Thursday, 30 January 2020

(403) Barnston of Churton Hall and Crewe Hill

Barnston of Churton Hall and Crewe Hill
The Barnston family have owned the Churton estate near Farndon (Cheshire) since... well, for a very long time. Certainly since 1393, when 'William, son of Hugh Barneston of Churton' is mentioned in the earliest surviving deed of the Churton estate, and possibly for a good deal longer. Research is hampered by the fact that the family did not own the (usually well-recorded) manorial rights until the 1890s, and by the loss of their early deeds, which seem to have been mislaid or burnt at Churton before 1628. The family probably takes its name from the hamlet of Barnston on the Wirral peninsula (which was not part of their later estates), but the pedigree which the family submitted to the 1613 Visitation of Cheshire is not much help in tracing their origins, since it obviously misses several generations out altogether, and so is wholly unreliable. Greater certainty seems to arrive only in about 1500, when Thomas Barnston (with whom the genealogy below begins) was the owner of the estate. His son, William Barnston (c.1535-1620) was a retainer of the Earls of Derby, and married into the Massey family of Codrington in about 1560. In 1569, he and his wife rebuilt Churton Hall: the date comes from a board formerly in the porch of the house (but perhaps originally part of the internal panelling), with their initials and the date. Since this cannot refer to their marriage, it was presumably intended to date the building. In the next generation, the estate descended to their eldest son, Thomas Barnston (c.1560-1646), although his younger brother, Canon John Barnston (1563-1645), who went to Oxford, was chaplain to the 6th Earl of Derby, and became a canon of Salisbury Cathedral, is better documented.

Thomas Barnston (d. 1646) was succeeded by his son William Barnston (1592-1665), who was an ardent Royalist during the Civil War. He was part of the force holding Chester for the king in 1645 and was later with the king at Oxford, where he was taken prisoner by the Parliamentarians, and held in the Tower of London for some time. He was allowed to compound for his estates, but raising the cash to pay his fine required him to mortgage his properties, which took time to arrange, and he was not allowed to return to Cheshire until 1648.
Farndon church: the siege of Chester memorial window,
from a drawing by the Rev. Hugh Cholmondeley.
The fighting in Cheshire had caused serious damage to his estate, with several cottages burnt and the parish church in Farndon, in which Parliamentarian troops had been billeted, in ruins. Nonetheless, the estate seems to have recovered fairly quickly, and by 1658 William was able to spare the money to restore the church, which had been so badly damaged that it was virtually rebuilt except for the tower. As part of the work, William created a family chapel at the east end of the south aisle, where he was buried in 1665. Here he installed a wooden memorial panel with a description of his Civil War exploits, and a notable stained glass window, commemorating the Royalist defenders of Chester.

William's eldest son, John Barnston (1630-61) married Alice Trafford (d. 1666), the daughter and sole heiress of the Trafford family of Bridge Trafford near Chester, which became a significant addition to the family estate. John died before his father, leaving an only son, Trafford Barnston (1660-86), who was the heir to his grandfather at Churton. Although he too died young, Trafford Barnston married a member of the Massey family of Coddington (as his great-great-grandfather had done) and produced three sons, who inherited the estate in turn. The eldest, Trafford Barnston (1679-1702) was scarcely down from Oxford before he died unmarried; 
the second, John Barnston (1681-1706) married Elizabeth Salusbury of Rûg, but had no issue; and it was left to the third, Roger Barnston (1683-c.1770) to continue the line. By his first marriage in 1707, to the heiress Jane Gregg, he acquired estates at Hapsford and Elton (Ches.) that adjoined his Bridge Trafford property. These included Hapsford Hall, described in 1817 as 'an old timber mansion, in a state of extreme decay', which was rebuilt before 1832 as a neat three bay three-storey house for the benefit of the tenant farmer.


Forest House, Chester: sketch plan
of the site. Image: Chesterwiki
Roger Barnston held his estates for more than sixty years and outlived several of his children. His exact date of death seems to be unrecorded, but he evidently died shortly before his eldest son and intended heir, Trafford Barnston (1708-71), who was twice married but had no children. Trafford evidently lived most of his life in Chester, where, at the time he wrote his will in 1769, he was in the process of building a grand new town house, known as Forest House, on the corner of Love Lane and Forest Street.  This was of three storeys above a semi-basement, and stood behind an oval forecourt flanked by low service buildings, which were later replaced by a Victorian building on the street frontage. The house itself survives and has been tentatively attributed to Sir Robert Taylor on stylistic grounds. Taylor was responsible for richly-decorated interiors in the Bishop's Palace in Chester in 1754-57, so would have been known in the city, and in 1767-68 he designed a house in Upper Brook St. on the Grosvenor estate in Mayfair, London, where Trafford Barnston also had a property, so his selection as architect would not be too surprising, but there seems to be no documentary evidence. Forest House was sold by the family in about 1850, and subsequently served as an auction house and furniture depository; it is now a Wetherspoon's pub and micro-brewery. It is likely that some of the original interior decoration survives although it is not known how much, since most of the interior surfaces are concealed by dry lining and suspended ceilings.

Forest House, Chester: the surviving main block with its Victorian forebuilding. Image: Chesterwiki
When Trafford Barnston died soon after his father in 1771, he had no issue, although he had been twice married, and the family properties, including Forest House, passed to his younger brother, Robert Barnston (1715-83), who was a wine merchant in Chester. He had eight children, of whom only one son and three daughters survived him. The son was Roger Barnston (1749-1837), who became one of the leading citizens of Chester. He was prominent in the group of freeholders who opposed the growing political control of Chester by the Grosvenor family, and in 1784 he stood unsuccessfully for Parliament against the Grosvenors' nominees. He was also prominent socially, acting, for example, as Treasurer of the fund for building new Assembly Rooms in 1776, presiding over the St David's Day dinner in 1792, and being chosen as the founding President of the King and Constitution Club in 1817. His estates at Churton, Bridge Trafford and Hapsford also gave him standing in the county, and he was High Sheriff in 1800-01 and Lieutenant-Colonel of the Chester militia. In about 1801 he also inherited (in right of his wife) a farm called Crewe Hill at Farndon, which lay close to his ancestral Churton Hall estate. Here he began soon afterwards to extend the original farmhouse to form a country retreat. The original form of this is unclear, but it seems to have been quite small. It was enlarged in about 1832, by which time he had probably handed it over to his son, Roger Harry Barnston (1802-49). It was probably he who was responsible for applying fake timber-framing to the exterior of both Crewe Hill and Churton Hall, and for the collection of antiquarian woodwork in the hall at Crewe Hill.

Roger Harry Barnston died in 1849, leaving seven children by his first wife and three by his second. Three of his sons went into the regular army, and his eldest son, Maj. Roger Barnston (1826-57) was regarded as a particularly gallant officer. He fought throughout the Crimean War, was present at Sebastopol, and then went on to India, where he died from wounds received during the relief of Lucknow in 1857.
The Barnston Memorial at Farndon, designed by Edward A. Heffer and
erected by public subscription in 1858. Image: Jeff Buck. Some rights reserved.
Major William Barnston (1832-72), who succeeded him in the estate, also fought in the Crimea, where he was wounded but survived. He retired from the army on inheriting the estate, and raised a memorial to his brother's memory, which was funded by public subscription. He died aged just 40, leaving 
an infant son as his heir, as well as several older daughters. The estate passed into the capable hands of his widow, Mary Emma Barnston (1838-1918), who managed it until her son came of age at the end of 1891. For his coming of age present, she purchased the manorial rights of Farndon from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners.


Sir Harry Barnston, the young man who came into his inheritance at the age of 21, was educated at Oxford and the Inner Temple, where he was called to the bar in 1898, although he never practised. He served with the Cheshire Yeomanry from 1894, and saw action in the First World War, but his chief passions seem to have been farming and politics. After standing unsuccessfully for Stockport in 1906, in 1910 he was elected MP for the Eddisbury constituency, a large rural area in south-west Cheshire, and he continued to represent it until his death in 1929. For much of the 1920s he was Comptroller of the Royal Household, a sinecure which is traditionally held by the deputy chief whip of the party in Government, and when in 1924 the Tories were briefly forced out of office by a Labour minority government, he was made a baronet in the resignation honours list.  He was unmarried and without issue, so the baronetcy died with him, and Crewe Hill passed to his unmarried sister, Joanna Barnston (1867-1946). After her death, it descended, in accordance with Sir Harry's will, to his great-nephew, Philip Edmund Trevor (1911-2000), who took the additional name Barnston to demonstrate the continuity of ownership. He ran the estate through the difficult post-war years, but had no children to inherit, so in the late 1980s he handed the estate on to his nephew, Michael Anthony Tudor Trevor (b. 1937), who also took the additional name Barnston. He invested heavily in diversifying the estate away from its dependence on dairy farming, to include forestry, renewable energy projects, and residential and commercial properties. He was High Sheriff of Cheshire in 1998-99, almost exactly 200 years after his ancestor, Roger Barnston, had been the last member of the family to hold the post. At Crewe Hill, an elaborate garden has been laid out combining elements of garden design from several different parts of the world. This has been the setting for many events in support of the family's social and charitable work, in recognition of which Michael Trevor-Barnston was awarded an MBE in 2010 and he and his wife have both received honorary degrees from Chester University. The 1800 acre estate, which still covers land and buildings at Farndon, Bridge Trafford and Hapsford, has now been handed over to their son, Edward Trevor-Barnston (b. 1974), who is continuing the tradition of careful management, with a new emphasis on sustainability and biodiversity. In 2019 he was awarded the prestigious Bledisloe Gold Medal Award by the Royal Agricultural Society of England, an annual award recognising landowners showing outstanding achievement in the successful land management and development of an English agricultural estate.

Churton Hall, Cheshire

Churton Hall: the entrance front in 2009. Image: digitally corrected version of an image by David Dunford. Some rights reserved.

A 16th century half-timbered house built by the Barnston family which may be dated by a loose painted board formerly in the porch carrying the inscription WB 1569 EB (the initials are those of William Churton (d. 1620) and his wife). The house is E-shaped, with projecting gables of different design at either end and an off-centre single-storey porch, which has open sides filled with split balusters. Above the porch are two octagonal panels with the arms and crest of the Barnston family. The left-hand wing contained the family rooms and has a massive external sandstone chimneystack, which may be an addition of the 17th century, when it was probably refitted internally. The house now has a 19th century roof covered with slates, but was probably originally thatched. The Barnston family seem to have occupied the house until the 18th century, when they moved to Chester, and later to their present seat of Crewe Hill: it has been a farmhouse ever since. It was restored in 1978-80 by Peter Rowlandson for the Crump family, when the genuine timber-framing (which had been largely concealed by applied fake framing as at Crewe Hill) was exposed.

