; Lt-Col., 1903; retired as Col., 1914); served in Boer War; appointed CB, 1911; lived at Moyles Court (Hants) and from c.1928 at Balkail, Glenluce (Wigtowns.); married, 31 March 1894 (div. 1903), Marion (1874-1950) (who m2, Capt. Charles Bryce and m3, Walter Godfrey Phillimore, 2nd Baron Phillimore), second daughter of Maj-Gen. Sir Cecil Robert St. John Ives of Moyns Park (Essex); died 12 December 1945; will proved 10 May 1946 (estate £84,402).
He inherited Eastwick Park from his father in 1861.
He died at Eastwick, 25 August 1873; his will was proved 8 October 1873 (effects under £120,000). His widow died in Brighton, 14 July 1915, and was buried at Great Bookham; her will was proved 18 August 1915 (estate £487).

Barclay, Hedworth Trelawny (1859-1944). Eldest son of Hedworth David Barclay (1820-73) and his wife Agnes Caroline, daughter of Henry Brereton Trelawny of Shotwick (Cheshire) and widow of John James Calley of Burderop Park (Wilts), born 10 May and baptised at St George, Hanover Sq., London, 4 June 1859. Educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford (matriculated 1877). Partner in Barclay, Perkins & Co., brewers, until the firm was reorganised as a limited company in 1896. JP for Surrey. An officer in the Leicestershire Yeomanry (Lt.; resigned 1883; 2nd Lt., 1900; Maj.). He was a well-known racehorse owner (most famous for Bendigo, highly successful in the 1880s) and amateur jockey; he acted occasionally as a racing official and was also a keen huntsman from his first meet in 1874, despite meeting with a serious accident in 1906. His sporting interests extended to shooting (where he won the International Cup at Hurlingham in 1886) and salmon fishing for which he travelled extensively. He married 1st, 11 November 1885 at Chirk (Denbighs.) (div. 1912), Agnes Mary (d. 1920), youngest daughter of Richard Myddleton Biddulph of Chirk Castle, and 2nd, 15 May 1918, Katie O'Meara of Tipperary, and had issue:
(1.1) Nesta Katherine Barclay (1886-1979), born 22 November 1886; married, 12 January 1909, Maj. Sir George Julius Jackson (d. 1956), 3rd bt., and had issue one son and four daughters; died 8 May 1979; will proved 19 July 1979 (estate £81,605);
(1.2) Vera Agnes Barclay (1889-1985), born 6 May 1889; married, 29 July 1912, Capt. the Hon. Thomas James Amherst Cecil (1887-1955), second son of Col. Lord William Cecil and Baroness Amherst of Hackney, and had issue; died aged 96 in Hawthorn East, Victoria (Australia), 8 August 1985; administration of goods with will annexed granted in London, 17 April 1986 (effects £24,115).
(1.3) Rafe Hedworth Myddleton Barclay (1892-1914), born 14 November 1892; educated at Rugby and Army College, Aldershot; an officer in the Wiltshire Regt (2nd Lt, 1910; Lt, 1913) and Kings Royal Rifle Corps  (2nd Lt.); was unmarried when he was killed in action at battle of Aisne, Picardy (France), 14 September 1914.
He inherited Eastwick Park from his father in 1873, came of age in 1880 and sold it in 1882. He subsequently leased Gaddesby Hall (Leics) and The Hermitage, Ascot (Berks), and in his last years lived in a service flat in London and at a private hotel in North Berwick (East Lothian).
He died in Edinburgh, 24 July 1944; his will was proved 31 January 1945 (estate £179,430). His first wife died 23 December 1920; administration of her goods was granted to her younger daughter, 22 February 1921 (estate £4,443). His second wife's date of death is unknown, but he was living alone in 1939, and they may have separated soon after their marriage.


Sources


Burke's Landed Gentry, 1965, pp. 43-46; Burke's Landed Gentry - The Kingdom in Scotland, 2001, pp. 55-59; Brayley & Britton, History of Surrey, iv., pp. 186-87 and v, p. 108; C.W. & H.F. Barclay, A history of the Barclay family, 1924-34 (3 vols); E.H. Milligan, Biographical dictionary of British Quakers in Commerce and Industry 1775-1920, 2007, pp. 31-33; Sir H.M. Colvin, A biographical dictionary of British architects, 1600-1840, 4th edn., 2008, pp. 202, 799; History of Parliament biographies of Charles Barclay and David Barclay; Oxford Dictionary of National Biography entries on David Barclay (1682-1769) and David Barclay (1729-1809).