Descent: William Barnston (fl. late 15th cent.); to son, Thomas Barnston; to son, William Barnston (c.1535-1620); to son, Thomas Barnston (c.1560-1646); to son, William Barnston (1592-1665); to grandson, Trafford Barnston (1660-86); to son, Trafford Barnston (1679-1702); to brother, John Barnston (1681-1706); to brother. Roger Barnston (1683-c.1770); to son, Trafford Barnston (1708-71); to brother, Robert Barnston (1715-83); to son, Roger Barnston (1749-1837); to son, Roger Harry Barnston (1802-49); to son, Maj. Roger Barnston (1826-57); to brother, Maj. William Barnston (1832-72); to son, Maj. Sir Harry Barnston (1870-1929), 1st bt.; to sister, Joanna Barnston (1867-1946); to great-nephew, Philip Edmund Trevor (later Trevor-Barnston) (1911-2000); to nephew, Michael Anthony Tudor Trevor (later Trevor-Barnston) (b. 1937); to son, Edward Charles Harry Trevor-Barnston (b. 1974).


Crewe Hill, Farndon, Cheshire


Crewe Hill, Farndon: the entrance front in about 1900, before the removal of the fake timber framing.
Image: Chester Archives and Local Studies.
What was originally a farmhouse was enlarged in about 1805 into a rambling early 19th century stuccoed house by the Barnstons of Churton Hall. The dining room and the rooms above it are said to have been added in 1832, and there were further additions and refenestration in about 1890. The entrance front is symmetrical, with a central gable and projecting wings linked by a verandah. In the 19th century the walls were decorated all over with an applied pattern to emulate elaborate timber framing, and the wings now have late 20th century square bay windows on the ground floor, with balconies above in front of oak French windows to the bedrooms. The garden front has a symmetrical centre with two gabled wings projecting either side of a central gable, but more informal wings to either side: that on the right probably represents the original farmhouse.

Crewe Hill: garden front.
Inside is a galleried hall of modest size decorated with early Victorian antiquarian treasures, dark oak furniture and dark stained wood-carving. There are bulbous balusters on the door panels, and the ceiling is studded with bosses. Some of the carving seems to be genuinely Jacobean, and reputedly comes from the family's Chester property, Forest House (although since that was a late Georgian house, it must have been imported from somewhere else before that). Other pieces, like the fireplace supported on Atlantes are clearly 19th century. On the walls, amongst the family portraits, are halberds, swords, Civil War armour and the colours of the Royal Cheshire Militia. At the rear of the house, in the dining room, are some momentoes of Maj. Roger Barnston (1821-57).

Descent: built for Roger Barnston (1749-1837); to son, Roger Harry Barnston (1802-49); to son, Maj. Roger Barnston (1826-57); to brother, Maj. William Barnston (1832-72); to son, Maj. Sir Harry Barnston (1870-1929), 1st bt.; to sister, Joanna Barnston (1867-1946); to great-nephew, Philip Edmund Trevor (later Trevor-Barnston) (1911-2000); to nephew, Michael Anthony Tudor Trevor (later Trevor-Barnston) (b. 1937); to son, Edward Charles Harry Trevor-Barnston (b. 1974).


Barnston family of Churton Hall and Crewe Hill



Barnston, Thomas. Son of William Barnston of Churton and his wife. He married Elizabeth, daughter and sole heiress of Thomas Manning of Chester, and had issue including:
(1) William Barnston (c.1535-1620) (q.v.);
(2) Anne Barnston; married John Stringer of Crewe (Cheshire).
He inherited Churton Hall from his father or grandfather.
His date of death is unknown. His wife's date of death is unknown.

Barnston, William (c.1535-1620). Son of Thomas Barnston and his wife Elizabeth, daughter and sole heiress of Thomas Manning of Chester, born about 1535. He was a retainer or client of the Earls of Derby. He married Elizabeth (d. 1607), younger daughter of Roger Massie of Coddington (Ches.), and had issue:
(1) Thomas Barnston (c.1560-1646) (q.v.);

(2) Rev. John Barnston (1562/3-1645); educated at Brasenose College, Oxford (matriculated 1581; BA 1585; MA 1589; BD and DD 1615); Fellow of Brasenose College and rector of Begbroke (Oxon), 1588-97; rector of Everleigh (Wilts), 1598 and Winterslow (Wilts), 1634; canon of Salisbury from 1601 (and canon residentuary by 1609), but was ejected from all his benefices by the parliamentary forces before his death; chaplain to Lord Chancellor Ellesmere, c.1615, and to William Stanley, 6th Earl of Derby, c.1620-40; endowed a Hebrew lectureship at Brasenose College, Oxford, 1628; married Mary [surname unknown] (d. 1625), but had no surviving issue; died 30 May 1645 and was buried in Salisbury Cathedral.
He inherited Churton Hall from his father, and apparently rebuilt it in 1569.
He died 21 July 1620 and was buried at Farndon. His wife died 13 January 1606/7.

Barnston, Thomas (c.1560-1646). Elder son of William Barnston (d. 1620) and his wife Elizabeth, younger daughter of Roger Massie of Coddington (Ches.), born about 1560. He paid a fine to avoid knighthood, 1631. He married Elizabeth (d. 1614?), daughter of Richard Tayler of Hardwick (Shrops.) and had issue:
(1) William Barnston (1592-1665) (q.v.);
(2) Richard Barnston (d. c.1667); a merchant in London; married Katherine [surname unknown]; will proved at Chester, 1667;
(3) Elizabeth Barnston; married, 1610/11 (settlement 6 February), Richard Aldersey (fl. 1613 but d. by 1616), second son of William Aldersey (1543-1616), Mayor of Chester, and had issue.
He inherited Churton Hall from his father in 1620.
He died in April 1646 and was buried at Farndon. His wife was probably the woman of this name buried at Farndon, 16 May 1614.

Barnston, William (1592-1665). Elder son of Thomas Barnston and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Tayler of Hardwick (Shrops.), born 1592. He was a zealous Royalist in the Civil War and was imprisoned after the fall of Oxford and his estates sequestrated; he was released in 1648 and allowed to compound for his estates for £567, but he also suffered the loss of cottages to the value of £500 during the war. In 1658 he restored the church at Farndon* and left further money in his will for the completion of the project. He married, 10 August 1618 at Farndon, Dorothy (d. 1677), daughter of Thomas Brooke esq. and sister of Sir Richard Brooke of Norton (Ches.), and had issue:
(1) Thomas Barnston (1621-22), baptised at Farndon, 1 February 1620/1; died in infancy and was buried at Farndon, 29 June 1622;
(2) Mary Barnston (1622-93), baptised at Farndon, 17 March 1621/2; married, as his second wife, Jonathan Bruen (c.1610-76) of Bruen Stapleford (Ches.), and had issue five sons and three daughters; buried at Tarvin (Ches.), 11 January 1692/3;
(3) Frances Barnston (1623-25), baptised at Farndon, 14 April 1623; died in infancy and was buried at Farndon, 23 March 1624/5;
(4) William Barnston (1627-50), born 6 July and baptised at Farndon, 16 July 1627; died unmarried and was buried at Farndon, 27 April 1650;
(5) Dorothy Barnston (1629-30), born 24 May and baptised at Farndon, 31 May 1629; died in infancy, 17 January 1629/30;
(6) John Barnston (1630-61) (q.v.);
(7) Thomas Barnston (1632-86), baptised at Farndon, 29 July 1632; married, 12 June 1654 at St Mary, Shrewsbury (Shrops.), Abigail (d. 1695), daughter of John Lowe esq. of Shrewsbury, but had no issue; buried at Farndon, 28 August 1686; will proved at Chester, 1687.
He inherited Churton Hall from his father in 1646 and was the principal legatee of his uncle, Canon John Barnston, in 1645.
He died 8 March 1664/5 and was buried at Farndon, where he is commemorated by a painted wooden memorial plaque recording him as "a person of great worth and integrity, [who] ventured his life and fortune with King Charles the First, was sent prisoner from Oxford to London, where he continued till he paid his composition for his estates"His widow was buried at Farndon, 2 June 1677.
* Churton village was historically divided between the parishes of Aldford and Farndon, with the Churton Hall estate lying in the part of the village in Farndon parish.

Barnston, John (1630-61). Eldest surviving son of William Barnston (1592-1665) and his wife Dorothy, daughter of Thomas Brooke esq., baptised at Farndon, 18 July 1630. He married, 6 October 1657 at St Oswald, Chester, Alice (d. 1666), daughter and sole heiress of Thomas Trafford esq. of Bridge Trafford (Ches.), and had issue:
(1) Dorothy Barnston (1658-60), born 25 September and baptised at Farndon, 10 October 1658; died young and was buried at Farndon, 27 December 1660;
(2) Trafford Barnston (1660-86) (q.v.).
He inherited Churton Hall from his father.
He died 8 May 1661. His widow married 2nd, 1662, the Hon. Richard Savage, second son of John Savage, Viscount Savage and Earl Rivers, and had issue one son (who became 5th Earl Rivers, and was a Roman Catholic priest in Bruges (Belgium)); she died 23 October 1666 and was buried at Plemstall (Ches.).

Barnston, Trafford (1660-86). Only son of John Barnston (1630-61) and his wife Alice, daughter and sole heiress of Thomas Trafford esq, of Bridge Trafford (Ches.), born 1 May and baptised 10 May 1660. He married, 12 February 1677 at Coddington (Ches.), Anne (d. 1737), only daughter of Roger Massie of Coddington (Ches.), and had issue:
(1) Trafford Barnston (1679-1702), baptised at Coddington, 25 October 1679; educated at Brasenose College, Oxford (matriculated 1697); died unmarried and was buried at Farndon, 9 July 1702; administration of goods granted at Chester, 1702;
(2) John Barnston (1681-1706), baptised at Coddington, 16 August 1681; married, 21 December 1704 at Farndon, Elizabeth, daughter of Owen Salusbury of Rûg (Merioneths.), but had no issue; buried at Farndon, 6 March 1705/6; administration of goods granted at Chester, 1706;
(3) Roger Barnston (1683-c.1770) (q.v.).
He inherited Churton Hall from his father in 1661, and came of age in 1681. After his death, his three sons inherited the estate in turn. The estate was burdened in the 18th century with the jointures of his widow and daughter-in-law.
He was buried at Farndon, 13 April 1686. His widow married 2nd, 21 February 1698/9 at St. Oswald, Chester, Thomas Wynne of Dyffryn Aled (Denbighs.); she was buried at Farndon, 3 October 1737.