Location of archives


Barclay family of Bury Hill: estate papers, 1541-1913 [Surrey History Centre, 644]
Barclay family of Eastwick Park: deeds, estate and family papers, 19th cent. [London Metropolitan Archives, 2305/1/1445 ff.]


Coat of arms


Azure, a chevron ermine in chief three crosses patée argent.


Can you help?

  • Can anyone provide an illustration of Eastwick Park before it was altered in the early 19th century?
  • Does anyone know more about the second marriage of Hedworth Trelawny Barclay?
  • I should be most grateful if anyone can provide photographs or portraits of people whose names appear in bold above, and who are not already illustrated.
  • As always, any additions or corrections to the account given above will be gratefully received and incorporated.



Revision and acknowledgements


This post was first published 15 March 2019.

Saturday, 2 March 2019

(367) Barchard of Horsted Place

Barchard of Horsted Place
The Barchard family seems to have originated in the East Riding of Yorkshire. Joseph Barchard (1711-70), son of a yeoman from Hornsea, East Yorkshire, was apprenticed in 1728 to Nathaniel Thorney of London, dyer, and subsequently established his own company at Southwark (Surrey) in partnership with his half brother, Peter. The firm was sufficiently successful for his grandson, Francis Barchard (1796-1856), to style himself as a gentleman and to buy Ashcombe House near Lewes (Sussex) as a country home after his marriage in 1824. His wife died in childbirth in 1829, but he remained in Sussex, and began to make his way in Sussex society, acting as the steward of local balls, joining a variety of local committees and trusts, and eventually becoming a JP. In 1845 he inherited much of the wealth of his godfather, Francis Hilton, another London dyer. With this new accession of funds he was able to buy the Horsted Place estate at Little Horsted and to rebuild the old house there in the Gothic style which Pugin had made fashionable over the previous decade. His architect was Samuel Whitfield Daukes (1811-80), a low church architect who was nonetheless an admirer of Pugin, and who could work effectively in a wide variety of styles, including - as he showed at Horsted Place - in Puginian Gothic.
Ashcombe House, Lewes, the home of Francis Barchard from c.1827-51,
drawn by S.H. Grimm, 1787. Image: British Library Add, MS 5672, f.12.
The successful delivery of a house in this style was greatly helped, however, by the appointment of Pugin's favourite builder, George Myers, as the building contractor. The design of some of the interior fittings was left to Myers, who seems to have obtained designs for the staircase and a chimneypiece from Pugin himself, and these works were exhibited in the medieval court at the Great Exhibition of 1851. Barchard subsequently caused some embarrassment when he rejected the chimneypiece, which was installed instead in the Duke of Devonshire's Lismore Castle in Ireland, but the staircase can still be seen at Horsted Place, which is now an hotel.


Francis Barchard did not long survive the completion of his new house, which passed to the eldest of his three sons, Francis Barchard (1826-1904). The second Francis comes across as the model Victorian squire. He had qualified as a barrister and with this legal background he became chairman of his local bench and deputy chairman of Quarter Sessions. As a young man he held a commission in the militia and later he helped to encourage the rifle volunteer movement in the county. He took a strong interest in agricultural matters and in the church, and he and his wife actively supported a community of nuns at East Grinstead. He was a keen amateur photographer, had antiquarian interests, and was for many years Secretary of the Sussex Archaeological Society. The one thing he did not have was a family, and when he died in 1904 the Horsted estate passed to the eldest son of his brother, Elphinstone Barchard (1827-93) of Duddleswell Manor, Maresfield.

Both Francis and Elphinstone Barchard had been Liberals in politics, but the heir to Horsted, Francis Barchard III (1863-1932) was a Conservative. In other respects, however, he was cut from much the same cloth as his father and uncle: he qualified as a barrister but did not practice, and pursued a similarly active career in local public office. His only son, Francis Barchard IV (1903-41), was a career naval officer, and perhaps because he could not readily combine such a career with life as a country gentleman, Francis III left his widow a life interest in Horsted Place, which she continued to occupy until her death in 1964. Francis IV was sadly killed when his ship was torpedoed in the Second World War, and when Horsted Place finally came to his widow and daughters in the 1960s they promptly sold it to Lord Rupert Nevill.