Barnston, Roger (1683-c.1770). Third son of Trafford Barnston (1660-86) and his wife Anne, only daughter of Roger Massie of Coddington, baptised at Farndon, 25 October 1683. JP and DL for Cheshire. He enlarged Farndon church in 1726. He married 1st, 22 April 1707 at St Michael, Chester, Jane (d. 1720), daughter and heiress of Edward Gregg of Hapsford (Ches.), and 2nd, 8 May 1728 at St Oswald, Chester, Mary (d. 1745), eldest daughter of Sir John Williams, 2nd bt., of Pengethley (Herefs) and widow of John Hurlestone (d. 1727) of Doddleston (Ches.), and had issue:
(1.1) Trafford Barnston (1708-71) (q.v.);
(1.2) Rev. Roger Barnston (1709-82), baptised at St Michael, Chester, 19 July 1709; educated at Sedbergh Sch. and Trinity College, Cambridge (matriculated 1727; BA 1731; MA 1734); rector of Childwall (Lancs), 1734-37; vicar of St Michael, Chester, 1737-82, and of Condover (Shrops.), 1739-82; rector of Pontesbury (Shrops.), 1759-82, and canon of Chester Cathedral, 1739-82; married 1st, 21 August 1748 in Chester Cathedral, Elizabeth (d. 1768), daughter of George Marsh esq., and 2nd, 31 August 1772 at St Oswald, Chester, Anne (c.1727-1802), eldest daughter of John Egerton esq.; died 6 December, and was buried at Farndon, 9 December 1782; will proved 3 March 1783;
(1.3) Edward Barnston (b. & d. 1710), baptised at St Michael, Chester, 18 September 1710 but died and was buried the same day;
(1.4) Robert Barnston (b. & d. 1711), baptised at Holy Trinity, Chester, 13 September 1711; died in infancy and was buried there, 29 September 1711;
(1.5) Edward Barnston (1714-50?), baptised at Holy Trinity, Chester, 18 March 1713/4; possibly the man of this name buried at St Mary Mounthaw, London, 27 November 1750;
(1.6) Robert Barnston (1715-83) (q.v.);
(1.7) Jane Barnston (1717-76), baptised at Holy Trinity, Chester, 12 February 1716/7; died unmarried and was buried at Farndon, 7 October 1776;
(1.8) William Gregge Barnston (1718-84), baptised at Holy Trinity, Chester, 25 March 1718; banker in London; married, 30 July 1741, Mary (1718-1804), daughter of William Sawbridge of London, and had issue one son and four daughters; died at Bath (Som.), 12 June and was buried at Farndon, 23 June 1784;
(1.9) Peter Barnston (1720-55), baptised at Holy Trinity, Chester, 29 November 1720; probably died unmarried; buried at St Michael, Chester, 26 October 1755.
He inherited Churton Hall from his brother, and property at Hapsford and Elton near Frodsham, including Hapsford Hall, in right of his first wife. He lived chiefly in Chester.
His burial has not been traced; administration of his goods was granted at Chester in 1772 but was delayed by the death of his first two executors, including his eldest son. His first wife was buried at St Michael, Chester, 22 November 1720. His second wife was buried at Farndon, 2 January 1745/6. 

Barnston, Trafford (1708-71). Eldest son of Roger Barnston (1683-c.1770) of Churton Hall and his first wife Jane, daughter and heiress of Edward Gregg of Hapsford, baptised 25 March 1707/8. High Sheriff of Cheshire, 1735-36. He married 1st, 1735 (licence 7 May), Letitia (1696-1755), only daughter and eventual heiress of Roger Owen of Condover (Shrops.) and widow of Richard Mytton (d. 1731) of Halston Hall (Shrops.), and 2nd, 28 June 1756 at Holy Trinity, Chester, Elizabeth (d. c.1798), daughter of John Hurlestone of Newton (Ches.), but had no issue.
He inherited Churton Hall and Hapsford Hall from his father, but lived chiefly in Chester, where he built Forest House, Love Lane, in 1769-70. He also had a house in Upper Brook St., Mayfair, London.
He was buried at Farndon, 22 March 1771. His first wife died at Bath (Som.), 10 August and was buried at Condover (Shrops.), 20 August 1755. His widow died in about 1798; her will was proved at Chester, 10 May 1798.

Barnston, Robert (1715-83). Sixth son of Roger Barnston (1683-c.1770) of Churton Hall and his first wife Jane, daughter and heiress of Edward Gregg of Hapsford, baptised at Holy Trinity, Chester, 21 July 1715. Wine merchant in Chester. He married, 2 May 1741 at St John, Chester, Elizabeth (1716-99), daughter of Sir Whitmore Acton, 4th bt., of Aldenham and Acton Round, and had issue:
(1) Elizabeth Barnston (1742-95), baptised at Holy Trinity, Chester, 5 March 1741/2; married, 8 July 1759 at Holy Trinity, Chester, as his second wife, Brooke Forester MP (1717-74) of Willey (Shrops.), eldest son of William Forester of Dothill (Shrops.), and had issue one daughter;
(2) Anna Maria Barnston (1743-51), baptised at Holy Trinity, Chester, 10 May 1743; died young and was buried at St Michael, Chester, 28 September 1751;
(3) Trafford Barnston (b. 1744), baptised at Holy Trinity, Chester, 15 February 1744/5; died young before 1748;
(4) Thomas Barnston (c.1746-49), born about 1746; buried at St Michael, Chester, 4 April 1749;
(5) Mary Barnston (1747-1809), baptised at Holy Trinity, Chester, 7 February 1746/7; died unmarried and was buried at St Michael, Chester, 29 May 1809;
(6) Trafford Barnston (b. 1748), baptised at Holy Trinity, Chester, 6 September 1748; probably died young and certainly before 1779;
(7) Roger Barnston (1749-1837) (q.v.);
(8) Letitia Barnston (1753-1835), baptised at Holy Trinity, Chester, 5 January 1754; she attracted the attention of James Boswell (whose affections were easily engaged) when he visited Chester in 1779, and is mentioned in a letter from Boswell to Dr. Johnson as 'a very pleasing young lady', but died unmarried 11 November and was buried at St Michael, Chester, 17 November 1835.
He lived in Chester.
He was buried at Farndon, 7 August 1783; his will was proved in the PCC, 18 December 1784. His wife died 17 November and was buried at Farndon, 23 November 1799; her will was proved in the PCC, 24 December 1799.

Barnston, Col. Roger (1749-1837). Son of Robert Barnston (1715-83) and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Whitmore Acton, 4th bt., of Aldenham and Acton Round, baptised at Holy Trinity, Chester, 29 November 1749. He was a Tory in politics, but in Chester what mattered more was whether you supported or opposed the political interest of the Grosvenor family, who were also Tories. He was a leading figure in the independent group, but when he stood for parliament in the city in 1784, he came bottom of the poll. He was, nonetheless, a popular figure in the city, an officer of the Royal Cheshire Militia (Maj.; Lt-Col. by 1793); Colonel of the Chester Volunteer Corps, 1803-c.1816; High Sheriff of Cheshire, 1800-01; and first president of the Tory King and Constitution Club in Chester from 1817. He married, 17 December 1793 at Prestbury (Ches.), Anne (1767-1850), daughter of Rev. John Parker of Astle (Ches.), and had issue:
(1) Anna Elizabeth Barnston (1796-1819), born 2 April and baptised at Holy Trinity, Chester, 14 May 1796; died unmarried, 12 May 1819; administration of her goods granted to her father, 1824;
(2) Mary Barnston (1797-1877), born 20 September 1797 and baptised at Holy Trinity, Chester, 3 August 1798; married, 13 November 1845 at St John, Chester, as his second wife, Thomas Kinnersley (d. 1855) of Clough Hall, Kidsgrove (Staffs), but had no issue; died 21 July 1877; will proved 17 August 1877 (effects under £90,000);
(3) Alice Emma Barnston (1800-34), baptised at St John, Chester, 17 September 1800; married, 19 July 1824 at St John, Chester, the Hon. Charles Napier (1794-1874) of The Woodlands, Taunton (Som.) (who m2, 2 July 1840, Annabella Jane, daughter of Edward Gatacre and had further issue four sons and three daughters), third son of Francis Napier, 8th Lord Napier of Merchistoun, and had issue two sons and three daughters; died 16 May 1834;
(4) Roger Harry Barnston (1802-49) (q.v.);
(5) Robert Barnston (1806-07), born 26 September and baptised at St John, Chester, 18 December 1806; died in infancy and was buried at St Michael, Chester, 10 March 1807.
He inherited Churton Hall and Hapsford Hall from his uncle in 1771, and Crewe Hill from his wife's mother's family, the Gartsides, in c.1801, but lived chiefly at Forest House, Chester. He remodelled the farmhouse at Crewe Hill into a country retreat in c.1805. He also owned property at Bagillt (Flints.)
He died 4 February 1837 and was buried at Farndon, where he is commemorated by a monument; another monument  in Chester Cathedral was designed by Thomas Rickman and paid for by public subscription. His will was proved at Chester in 1837. His widow died in Chester, 28 May, and was buried at Farndon, 4 June 1850, where she is commemorated on her husband's monument.