Horsted Place, Sussex


A rather fine new manor house was built at Little Horsted in about 1680 for John Hay. It was drawn by S.H. Grimm in 1783, who depicts a simple but elegant brick house of five bays and two storeys, which had a hipped roof with dormers, a modillion cornice, quoins at the angles, and a stringcourse separating the ground and first floors. Two groups of three diagonally-set chimneystacks were positioned symmetrically at either end of the roof ridge, and an extra touch of distinction was given by making the central bay at little wider than the others. The house 'stood on the brow of the hill, at a short distance from the church', and was separated from the road by a forecourt with gatepiers, railings and wooden gates, while a gazebo with an ogival roof can be seen over the wall of the rear garden. 

Horsted Place, as recorded by S.H. Grimm in 1783. Image: British Library Additional MS 5671, f. 94 (no. 178)

Although Grimm shows what is obviously a house little altered since it was built a hundred years earlier (except perhaps for the installation of sash windows), T.W. Horsfield, writing in 1835, says 'the mansion has undergone very considerable alterations and improvements since the time of its erection'. These changes, whatever they were, must have taken place after 1783, but unfortunately there seems to be no visual record of them, and the house was swept away by Francis Barchard after he bought the property in 1849.

Barchard built the present house, Horsted Place, on a new site further from the main road, in 1850-51 to the designs of Samuel Dawkes. Dawkes was a versatile, not to say eclectic, architect who was equally comfortable working in the Italianate classical style at Abberley Hall or Colney Hatch Asylum, the neo-Norman of St Peter's church, Cheltenham, or the Puginian Gothic he employed here. The builder was, indeed, George Myers, who was Pugin's favourite builder, and it is thought that some of the interior decoration may have been left to Myers' discretion, as he was so well-versed in Pugin's style.

Horsted Place: the new house in about 1865, photographed by Francis Barchard II who stands in the foreground with his wife. 
Image: Victoria & Albert Museum E.3258:134-1991.
Myers' contract was for the surprisingly modest sum of £14,390, although in the end the house, exclusive of furniture and decoration, cost £16,816; a mere nine months was allowed for construction. The house is built of red brick with rather relentless grey brick diapering, generous dressings of Bath stone, and tall brick chimneystacks, also with stone dressings. The windows are early Tudor in style, with mullions and transoms but with arched heads to the lights.
Horsted Place: ground plan (after Girouard, Victorian Country House)
The main block is arranged around a central corridor, running from one side of the house to the other, with the main rooms opening off it on both sides. To the rear is a lower service wing, arranged as three ranges around an open courtyard. The entrance hall was placed off-centre at one end of the corridor, reducing draughts, and enabling the corridor to be better lit. As a result, the entrance is at the corner of the house, and its position is emphasized by carrying the corner up into a tower a full storey higher than the rest of the house, with a staircase turret which is taller still. This strong accent makes the house decisively asymmetrical, though a smaller octagonal turret balances the composition at the other end of the west front. The east front is similar, but has an oriel window sprouting from a buttress between two ground-floor towers.


Horsted Place: the central corridor, looking west.
Inside the house, the morning room and double drawing room occupy the space behind the south front. On the north side of the central corridor, the staircase is in the centre, with the dining room on one side and the library on the other. The staircase has intricate foliage panels, incorporating the Barchard crest and large heraldic birds on the newel posts, and was partly exhibited in the medieval court at the Great Exhibition of 1851. It was apparently designed by Pugin and built by George Myers. A stone fireplace, intended for Horsted Court, was also exhibited at the Great Exhibition, but was rather embarrassingly rejected by Francis Barchard. (It was sold instead to the Duke of Devonshire, and with the addition of the ducal arms was installed in the Gothic hall of Lismore Castle (Co. Waterford) where it remains).