Barnston, Roger Harry (1802-49). Only surviving son of Roger Barnston (1749-1837) and his wife Anne, daughter of Rev. John Parker of Astle (Ches.), born 29 September 1802 and baptised at St John, Chester, 23 March 1803. Educated at Worcester College, Oxford (matriculated 1821; BA 1825). JP and DL for Cheshire. He married 1st, 20 December 1825 at Holy Trinity, Chester, Selina Martha (1806-35), daughter of William Makepeace Thackeray* MD of Chester, and 2nd, 2 January 1838 at Gresford (Denbighs.), Emma Frances (1806-93), daughter of James Boydell of Rossett (Denbighs.), and had issue:
(1.1) Maj. Roger Barnston (1826-57) (q.v.);
(1.2) Selina Barnston (1827-89), born at Chester, 22 November 1827 and baptised at Holy Trinity, Chester, 26 January 1828; she died unmarried at Hove (Sussex), 19 September and was buried at Fairlight (Sussex), 21 September 1889; her will was proved 11 October 1889 (effects £22,871);
(1.3) Eliza Barnston (1828-56), born at Chester, 29 December 1828 and baptised at St John, Chester, 23 January 1829; died unmarried, 11 January and was buried at Farndon, 16 January 1856;
(1.4) Mary Barnston (1830-61), born at Chester, 25 May and baptised at St John, Chester, 19 June 1830; died unmarried at St Leonards-on-Sea (Sussex), 9 January and was buried at Fairlight, 15 January 1861; will proved 8 August 1861 (effects under £4,000);
(1.5) Maj. William Barnston (1832-72) (q.v.);
(1.6) Emma Barnston (1833-1900?), born at Chester, 2 May and baptised at St John, Chester, 29 May 1833; married, 30 September 1873 at Kidsgrove (Staffs), William Henry Lowe MD (1815-1900) of Woodcote Lodge, Wimbledon (Surrey), son of Samuel Lowe of Whitchurch (Shrops.), but had no issue; probably the person of this name who died in London, Jul-Sept. 1900;
(1.7) Harry Barnston (1834-60), born 24 December 1834; died unmarried at Heathfield Place (Ches.), 17 April and was buried at Farndon, 23 April 1860; administration of his goods was granted to his brother, 18 December 1860;
(2.1) Lt-Col. Francis Barnston (1838-1925), born 1 November and baptised at Farndon, 6 December 1838; educated at Brasenose College, Oxford (matriculated 1857); an officer in the army, 1859-80 (Ensign, 1859; Lt., 1862; Capt., 1870; retired as Maj., c.1880; hon. Lt. Col, 1881); lived at Charlton Lodge, Malpas (Ches.); married, 9 August 1882 at Bruera (Ches.), Mary (1852-1925), elder daughter of Tanat Wynne Denton MD of Newbold (Ches.) and Plas Draw (Denbighs.), but had no issue; died 28 May 1925; will proved 9 September 1925 (estate £46,763);
(2.2) Anne Barnston (1839-1930), born 3 December 1839 and baptised at Farndon, 17 January 1840; died unmarried at the age of 90, 22 October 1930; will proved 19 December (estate £17,697);
(2.3) Alice Barnston (1841-1902), born at The Rossett (Denbighs.), 14 March 1841; died unmarried, 1 February 1902; will proved 22 March 1902 (estate £9,763).
He inherited Churton Hall and Crewe Hill from his father in 1837, but lived chiefly at Forest House, Chester.
He died 22 May and was buried at Farndon, 29 May 1849; his will was proved 11 August 1849. His first wife died 13 January and was buried at Farndon, 17 January 1835, where she is commemorated by a monument. His widow died in London, 29 June and was buried at Farndon, 3 July 1893; her will was proved 29 August 1893.
* He was a first cousin once removed of the novelist of the same name.

Barnston, Maj. Roger (1826-57). Elder son of Roger Harry Barnston (1802-49) and his first wife, Selina Martha, daughter of William M. Thackeray MD of Chester, born 4 December 1826 and baptised at St John, Chester, 10 February 1827. An officer in the army (Ensign, 1843; Lt. 1846; Capt. 1849; Maj., 1857; Br. Col.), who served in the Crimea and in India. He was appointed a Chevalier of the Legion d'honneur, 1856, and was awarded the Turkish Order of Medjidie, 1857, and he had been recommended for appointed as a Companion of the  Order of the Bath at the time of his death. He was unmarried and without issue.
He inherited Crewe Hill from his father in 1849. He sold Forest House in Chester (which was subsequently used as an auction house and furniture depository).
He was wounded in action at the relief of Lucknow (India), 23 December 1857, and died of his wounds the following day at Cawnpore Hospital; he is commemorated by a public monument at Farndon (illustrated above) erected by subscription to the design of Edward A. Heffer at a cost of £400. His will was proved 26 June 1858.

Barnston, Maj. William (1832-72). Second son of Roger Harry Barnston (1803-49) and his first wife, Selina Martha, daughter of William M. Thackeray MD of Chester, born 27 February and baptised at St John, Chester, 28 March 1832. An officer in the 55th Foot (Ensign, 1848; Lt., 1851; Capt., 1854; Maj. 1858; retired 1858/9) who served in the Crimea and was severely wounded at the Battle of Inkerman. He was appointed a Chevalier of the Legion d'honneur, 1856. JP for Cheshire. He married, 8 June 1859 at St Peter, Dublin (Ireland), Mary Emma (1838-1918), youngest daughter of Col. Charles King KH of 11th Light Dragoons and 16th Lancers, and had issue:
(1) Mary Barnston (1861-1929) (q.v.); 
(2) Emma Barnston (b. & d. 1863), born 20 January and baptised at Farndon, 24 February 1863; died in infancy, 16 March 1863 and was buried at Farndon, 19 March 1863, where she is commemorated by a monument;
(3) Charlotte Barnston (1864-1925), born 9 January and baptised at Farndon, 22 March 1864; died unmarried, 25 January 1925; will proved 11 March 1925 (estate £20,235);
(4) Roger Barnston (b. & d. 1865), born 23 April and baptised at Farndon, 10 June 1865; died in infancy at Llandudno (Caernarvons.), 16 August 1865, and was buried at Farndon, 22 August 1865;
(5) Selina Barnston (1866-1925), born 23 August and baptised at Farndon, 11 December 1866; died unmarried, 11 January 1925 and was buried at Farndon; will proved 3 March 1925 (estate £17,371);
(8) Joanna Barnston (1867-1946), born 23 September and baptised at Farndon, 10 November 1867; a staunch Conservative in politics; inherited the Crewe Hill estate from her brother in 1929; died unmarried, 2 June 1946; will proved 15 November 1946 (estate £212, 581);
(6) William Barnston (1868-70), born 28 November 1868 and baptised at Farndon, 10 January 1869; died in infancy, 8 August and was buried at Farndon, 11 August 1870;
(7) Maj. Sir Henry Barnston (1870-1929), 1st bt. (q.v.).
He inherited Crewe Hill from his elder brother in 1857. At his death it passed to his widow for life. She purchased the lordship of the manor from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners and gave it to her son for his 21st birthday.
He died at Stafford, 27 October and was buried at Farndon, 1 November 1872; his will was proved 5 March 1873 (effects under £14,000). His widow died 5 March 1918; her will was proved 30 May 1918 (estate £21,870).

Barnston, Major Sir Henry (1870-1929), 1st bt.. Only surviving son of Maj. William Barnston and his wife Mary Emma, youngest daughter of Col. Charles King KH of the 11th Light Dragoons and 16th Lancers, born at Edinburgh, 12 December 1870 and baptised at St John, Edinburgh, 10 January 1871. Educated privately and at Christ Church, Oxford (matriculated 1890; BA 1894; MA 1898) and Inner Temple (admitted 1894; called to the bar 1898)An officer in the Cheshire Yeomanry (2nd Lt., 1894; Lt. 1897; Capt., 1906; retired c.1910; returned to colours 1914; Maj., 1917). He was a dedicated farmer and served as Chairman of the Cheshire Dairy Farming Association. As a young man he had a protracted dispute with the editor of the Cheshire Chronicle about his treatment of Thomas Parker, a long-standing tenant on the estate, whom the newspaper claimed had been given notice to quit on political grounds; however, the origins of the dispute seem to have been personal rather than political. He was a JP for Cheshire by 1897, Chairman of Tarvin Board of Guardians, and after standing unsuccessfully for parliament in Stockport in 1906, he was elected Conservative MP for Eddisbury, 1910-29. He was Comptroller of the Household and a Government whip, 1921-24, 1924-28, but was a determined opponent of salaries for MPs, and when they were introduced he insisted on his being paid into a separate account on which he never drew; at his death the left the accumulated fund for charitable purposes. He was a popular MP both in his constituency and in the House, and was created a baronet, 8 February 1924. He was unmarried and without issue.
His mother handed the Crewe Hill estate over to him when he came of age in 1891.
He died 22 February 1929, when his baronetcy became extinct, and was buried at Farndon; his will was proved 3 May 1929 (estate £152,166).

Barnston, Mary (1861-1939). Eldest daughter of Maj. William Barnston and his wife Mary Emma, youngest daughter of Col. Charles King KH of the 11th Light Dragoons and 16th Lancers, born 1 July and baptised at Farndon, 25 July 1861. She married, 9 August 1882, Edmund Wilson Swetenham (1857-1915), only son of Edward Swetenham QC MP of Cam-yr-Alyn (Denbighs.), and had issue:
(1) Mary Elizabeth Swetenham (1883-1948) (q.v.).
She lived at Cam-yr-Alyn, Rossett (Denbighs.)
She died 26 September 1939; her will was proved 7 November 1939 (estate £14,531). Her husband died 25 January 1915; his will was proved 5 March 1915 (estate £18,038).

Swetenham, Mary Elizabeth (1883-1948). Daughter of Edmund Wilson Swetenham (1857-1915) and his wife Mary, eldest daughter of Maj. William Barnston of Crewe Hill, Farndon (Ches.), born 7 May and baptised at Farndon, 11 November 1883. She married, 26 August 1909 at Llanfaelog (Anglesey), Edward Salusbury Rowland Trevor (1877-1946) of Heliopolis (Egypt), managing director of Egyptian Markets, son of Rev. Thomas Warren Trevor of Llanfaelog, and had issue:
(1) Maj. Philip Edmund Trevor (later Trevor-Barnston) (1911-2000) (q.v.);
(2) Brig. Kenneth Rowland Swetenham Trevor (1914-2003) (q.v.);
(3) Caroline Mona Trevor (1919-2019), born at Cairo (Egypt), 9 March, and baptised at Llanfaelog (Anglesey), 6 July 1919; nurse; married, 28 April 1943 at Upton (Ches.), Louis Smith (1907-91), property developer at Southsea (Hants), youngest son of William John Smith of Cardiff (Glam.), and had issue two sons and two daughters; died aged 100 on 27 June 2019.
She lived latterly at The Acres, Upton Heath (Ches.)
She died 24 April 1948; her will was proved 15 June 1948 (estate £26,913). Her husband died 21 December 1946; his will was proved 17 February 1947 (estate £11,634).

Trevor (later Trevor-Barnston), Maj. Philip Edmund (1911-2000). Elder son of Edward Salusbury Rowland Trevor (1877-1946) and his wife Mary Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Wilson Swetenham, born 26 February 1911. Educated at Rossall Sch and St John's College, Oxford (BA). An officer in the army (2nd Lt. by 1941; Maj., 1949; retired, 1953). He took the additional surname of Barnston by deed poll in 1946, and received royal licence to bear the arms of Barnston, 1947. He married, 23 January 1979, Olwen Margaret (1920-2007), daughter of John Howell-Price and widow of Gordon Bell McNab (1911-60), but had no issue.
He inherited Crewe Hill on the death of his great-aunt, Joanna Barnston in 1946. At his death it passed to his nephew, Michael Tudor-Barnston.
He died 14 May 2000 and was buried at Farndon. His widow died 4 November 2007 and was also buried at Farndon.

Brig. K.R.S. Trevor
Trevor, Brig. Kenneth Rowland Swetenham (1914-2003). Second son of Edward Salisbury Rowland Trevor (1877-1946) and his wife Mary Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Wilson Swetenham, born 15 April and baptised at Llanfaelog (Anglesey), 20 July 1914. Educated at Rossall Sch. and Royal Military College, Camberley. An officer in the army, 1934-66 (2nd Lt., 1934; Lt., 1937; Capt., 1942; Maj., 1947; Lt-Col., 1956; Col., 1960; Brig., 1964), who served in the Second World War (North Africa and Burma) and Korea; he was three times mentioned in despatches, and was appointed DSO, 1943 and CBE, 1964 (MBE, 1952). President of the Commando Association, 1965-66, 1985-86, 1989-90. Worked for Runcorn Development Corporation, 1966-78. President of Norton Priory Museum Trust, 1994-2000. He married 1st, 1941,  Margaret Maud Joan (k/a Peggy) (1915-88), daughter of the Rev. J.H. Baynham, and 2nd, August 1989, Jeanne Mary Davenport Alexander (née Holmes-Henderson) (c.1920-2015), and had issue:
(1.1) Michael Anthony Tudor Trevor (later Trevor-Barnston) (b. 1943) (q.v.);
(1.2) Simon Rowland de Mouchet Trevor (b. 1950), born 15 August 1950; educated at Clayesmore School and Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester; valuer; lived at Westhumble (Surrey); married, 5 November 1983, Jill E. Crossley, and had issue one son and one daughter.
He lived at Yew Tree House, Dedham (Essex).
He died 10 February 2003; his will was proved 6 January 2004. His first wife died 13 October 1988; her will was proved 19 June 1988 (estate £172,948). His widow died 28 November 2015; her will was proved 27 June 2016.

Trevor (later Trevor-Barnston), Michael Anthony Tudor (b. 1943). Elder son of Kenneth Trevor and his first wife Margaret Baynham, born 16 March 1943. Educated at Wellington College, the Sorbonne, Paris and Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester. An officer in the Cheshire Regiment (Lt.). After leaving the army he joined the overseas marketing department of Massey-Ferguson, in which capacity he visited more than 120 countries. He settled in Cheshire in 1983 and set up a number of new enterprises to diversify the estate, as well as taking part in a wide range of local projects and charities, including founding Cheshire Crimebeat, a charity for young people. He took the additional surname Barnston in 1989. JP (from 1987) and DL (from 2000) for Cheshire; High Sheriff of Cheshire, 1998-99. Appointed MBE, 2010; awarded honorary degree by Chester University (MBA, 2012). He edited and published the Letters from the Crimea and India of his forebears, Roger and William Barnston (1998). He married, 15 May 1971, Inger Wallden (b. 1944), and had issue:
(1) Alexandra Louise Trevor (later Trevor-Barnston) (b. 1972), born 9 March 1972; married, 2000, Christopher George Richard Surfleet (b. 1971) and had issue two daughters; 
(2) Edward Charles Harry Trevor-Barnston (b. 1974), born 2 October 1974; educated at Rugby and Liverpool University; took over the management of the estate from his father before 2017; married, 2004, Kate Elizabeth Garside, and had issue two sons.
His uncle handed over Crewe Hill to him in about 1989, and he in turn handed the estate over to his son by 2017.
Now living. His wife is now living.


Principal sources


Burke's Landed Gentry, 1850, vol 1, pp. 57-58 and 1925, p. 88; F.A. Latham (ed.), Farndon: the history of a Cheshire village, 1981; P. de Figueiredo & J. Treuherz, Cheshire country houses, 1987, pp. 225, 227; http://chester.shoutwiki.com/wiki/Love_Street.


Location of archives


Barnston family of Churton and Crewe Hill: deeds, estate and family papers, 12th cent-1957 [Cheshire Archives & Local Studies, DBA, D1301]


Coat of arms


Azure, a fess dancetté ermine between six cross-crosslets fitchée or.


Can you help?


  • Does anyone have an illustration of the old timber-framed Hapsford Hall, which was replaced by the present building in the early 19th century?
  • Does anyone know of an illustration showing Crewe Hill in the earlier 19th century, before the original house was altered and enlarged c.1832 or later, before it was further altered c.1892?
  • I should be most grateful if anyone can provide photographs or portraits of people whose names appear in bold above, and who are not already illustrated.
  • As always, any additions or corrections to the account given above will be gratefully received and incorporated.

Revision and acknowledgements

This post was first published 30 January 2020.

Tuesday, 21 January 2020

(402) Barnham of Boughton Monchelsea Place, baronets

Barnham of Boughton Monchelsea,
The Barnham family have recently received sustained academic attention, largely because of the fortuitous survival of both an early family group picture (possibly by Hans Eworth) depicting Alice Barnham (1523-1604) and her two eldest sons, and the text of an early 17th century genealogical memoir by the antiquarian, Sir Francis Barnham (1576-1646), kt. In her book, Locating Privacy in Tudor London (2008), Professor Lena Cowen Orlin has sought to contextualise these artefacts not only by studying the standard genealogical sources for the people concerned, but also by seeking out references to them in a wide variety of contemporary official and corporate records. Her work shows just how much can be pieced together about a family even in the remote world of Tudor and Jacobean London, if sufficient time and research expertise are devoted to pertinacious enquiry. The Landed Families of Britain and Ireland project is necessarily based almost entirely on secondary sources and primary sources that are available online and in print: it is humbling to realise how much fuller an account might be written had we but world enough and time. In the case of this family, however, the prosopographical information given below is immensely enriched by Orlin's work, although the responsibility for any errors of fact or emphasis is of course mine alone.

Even with the work of Professor Orlin, some mysteries remain, the most significant of which concerns the origins of Stephen Barnham (d. 1550), with whom the genealogy below begins. The genealogical memoir written by his great-grandson states that his father and grandfather were killed at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485, when Stephen was a child, and that he was then educated at Battle Abbey (to which his ancestors had been significant donors), before progressing to a clerkship in the service of Cardinal Wolsey and to a position at the court of King Henry VIII. He treats this as fact, whereas he is more cautious about accepting the truth of a claim that the family first achieved prominence in the time of King Richard II, when a Sir Walter Barnham became a Baron of the Exchequer. But it does not accord well with the fact that Stephen's will, written shortly before his death in 1550, reveals him to have been an innkeeper at Southwick (Hants), and suggests an altogether humbler station in life. Sir Francis seeks to account for this discrepancy by suggesting that Stephen's second wife 'did so governe him, and misgoverne his estate, as made him att his death little more than even with the world', but on balance it seems unlikely that this would be sufficient to bring a courtier to such a humble occupation. It is also noteworthy that the family seems not to have been armigerous until a grant of arms to Francis Barnham in 1561.

We cannot be too confident that Sir Francis' account of his great-grandfather was mere fiction, however, for he goes on to record that as a young man his grandfather, Francis Barnham (c.1515-76), was found a place with the Board of Green Cloth. The other particulars he gives of his grandfather's career can be confirmed from independent sources, so it seems likely that this is true too. And since the Board was a branch of the Royal Household, it seems more likely that this post, however humble it may have been, would have been given to a gentleman's son than an innkeeper's son, however promising. Francis found, however, that there few prospects of preferment in the Royal Household, and that he was running through his limited inheritance, so he gave up his place at court for an apprenticeship with a London draper and merchant adventurer. He became a freeman in 1541 and established his own business as an export merchant, in which he quickly became prosperous, and he later expanded his activities into money-lending.
Alice, Lady Barnham and her children, 1557, tentatively attributed to Hans Eworth.
The picture is now in the Denver Art Museum, Colorado (USA).
His wife, Alice, who was herself a businesswoman in the silk trade, probably played an important role in his business as well as his household, since Francis himself was increasingly occupied with civic affairs. He built a career with the Draper's Company and the City of London that culminated in his terms as Sheriff of London in 1570-71 and Master of the Drapers in 1572. Had he lived longer, seniority would no doubt have brought him his turn as Lord Mayor, but he died in 1576, leaving three sons, the youngest of whom was only seventeen. Although Francis had kept most of his wealth in liquid form through his activities as a money-lender, he invested 
in 1568 in the purchase of two manors in Kent, which he left to his widow for life and then to his eldest son, Sir Martin Barnham (1548-1610). Martin was intended to follow the classic path for the eldest son of a rich merchant into the landed gentry, and was educated for the role at Oxford and Grays Inn, while his younger brothers, Stephen and Benedict, remained in trade. Stephen, who seems to have been chiefly a land speculator, settled eventually at Southover near Lewes (Sussex); Benedict took up his father's mantle as a merchant and rapidly became one of the richest in the city of London. He was Sheriff of London in 1592, and also an MP, but died at the tender age of 38, leaving a widow (whose three further marriages were successively to a knight, a viscount, and an earl) and five daughters.

In 1572, Sir Martin Barnham married Ursula, the daughter of Robert Rudston (d. 1590) of Boughton Monchelsea Place. As part of the marriage settlement, the young couple were to live in Rudston's household for four years, without contributing to the expenses. This allowed Sir Martin to save most of his income during these years, and in 1576 he was able to lease an estate at Hollingbourne, where he later also bought land and built a new house. 


Hollingbourne Manor House: this was the house, then known as
the Parsonage, which Sir Martin Barnham leased from 1576.
Image: Penny Mayes. Some rights reserved.
The arrangement probably also allowed the in-laws to keep an eye on the relationship between the young couple, and, of course, it avoided the necessity for Rudston to make a large cash outlay on a portion for his daughter. Sadly, Ursula Barnham died in 1579, leaving only one surviving son, but Sir Martin married again the following year and had a large family. By the time of his death in 1610, he had accumulated sufficient lands to provide good dowries for his daughters and significant lands for all his sons. His eldest son, Sir Francis Barnham (1576-1646), inherited his father's lands and houses at Hollingbourne, but in 1613 he also came into Boughton Monchelsea, on the death of his uncle. He moved there, and his father's new house at Hollingbourne was actually sold in 1616, although he retained the leased house and lived there again later after his son took over Boughton Monchelsea. Sir Francis went to Cambridge and Grays Inn, where he made useful friends, including the Earl of Pembroke, who helped shape his career thereafter. In 1603 he was able to arrange, with Pembroke's help, for both his father and himself to be knighted at the coronation of James I, without payment of the usual fees: Sir Martin having declined to be knighted if it might appear that the honour had been purchased. Sir Francis went on to be MP for Maidstone in successive parliaments, and built on his father's reputation to become an important figure in the Kentish gentry. He was also an enthusiastic antiquarian, who wrote the genealogical memoir which I discussed earlier, and in the 1620s he was suggested as one of the foundation members of a proposed Royal Academy for the study of history and public affairs. His own part in public affairs came largely to a close with the outbreak of the Civil War. Having been part of the parliamentary consensus that the powers of the King needed to be limited, his enthusiasm for opposition seems to have evaporated with the descent into civil war, and he took no part in the proceedings of Parliament or the county committee after 1643. He was threatened with exclusion and the sequestration of his estate for his non-attendance, so his absence was probably a reflection of his neutrality rather than of increasing infirmity. He died in 1646 and was succeeded by his son, Sir Robert Barnham (1606-85), 1st bt.