Horsted Place: the library (now used for weddings)
The rooms are simply decorated with with joinery and chimneypieces very much in Pugin's style, and probably mostly designed by Myers. The furnishing and decorating was done by another Pugin disciple, John Webb of Hanover Square, London. The one exception to the Puginian tone is the Library, which is fitted with bookcases with clustered shafts and ogee arches of a rather more old-fashioned Gothick flavour. Could this be Daukes' contribution to the interior, after which his designs were rejected in favour of less frivolous Gothic by Myers and Pugin?

In 1965, Horsted Place was sold to Lord Rupert Nevill (d. 1982). He and his wife were close friends of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, who became frequent visitors to Horsted Place in the 60s and 70s. After Lord Rupert died, however, the house was sold and converted into an hotel, which it remains today. The gardens of the house have an essentially mid 19th century structure, but were remodelled and extended by Geoffrey Jellicoe for Lady Rupert Nevill after 1965.


Descent: John de Ward (fl. 1621)... John Hay (fl. c.1680)...Richard Hay (fl. 1724) sold c.1723 to Charles Beard; sold 1736 to Anthony Nott (d. 1791); to son, Rev. Anthony Nott (d. 1829), who sold 1792 to Charles Herbert; sold to Richard Chase; sold 1823 to Evan Law (1747-1829); to widow, Henrietta Law (fl. 1841)... sold 1849 to Francis Barchard (1796-1856); to son, Francis Barchard (1826-1904); to nephew, Francis Barchard (1863-1932); to son, Francis Barchard (d. 1941); to mother, Maud Barchard (d. 1964); sold 1965 to Lord Rupert Nevill (1923-82); sold for conversion into an hotel.


Barchard family of Horsted Place


Barchard, Francis (1796-1856). Son of Joseph Vipont Barchard (1745-1831) and his wife Jane, baptised at Little Bookham (Surrey), 21 August 1796. A prosperous London dyer, he inherited substantial additional wealth from his godfather, Francis Hilton, who was also a London dyer, in 1845. JP for Sussex; High Sheriff of Sussex, 1853-54. He was joint Secretary of the South Saxon Archers, 1849-50. He married, 28 October 1824 at St George, Bloomsbury,  Margaret Jane (d. 1829), daughter of Elphinstone Piggott esq., Chief Justice of Tobago and niece of Sir Arthur Piggott, Attorney General, and had issue:
(1) Francis Barchard (1826-1904) (q.v.);
(2) Elphinstone Barchard (1827-93) (q.v.);
(3) Margaret Jane Barchard (1828-1902), born 4 April and baptised at St. Anne, Lewes (Sussex), 25 May 1828; married, 8 July 1857 at Little Horsted, Rev. William Lipsett Lawson (c.1823-93), vicar of Lynton & Lynmouth (Devon), and had issue; died at Tunbridge Wells, 13 November 1902;
(4) George Barchard (1829-91), born 5 May and baptised at St Anne, Lewes, 27 September 1829; an officer in the 16th Foot (Capt.); lived at Gresham House, Anerley (Surrey); married, 1863, Alice Anne Sutton, and had issue; died 17 August 1891; will proved 19 October 1891 (effects £10,607).
He acquired Ashcombe House, Lewes in the 1820s and lived there until he purchased the Horsted Place estate in 1849 and built a new house there in 1850-51. Ashcombe House was sold in 1852.
He died in Brighton, 17 February 1856; his will was proved in the PCC, 16 April 1856 (wealth at death, £250,000). His wife died 26 May and was buried at St Anne, Lewes, 2 June 1829.

Francis Barchard (1826-1904)
Image: V&A Musuem
Barchard, Francis (1826-1904). Elder son of Francis Barchard (1796-1856) of Horsted Place and his wife Margaret Jane, daughter of Elphinstone Piggott, Chief Justice of Tobago, born at Ashcombe near Lewes (Sussex), 19 January and baptised at All Souls, Langham Place, Marylebone (Middx), 17 February 1826. Educated at Winchester and Christ Church, Oxford (matriculated 1844; BA 1849; MA 1853) and Lincolns Inn (admitted 1849; called 1854). Barrister-at-law. JP and DL for Sussex, and Vice-Chairman of East Sussex Quarter Sessions (resigned 1896). He was an officer in the Sussex Militia Artillery (Ensign, 1852; Lt., 1853; Capt., 1856), and played an important role in promoting the Rifle Volunteers movement in the county. He was a prolific and talented amateur photographer, some of whose work is now in the Victoria & Albert Museum. He also had antiquarian interests, and was Hon. Secretary of the Sussex Archaeological Society (resigned 1894). In politics, he was a Liberal and later a Liberal Unionist. He also took an interest in agricultural matters and in Church of England activities, and was a supporter of the Sisterhood of St Margaret's, East Grinstead and the Missionary Students Association. He married, 12 September 1861 at Lancing (Sussex), Arentina (1825-1909), daughter of John Watson of Hove (Sussex), but had no issue.
He inherited Horsted Place from his father in 1856. At his death the estate passed to his nephew, Francis Barchard (1863-1932). His widow lived at Wicklands, Little Horsted.
He died 28 November 1904 and was buried at Little Horsted, 2 December 1904; his will was proved 10 January 1905 (estate £61,261). His widow died 5 July 1909; her will was proved 23 August 1909 (estate £10,078).

Barchard, Elphinstone (1827-93). Younger son of Francis Barchard (1796-1856) of Horsted Place and his wife Margaret Jane, daughter of Elphinstone Piggott, Chief Justice of Tobago, born 15 February, and baptised at St Anne, Lewes, 15 July 1827. Educated at Winchester, Trinity College, Cambridge (matriculated 1845; BA 1849; MA 1852; cricket blue, 1846-48) and Lincolns Inn (admitted 1849; called 1853). Barrister-at-law. He was a Liberal in politics, and took a particular interest in the rights and privileges of the inhabitants of the neighbouring villages over Ashdown Forest (Sussex), which he defended to the best of his ability; he served as a member of the Board of Conservators of the forest until 'he found he could best serve the interests of the Foresters' outside it. He was an officer in the Uckfield Rifle Volunteers (Capt., 1870). Some years before his death, he was seriously injured when his trap overturned at Uckfield railway station and thereafter he increasingly withdrew from public life. He married, 13 September 1860 at Maresfield, Katherine Louisa Susan (1836-1908), daughter of Capt. William George Rose Barwell RN, and had issue:
(1) Francis Barchard (1863-1932) (q.v.);
(2) Ada Elphinstone Barchard (1864-1952), born 15 October 1864 and baptised at All Saints, St. Marylebone (Middx), 10 November 1865; died unmarried, 14 May 1952; will proved 2 September 1952 (estate £10,603);
(3) Gerard Elphinstone Barchard (1866-1938), baptised at All Saints, St Marylebone, 10 December 1866; emigrated to USA before 1898; lived at Summit, Benton, Oregon (USA); married, 9 May 1898 at Benton, Oregon, Etna V. (1875-1975), daughter of Joseph Skaggs, and had issue one son and one daughter; died at Contra Costa, California (USA), 31 December 1938;
(4) Brig-Gen. Arthur Elphinstone Barchard (1868-1947), born 26 May 1868; an officer in 2nd West Indian Regt. (2nd Lt., 1889; Lt., 1890; Capt., 1896; Maj., 1900; Lt-Col., 1911; Col., 1915; retired as Brig-Gen. 1920); lived with his spinster sisters at Campfield Rough, Fairwarp (Sussex); member of East Sussex County Council (from 1931) and Uckfield Rural District Council; died unmarried at Hove (Sussex), 22 August 1947; will proved 19 November 1947 (estate £5,623);
(5) Eleanor Elphinstone Barchard (1870-1962), born 11 June 1870; died unmarried, 22 February 1962; will proved 8 May 1962 (estate £20,693);
(6) Reginald Elphinstone Barchard (1873-93), baptised at Putney, 30 January 1873; died unmarried, 6 May 1893;
(7) Edmund Elphinstone Barchard (1874-1915), born 7 October 1874; assayer and mining engineer; he travelled extensively and settled in the USA; he married, 9 October 1901, in El Paso, Texas (USA), Mary Bernadette (1883-1952) (who m2, 1 April 1917, Charles Garfield Williams of Columbus, Ohio (USA), daughter of Angus D. MacEachen, but had no issue; he was lost in the sinking of RMS Lusitania, 7 May 1915; administration of his goods granted 2 November 1915 (estate £655).
He lived at Duddleswell Manor, Maresfield (Sussex).
He died 19 October, and was buried at Nutley (Sussex), 25 October 1893; his will was proved 26 January 1894 (effects £2,637). His widow died 28 October 1908; her will was proved 24 December 1908 (effects £10,631).