Sir Robert may have had Presbyterian sympathies, but he was essentially a Royalist, and he took part in the Kentish Uprising of 1648 and was briefly imprisoned at Leeds Castle. With the Restoration of the Monarchy he became MP for Maidstone and a JP and deputy lieutenant for Kent, and in 1663 he purchased the baronetcy for which his estate qualified him. In later life, however, he seems to have had money troubles for reasons which are unclear (perhaps just bad management). Both of his sons predeceased him, and he was succeeded at Boughton Monchelsea by his youngest daughter, Philadelphia (1664-1730) and her husband, Thomas Rider (c.1648-1702), to whom he had also previously sold his property at Bilsington. Their son, Sir Barnham Rider (1683-1728), kt., inherited the Boughton Monchelsea estate, and in remained with the Riders until the early 20th century. A further account will be given in a future post on that family.


Boughton Monchelsea Place, Kent


The house consists of the east and south ranges of a quadrangular house built about 1567-75 by Robert Rudston, which is recorded in Badeslade's view of 1719. The north and west ranges were apparently demolished in the 18th century and replaced by the present single-storey brick service ranges: a clock and bell of 1657 visible in Badeslade's view were relocated in a new turret on the rebuilt west range. In 1819-20 the south range was largely rebuilt, and probably at the same time the east range was given battlements and new interiors with simple but elegant Gothic decoration.


Boughton Monchelsea Place: detail of Badeslade's engraving of the house, 1719. The now-demolished north front is nearest the viewpoint.

Robert Rudston acquired the manor of Boughton Monchelsea in or soon after 1551, but shortly afterwards was implicated in Sir Thomas Wyatt's rebellion against Queen Mary and only pardoned on the payment, in 1555, of a large fine, amounting to some two-thirds of the value of the estate. His finances must have taken some time to recover from this penalty, and it is therefore not surprising that building work was delayed for a further decade. Thomas Philpot's survey of Kent, the Villare Cantiarum (1659) states that Rudston 'much improved the ancient Structure with the increase of Building, in the years 1567 and 1576', and this seems to be confirmed by three dates of 1567, 1568 and 1575 on armorial stained glass reused in the windows of the entrance hall and dining room. Philpot's form of words implies that Rudston remodelled rather than rebuilt the existing manor house, and since Badeslade shows that the north, east and west ranges were more regular than the south range, it may be that he enlarged an existing manor house into a quadrangular building. Badeslade's view shows part of the south range with a lower roof than the rest, and a jumble of gabled bays projecting into the courtyard. This could represent the original timber-framed 15th century hall and its ancillary buildings, although sadly the 19th century rebuilding of the south range has destroyed any structural evidence to support this theory. Badeslade's view shows the owner's carriage approaching the south front of the house, and this suggests that the main entrance was probably still on that side in the early 18th century despite the existence of porches on the north and east sides. Philpot's statement also implies that there were two phases of late 16th century building, a few years apart. This may explain why the porch on the east front is not bonded into the wall behind: it may be that it was an addition to the original scheme, although there is also said to be some evidence than in it present form it was rebuilt when other changes were made to the east front in the early 19th century.


Boughton Monchelsea Place: the east range, from an old postcard.
The east front as it exists today and the north front as shown in the Badeslade engraving were almost identical, and it seems likely that they were always so. When first built, however, they almost certainly had mullioned or mullioned and transomed windows, and the present nearly symmetrical distribution of the windows seems to be late 17th century. They presumably form part of the same remodelling as the present main staircase, which would seem to date from about 1690 and thus be work carried out for Thomas and Philadelphia Rider. It seems likely that long cross-windows were then inserted in place of the original mullioned windows, and in places there are signs of the alteration in the stonework. The elevations are now of nine bays, with four windows either side of the central porch on the ground floor. On the first floor, however, only bays two, four, six and eight have windows, and the dormers are placed directly above them. There are some curious minor irregularities in the fenestration which reflect its complex evolution: for example, the way in which the first floor window in bay 8 is not directly above the window on the ground floor, although the corresponding window in bay 2 is. 


Boughton Monchelsea Place: the staircase of c.1690. Image: Country Life.
An inventory of 1617 gives valuable information about the accommodation provided by the house, which then included a hall and screens passage ('the hall entry'), a gallery, five parlours of various kinds and fourteen bedrooms, apart from the service accommodation. It seems likely that the hall referred to was in the east wing, as the main staircase of the Elizabethan house was in a gabled tower on the courtyard side of this range. Only the upper part of the original stair now survives, and it is very simple and plain. It leads up to the attic floor, where there is a small closet (called, in an early inventory, 'Mistress Rudston's herb closet') which retains its original oak cupboards and shelves. The gallery may have been at attic level in the east range or on the first floor of the north range. The new staircase of c.1690 was built in a new addition in the angle between the two surviving ranges. It is of oak, and rises in three wide shallow flights, with stout newel posts, a broad ramped handrail and widely-spaced twisted balusters typical of its date. The moulded plaster ceiling, doorcases and dado of the hall are also all of a piece with the staircase, and the adjoining bedroom (over the entrance hall) was refitted at the same time.


Boughton Monchelsea Place: the courtyard side of the east wing. In the centre is the Elizabethan staircase tower; to its right the three windows of the 17th century staircase, and to its left the Georgian bedroom block. Image: Country Life.
Boughton Monchelsea Place: the south range as rebuilt in 1819-20. Image: Historic England.
When the north and west ranges of the house were pulled down  in the mid 18th century by Thomas Rider (d. 1785), who was a bachelor and perhaps found the house unnecessarily large, he masked the scar on the courtyard side of the east range by building two new bedrooms over storage space. The final major changes were made to the house by Thomas Rider (d. 1847), who inherited in 1805. He added the battlements to the east front and created the present Gothic entrance hall and the dining room, which has a Gothic screen across one end and a Gothic chimneypiece. These works may be a little earlier than the rebuilding of the south wing in 1818-20, when a new drive providing a direct approach to the east front was also laid out following the enclosure of Cox's Heath and the extension of the grounds to the north of the house.


Boughton Monchelsea Place: the entrance hall formed in the early 19th century. Image: Country Life.
Descent: sold 1551 to Robert Rudston (d. 1590); to son, Belknap Rudston (d. 1613); to nephew, Sir Francis Barnham (1576-1646), kt.; to son, Sir Robert Barnham (1606-85), 1st bt.; to daughter, Philadelphia (1664-1730), wife of Thomas Rider (c.1648-1702); to son, Sir Barnham Rider (d. 1728); to son, Thomas Rider (d. 1785); to cousin, Ingram Rider (1733-1805); to son, Thomas Rider (d. 1847); to nephew, Thomas Rider (fl. 1887?)...sold 1960 to Michael Bluett Winch; gifted 1990 to Charles Gooch; sold 1998 to Mr. & Mrs. D. Kendrick. The house was let from the mid 19th century onwards: Lt-Col. G.B. Winch was the tenant 1902-48 and his nephew, Michael Bluett Winch from 1948 until he bought the freehold in 1960.



Hollingbourne House, Kent

Sir Martin Barnham (1548-1610), kt., and his first wife came to live at Hollingbourne in 1576, when he took a lease of the then recently-built Hollingbourne Manor from the Culpepper family. After his wife's death in 1579 he avoided the place for a while but he retained the tenancy and by 1603 he and his second family seem to have been resident once more. He may have tried and failed to buy the freehold of the Manor, because towards the end of his life, having bought the manor of Ripple, he chose a site on Hollingbourne Hill on which to build a new house, which was completed in 1609. His son and heir, Sir Francis Barnham (1576-1646), kt., preferring the situation of Boughton Monchelsea Place, which he had inherited in 1613, moved there and sold Hollingbourne House in 1616. Unfortunately, we know nothing about the appearance of the Jacobean house here, which was replaced in 1798-99 by the present severe two-storey white brick house designed by Charles Beazley for Baldwin Duppa Duppa.


Hollingbourne House: the south front designed by Charles Beazley in 1798-99 for Baldwin Duppa Duppa.

This has a ten-bay south front facing wide views, with an awkward two-bay centre under a mean pediment, linked by single recessed bays with niches on the ground floor to three-bay wings which are set even further back. The ground-floor windows come down almost to floor level. The central room on the south front has a Soaneian ceiling, with a depressed groin-vault and separately vaulted spaces at either end of the room. The principal staircase was placed to the rear of the main front, in a broad bow, and has a typical plain Regency balustrade. Behind the long south front a much narrower block connected the house to the stables and other offices.
Hollingbourne House: the house depicted on the 1st edition 6" map surveyed in 1866.
The main drive approached the house from the north-west and continued through an archway on the ground floor of the house to emerge on the east front, where it curved round to the stables. This arrangement, visible on the 1st edition 6" map of 1865-66, was altered soon afterwards, when the archway was blocked up to create a new hall. Further alterations were made to the house by Carden & Godfrey in the 20th century. 


Descent: built for Sir Martin Barnham (1548-1610), kt.; to son, Sir Francis Barnham (1576-1646), kt., who sold 1616... Charles Pelham sold 1705 to Baldwin Duppa (1650-1737); to son, Baldwin Duppa (1682-1764); to kinsman, Rev. Richard Hancorn (later Duppa) (d. 1790); to brother Baldwin Hancorn (later Duppa) (d. 1798); to son, Baldwin Duppa Duppa (1763-1847); to grandson, Baldwin Francis Duppa (d. 1874), who sold to his uncle, George Duppa (d. 1888); to nephew, Richard Turbutt (later Duppa de Uphaugh) (1855-1944)... sold 1936 to Lady Pearson; ... John H. Doyle (fl. 1946); to Mr & Mrs E.H. Doyle (fl. 1958)... Mr & Mrs Paul Mullis (fl. 2000-03); sold 2005.