Barchard, Francis (1863-1932). Eldest son of Elphinstone Barchard (1827-93) and his wife Katherine, daughter of Capt. Barwill RN, born March and baptised at St Nicholas, Brighton, 20 April 1863. Educated at Winchester and Christ Church, Oxford (matriculated 1881; BA 1884) and Inner Temple (admitted 1885; called 1888). Barrister-at-law. JP for Sussex (from 1895); High Sheriff of Sussex, 1921. A Conservative in politics, he was a member of East Sussex County Council, 1896-1932, Uckfield Rural District Council, 1894-1932 (Vice-Chairman, 1899-1905; Chairman, 1905-32) and Uckfield Board of Guardians, 1895-1930 (Chairman, 1904-30). He served as Chairman of Uckfield Military Tribunal, 1915-18, was a director of the Uckfield Water Company, 1929-32 (Chairman, 1931-32) and President of the East Sussex Poultry Society, a subject in which he took a particular interest. He married, 1901, Maud Agnes (1877-1964), daughter of Lt-Col. Divie K. Robertson, and had issue:
(1) Francis Barchard (1903-41) (q.v.);
(2) Joan Barchard (1907-15), born 1907; died aged seven on 28 January 1915 and was buried at Little Horsted.
He inherited Horsted Place from his uncle in 1904. His widow lived at Horsted Place until her death, after which the house was sold. She also had a house in London at 66 Ashley Gardens, SW1.
He died 11 November 1932 and was buried at Uckfield; his will was proved 8 February 1933 (estate £138,854). His widow died 24 September 1964; her will was proved 25 November 1964 (estate £94,783).


Lt-Cdr. Francis Barchard (1903-41)
Barchard, Francis (1903-41). Only son of Francis Barchard (1863-1932) and his wife Maud Agnes Robertson, born 22 August 1903. He was an officer in the Royal Navy, 1917-41 (Lt-Cmdr, 1934). He married, 30 March 1933 at St Peter, Eaton Square, London, Joan Harriet (1901-71), daughter of Brig-Gen. Charles Edward FitzClarence VC, and had issue:
(1) Jane Anne Violet Barchard (b. 1935), born 5 November 1935; lived at Stoke St. Gregory (Somerset); married, 10 March 1962, Geoffrey Ewart Martin, son of Milton Ewart Martin of Twickenham House, Abingdon (Berks), and had issue one son and three daughters;
(2) Elizabeth Maud Barchard (b. 1939), born 18 April 1939; lived at Mildenhall (Wilts); married, 13 July 1967, David Leslie Scott, son of Thomas Leslie Scott of Old Bosham (Sussex), and had issue two daughters.
He inherited Horsted Place from his father in 1932, subject to the life interest of his mother, who outlived him. At the time of his death his widow was living in Fairford (Glos).
He was killed in action when HMS Barham was sunk by German torpedoes, 25 November 1941; his will was proved 2 May 1942 (estate £9,356). His widow died in Chelsea (London), 6 January 1971.


Sources


Burke's Landed Gentry, 1886; Country Life, 7-14 August 1958; M. Girouard, The Victorian country house, 1979, pp. 172-78; P. Spencer-Silver, Pugin's builder: the life and works of George Myers, 1993, pp. 27, 45, 253; N. Antram & Sir N. Pevsner, The buildings of England: Sussex - East, 2012, pp. 544-45.


Location of archives


Barchard of Horsted Place: deeds, estate and family papers, 19th-20th cents. [East Sussex Record Office, The Keep, Brighton: BAR]


Coat of arms


Argent, two bars azure, on a chief of the last a golden fleece pendent between two millrinds erect or.


Can you help?


  • If anyone can provide more information about the respective contributions of Daukes, Myers and Pugin to the interiors of Horsted Place, I would be most grateful.
  • I should be most grateful if anyone can provide photographs or portraits of people whose names appear in bold above, and who are not already illustrated.
  • As always, any additions or corrections to the account given above will be gratefully received and incorporated.

Revision and acknowledgements

This post was first published 2 March 2019.