Barnham family, baronets



Barnham, Stephen (d. 1550). His parentage is unknown. His great-grandson believed that he was the son and grandson of men who were killed fighting for the Yorkists at Bosworth Field in 1485 and lost their estates, and that he was subsequently educated at Battle Abbey before entering the service of Cardinal Wolsey, and later becoming a Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to King Henry VIII. This seems unlikely, as his will shows him to have been a prosperous yeoman and innkeeper at the Crown, Southwick (Hants), but it cannot be entirely discounted, as his great-grandson's account says his estate was greatly reduced by the bad management of his second wife. He married 1st, [forename unknown], daughter of Bluett of Hampshire, and 2nd, Joan [surname unknown]. and had issue:
(1) Francis Barnham (c.1515-76) (q.v.);
(2) Thomas Barnham (d. 1576); citizen and draper of London; married Alice Cressy and had issue three sons and three daughters; administration of goods granted to his widow, 1576;
(3) Dorothy Barnham (fl. 1550); married John Chapman (c.1516-73) of London;
(4) Agnes Barnham (fl. 1550);
(5) Elizabeth Barnham (fl. 1550).
He also had two illegitimate daughters, mentioned in his will:
(X1) Maud Barnham (fl. 1550);
(X2) Dorothy Barnham (fl. 1550).
He lived at Southwick (Hants).
He died between 28 October 1550 and 9 January 1550/1; his will was proved 9 January 1550/1. His first wife's date of death is unknown. His second wife's date of death is unknown.

Barnham, Francis (c.1515-76). Elder son of Stephen Barnham and his first wife, [forename unknown] Bluett, born about 1515. As a young man he entered the court as an officer of the Steward of the Royal Household, but finding preferment slow and the place expensive, he apprenticed himself to William Pratt, a London draper, and in 1539, after Pratt died, to Sir Richard Champion, who was also a merchant adventurer and later Lord Mayor. He completed his articles and was made free of the Drapers Company in 1541, going on to become a liveryman in 1551, a member of the Court of Assistants from 1558, and Master in 1568-69 and 1571-72. His business seems at first to have been concerned almost exclusively with the export of goods, especially cloth, and he became a member of the Merchant Adventurers Company and a founder member of the Russia Company established in 1555. His wealth increased rapidly, and by 1570 he was clearly involved in commercial money-lending on a considerable scale, and found himself before the Exchequer accused of doing so at usurious rates, although the outcome of the case is unclear. He was one of the fifteen city merchants to whom the Crown owed most in 1571-72. What is known of his land transactions suggests he may also have been speculating in property, and it is possible that these two trades were responsible for more of his later wealth than his activities as an export merchant. He received a grant of arms in 1561. He was churchwarden of St Mildred Poultry, 1554-56, a governor of the Bridewell, 1559-61, 1572-74 and of St Thomas' Hospital, London, 1564-70 (Treasurer 1567-69) and 1574-76. He began an active career in civic administration before 1558, when he was already a member of the Common Council of the City of London, became an Alderman in 1568, and served as High Sheriff of London, 1570-71, but died before seniority would have brought him the mayoralty. He married, about 1546, Alice (1523-1604), daughter and heir of William Bradbridge of Chichester (Sussex), who seems to have been trained in her father's household as a silkwoman and to have practiced this trade independently of her husband's business during and after their marriage. They had issue*:
(1) Sir Martin Barnham (1548-1610), kt. (q.v.);
(2) Stephen Barnham (1549-1608), born 21 July and baptised at St Mildred, Poultry, London, 27 July 1549; made free of the Drapers' Company, 1572, but seems to have been a land speculator, chiefly in Sussex, rather than a merchant; MP for Chichester, 1601; he acquired Southover Manor, Lewes (Sussex) and made his home there; married 1st, Anne Patrick (d. 1592), and had issue one son and three daughters; married 2nd, Anne Dawkes, widow; buried 18 January 1608;
(3) Anthony Barnham (b. 1558), baptised 18 March 1557/8; probably died in infancy and certainly before 1568;
(4) Benedict Barnham (1559-98), baptised 2 June 1559; educated at St Alban Hall, Oxford; a merchant in London, where he rapidly became one of richest merchants; MP for Minehead, 1589 and Yarmouth, 1597; High Sheriff of London, 1592; Master of the Draper's Company, 1592, 1596; married, 28 April 1583 at St Clement Eastcheap, London, Dorothea (c.1565-1639) (who married 2nd, Sir John Pakington (d. 1625), kt., of Westwood Park (Worcs); 3rd, Sir Robert Needham (d. 1631), 1st Viscount Kilmorey; and 4th, Sir Thomas Erskine (1566-1639), 1st Earl of Kellie, and was buried 19 September 1639 at St Clement Eastcheap, London), daughter of Ambrose Smith of London, silkman, and had issue five daughters (one of whom married Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam and later Viscount St. Alban); buried 27 April 1598 at St Leonard Eastcheap; by his will (which left the vast personal estate of £14,614), he provided £100 for a monument to be set up near his father's tomb.
He lived in London. He purchased the two manors of Bilsington (Kent) in 1568, with the Court Lodge and Bilsington Priory.
He died 10 May and was buried at St Clement, Eastcheap, London, 23 May 1576, where his widow erected a chest tomb** in his memory before 1588; his will was proved 12 May 1576 and included a significant benefaction of land in Southwark (Surrey) to Christ's Hospital. His widow was also buried at St Clement Eastcheap, London, 14 May 1604; her will was proved 15 May 1604, and left a number of charitable bequests.
* Some sources also list a daughter, Etheldred(a), who married William Cleybroke, but I have found no reference to her in contemporary sources.
** Mentioned in John Stow's Survey of London but destroyed in the Great Fire of London, 1666.

Barnham, Sir Martin (1548-1610), kt. Eldest son of Francis Barnham (d. 1571) and his wife Alice Brobridge, born 26 March and baptised at St Mildred, Poultry, London, 27 March 1548. Educated in London and at Alban Hall, Oxford. After some months in the office of a lawyer called Barker he went to Grays Inn, where he made some lifelong friendships, including that of Sir Thomas Bodley. He was knighted at the coronation of King James I, 1603. JP for Kent from 1580; High Sheriff of Kent, 1598. He gained a considerable reputation for his legal knowledge in defending his title to the manors of Bilsington, and in later life he became a leading figure in the management of Romney Marsh and its sea defences. He married 1st, August 1572 at Boughton Malherbe (Kent), Ursula (d. 1579), daughter of Robert Rudston of Boughton Monchelsea (Kent) and 2nd, 1580, Judith, daughter of Sir Martin Calthorp, kt., lord mayor of London, and had issue (with two further sons by his second wife who died young, and probably in infancy):
(1.1) Sir Francis Barnham (1576-1646), kt. (q.v.);
(1.2) Benedict Barham (b. & d. 1579), born 28 July and baptised at Hollingbourne, 3 August 1579; died in infancy and was buried at Hollingbourne, 7 August 1579;
(2.1) Alice Barnham (1582-1638), baptised at St Peter-le-Poer, London, 11 March 1581/2; married 4 December 1598 at St Leonard Eastcheap, London, Sir Robert Honywood (1574-1653), kt., of Petts Court, Charing and had issue twenty children; buried at Charing, 17 March 1637/8;
(2.2) Martin Barnham (b. c.1584?); inherited lands in Hollingbourne, Sundridge and Chevening from his father in 1610; married, 1607 (licence 15 December), Una (d. 1653), daughter of Henry Isley of Sundridge (Kent) and had issue one son and one daughter; died before 1649;
(2.3) James (alias Jacob) Barnham (b. c.1586?); inherited lands in Staplehurst and Goudhurst (Kent) from his father; married [forename unknown] Wood of Bromley (Kent), and had issue two sons and one daughter;
(2.4) Elizabeth Barnham (c.1588-1620); married, 29 November 1603 at Hollingbourne, Augustine Steward (1584-1628) of Eastbury Manor House, Barking (who was a founder member of the Virginia Company in 1612 and visited the colony before 1619), and had issue three sons and one daughter; buried at St Leonard, Shoreditch (Middx), 2 December 1620;
(2.5) Thomas Barnham (1589-1636?), baptised at St Clement Eastcheap, London, 6 July 1589; inherited lands at Littlebourne and Ickham (Kent) from his father; possibly the man of this name who died unmarried and was buried at Bearsted (Kent), 10 August 1636;
(2.6) Judith Barnham (1591?-99), said to have been born in 1591; died young and was buried at Hollingbourne, 24 December 1599;
(2.7) Anne Barnham (b. 1592; fl. 1649), baptised at Hollingbourne, 22 September 1592; married, as his second wife, Sir George Chute (1586-1649), kt., of Stockwell (Surrey) and Wistaston (Herefs), and had issue two sons and three daughters; living in 1649;
(2.8) Catherine Barnham (1594-1642), baptised at Hollingbourne, 22 September 1594; married, 7 November 1611 at Hollingbourne, Sir Christopher Buckle (1590-1660), kt., of Banstead (Surrey), and had issue three sons and seven daughters; buried at Banstead, 5 July 1642.
For four years after his first marriage he lived with his father in law at Boughton Monchelsea, but in about 1576 he purchased a lease of Hollingbourne Manor (Kent), which was his home for the rest of his life. He also built Hollingbourne House nearby shortly before his death. He inherited the two manors of Bilsington on the expiry of his mother's life interest.
He died 12 December 1610 and was buried at Hollingbourne, where he is commemorated by a monument; his will was proved 2 February 1610/11. His first wife died after childbirth, and was buried at Hollingbourne, 28 July 1579. His second wife's date of death is unknown.

Barnham, Sir Francis (1576-1646), kt. Only son of Sir Martin Barnham (1548-1610), kt., and his first wife, Ursula, daughter of Robert Rudston of Boughton Monchelsea (Kent), baptised at Hollingbourne, 20 October 1576. Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge (matriculated 1592) and Grays Inn (admitted 1594). He and his father were knighted at the Coronation of King James I, 1603, his friend and patron Lord Pembroke having arranged that the usual fees should be waived. In 1608-10 he served briefly in the army, commanding a company at Flushing in a regiment of which his patron's uncle, Viscount de L'Isle, was colonel, and he was later a Captain of the Trained Bands for Kent.  Presumably through the interest of Lord Pembroke, who was High Steward of the Duchy of Cornwall, he became MP for Grampound (Cornw.) in the first and second Parliaments of James I, 1604-10, 1614. In 1617 he became a freeman of the borough of Maidstone and acquired property in the town, and he was subsequently elected MP for Maidstone, 1621-25, 1626-29, 1640-46. In the early 1620s, Barnham was suggested by Edmund Bolton as one of 84 members of a proposed royal academy for the study of public affairs, heraldry, and English history, but the scheme died with the king. He was opposed to Charles I's personal rule, and took the Parliamentarian side at the outbreak of the Civil War, but his enthusiasm for the cause seems to have ebbed quickly with the onset of hostilities, and by 1643 he had clearly withdrawn his support, as he was being threatened with sequestration for non-attendance in Parliament. He was a Commissioner for Sewers in Kent and Sussex, 1608-45; DL for Kent (from 1617) and Canterbury (from 1615) and Warden of Rochester Bridge, 1629-30. He became a member of the Virginia Company in 1612. By an agreement with his brother-in-law, Sir Thomas Waller, he succeeded Waller as Chief Butler of England during the minority of the latter's eldest son, William, but for reasons which are obscure he remained in this sinecure until 1641. On the death of his wife's nephew in 1630, he secured the wardship of his son and heir, Francis Lennard (1619-62), 14th Baron Dacre. He was an enthusiastic antiquarian, and at some point in the early 17th century he wrote a short memoir concerning his family history, which was published in The Ancestor in 1904. He married, 3 January 1598/9 at Sevenoaks (Kent), Elizabeth (d. 1631), daughter of Sampson Leonard alias Lennard esq. of Chevening and sister of Henry Lennard, 12th Baron Dacre of the South, and had issue:
(1) Margaret Barnham (1603-38), baptised at Charing (Kent), 16 October 1603; buried at Boughton Monchelsea, 25 March 1638;
(2) Dacres Barnham (c.1604-25?); aged 15 in 1619; educated at Middle Temple (admitted 1623); living in May 1625, but some accounts say he died 9 May 1625 and he was certainly dead before 1642;
(3) Sir Robert Barnham (1606-85), 1st bt. (q.v.);
(4) Judith Barnham (b. 1609), baptised at Hollingbourne, 7 May 1609; living in 1619 but probably dead by 1642 as she is not mentioned in her father's will;
(5) Edward Barnham (b. 1610), baptised at All Saints, Maidstone, 14 February 1609/10; living in 1619 but probably dead by 1642 as he is not mentioned in his father's will;
(6) Martin Barnham (b. & d. 1610), baptised at Hollingbourne, 30 December 1610; died in infancy and was buried at Hollingbourne, 31 December 1610;
(7) Francis Barnham (c.1612-77), of Maidstone, born about 1612; married, 10 August 1642 at Wartling (Sussex), Margaret (1615-92), daughter of Sir Edward Duke, kt., of Cossington, and had issue three sons and four daughters; buried at All Saints, Maidstone, 27 April 1677;
(8) William Barnham (b. 1613; fl. 1642), baptised at St Martin-in-the-Fields, Westminster (Middx), 19 May 1613; living in 1642;
(9) Dudley Barnham (b. 1614; fl. 1642), baptised at Hollingbourne, 16/17 October 1614; living in 1642;
(10) Elizabeth Barnham (c.1616-34), born about 1616; died unmarried and was buried at All Saints, Maidstone, 18 July 1634;
(11) Martin Barnham (b. 1618), baptised at Linton (Kent), 21 September 1618; probably dead by 1642 as he is not mentioned in his father's will;
(12) Frances Barnham (b. 1619; fl. 1646), baptised at Hollingbourne, 15 October 1619; married 1st, 30 April 1638 at St Benet, Paul's Wharf, London, Sir Robert Wildgoose (1615-42), kt., of Iridge, Salehurst (Sussex), and 2nd, 16 October 1646 at St Ann, Blackfriars, William Saltkin;
(13) John Barnham (1621-82), baptised at Hollingbourne, 13 August 1621; married [name unknown] and had issue one son and one daughter; buried at Boughton Monchelsea, 5 January 1681/2.
He inherited his father's property at Hollingbourne in 1610 and Boughton Monchelsea Place from his uncle, Belknap Rudston, in 1613. He preferred the latter seat and sold his father's house at Hollingbourne in 1616 for £3,355, while retaining the Hollingbourne Parsonage, to which he seems to have returned after his eldest surviving son came of age. He also acquired a house in Maidstone.
He died 12 September and was buried at Boughton Monchelsea, 16 September 1646, where he is commemorated by a monument designed by Nicholas Stone; his will was proved 23 October 1646. His wife was buried at All Saints, Maidstone, 19 September 1631 but is commemorated by a monument at Boughton Monchelsea.

Barnham, Sir Robert (1606-85), 1st bt. Eldest surviving son of Sir Francis Barnham (1576-1646), kt. and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sampson Leonard esq. of Chevening (Kent), baptised at Hollingbourne, 13 September or 12 October 1606. He was a member of the Rochester Bridge Trust, 1632-43, 1661-64 (Warden, 1635). Although he may have had Presbyterian sympathies, he was at heart a Royalist, and he was imprisoned in Leeds Castle for some months and took part in the Kentish rising of 1648. He was MP for Maidstone, 1660-79 and adhered increasingly closely to the Court party. JP for Kent, 1660-85; and DL for Kent, 1660-63, 1672-85. He purchased a baronetcy, 14 August 1663. In later life he seems to have had financial problems, became dependent on a pension from the government; and sold his estate at Bilsington in Romney Marsh to his son-in-law, Thomas Rider. He married 1st, 28 February 1635/6 at St Peter, Cornhill, London, Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Henley of Henley (Som.) and London, Chief Clerk of Kings Bench, and 2nd, 27 August 1663 at All Hallows, London Wall, London, Hannah (1630?-86), perhaps the daughter of Daniel Nicholls of London and certainly the widow of William Lowfield of London, draper, and had issue:
(1.1) Elizabeth Barnham (1636-37), baptised at Boughton Monchelsea, 22 December 1636; died in infancy and was buried at Boughton Monchelsea, 28 February 1636/7;
(1.2) Francis Barnham (1637-68), baptised at All Saints, Maidstone (Kent), 19 December 1637; married, 8 October 1667 at St Michael, Lewes (Sussex), Anne, sixth daughter of Sir Thomas Parker, kt. of Ratton (Sussex) and widow of John Shirley of Isfield (Sussex), but had no issue; died 1668;
(1.3) Dacres Barnham (1639-49), baptised at Boughton Monchelsea, 11 January 1638/9; died young and was buried at Boughton Monchelsea, 25 May 1649;
(1.4) Margaret Barnham (b. 1640), baptised at Boughton Monchelsea, 31 December 1640; probably died unmarried before 1664 as she is not mentioned in the pedigree submitted in that year to the Visitation of Kent;
(1.5) Elizabeth Barnham (1642-86), baptised at Boughton Monchelsea, 18 July 1642; married, 5 January 1685/6 at Boughton Monchelsea, Joseph Crowther; buried at Boughton Monchelsea, 25 June 1686;
(1.6) Anne Barnham (1643-1717), baptised at Boughton Monchelsea, 23 August 1643; married, 25 January 1669 at Boughton Monchelsea, as his second wife, Charles Good (1638-1711) of Malden (Surrey), and had issue two sons and three daughters; died 28 February 1717;
(1.7) Mary Barnham (1644-68), baptised at Boughton Monchelsea, 18 October 1644; married, 8 December 1659 at Boughton Monchelsea, Sir Nathaniel Powell (c.1640-1709), 2nd bt. (who m2, 26 January 1667/8 at St Martin-in-the-Fields, Westminster, Frances (d. 1719), daughter of Philip Stapleton of Warter (Yorks)), and had issue two sons and several daughters; buried at Boughton Monchelsea, 10 January 1667/8;
(2.1) Philadelphia Barnham (1664-1730) (q.v.).
He was settled at Boughton Monchelsea Place in his father's lifetime and inherited both that property and the Bilsington estate in Romney Marsh from his father in 1646, but sold the latter to his son-in-law before his death.
He was buried at Boughton Monchelsea, 1 June 1685, when his baronetcy became extinct*; his will was proved 12 June 1685. His first wife's date of death is unknown. His widow was buried at Boughton Monchelsea, 28 December 1685.
* Curiously, he was unclear whether his baronetcy was disposable by will, and sought to bequeath it to his son-in-law, Thomas Rider. The way this was worded in his will led the editors of Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies to believe he had a son or grandson called Thomas who had inherited the title, but this was not the case.

Barnham, Philadelphia (1664-1730). Only daughter of Sir Robert Barnham (1606-85), 1st bt., and his second wife Hannah, born 20 May and baptised at St Martin-in-the-Fields, Westminster (Middx), 28 May 1664. She married, 24 August 1682 at Boughton Monchelsea, Thomas Rider (c.1648-1702), Whig MP for Maidstone, 1690-95, 1696-98, eldest son of Sir William Rider MP, kt., of Bethnal Green (Middx), and had issue:
(1) Sir Barnham Rider (1683-1728), baptised at St Martin-in-the-Fields, Westminster (Middx), 17 June 1683; educated at Middle Temple (admitted 1697) and St John's College, Oxford (matriculated 1703); he inherited the Boughton Monchelsea estate in 1702 and came of age in 1704; knighted 20 October 1714; Whig MP for Maidstone, 1716-22, 1723-27; married, 1717 (settlement 28 October), Susan, daughter of Vice-Admiral James Littleton of North Ockendon (Essex), and had issue two sons and two daughters; died 21 November and was buried at Boughton Monchelsea, 26 November 1728;
(2) William Rider (1685-1739), baptised at Boughton Monchelsea, 25 January 1684/5; buried at Boughton Monchelsea, 8 April 1739; 
(3) Philadelphia Rider (1691-1756?), baptised at St Margaret, Westminster, 24 May 1691; probably the woman of this name who died unmarried and was buried at Boughton Monchelsea, 21 December 1756.
She and her husband inherited Boughton Monchelsea Place from her father in 1685 and appear to have remodelled it c.1690.
She was buried at Boughton Monchelsea, 24 January 1729/30. By her will, she provided funds for the education of her grandson, Sir Thomas Rider, as a gentleman, 'so that he might be sensible of how fatal intemperance had been to his Father and Grandfather'. Her husband was buried at Boughton Monchelsea, 11 November 1702.


Principal sources


Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies, 2nd edn., 1841, p. 42; The Ancestor, vol. 9, 1904, pp. 191-209; A. Oswald, 'Boughton Monchelsea Place', Country Life, 20 June 1963, pp. 1489-93 and 27 June 1963, pp. 1552-55; A. Everitt, The community of Kent and the Great Rebellion, 1640-60, 1966, p. 145; L. C. Orlin, Locating privacy in Tudor London, 2008; ODNB entry on Sir Francis Barnham; History of Parliament entries on Sir Francis Barnham and Sir Robert Barnham.


Coat of arms


Sable, a cross engrailed between four crescents argent.


Location of archives


No significant archive is known to survive, although a few items apparently remained with the property at least until its most recent sale. 


Can you help?

  • When the genealogical memoir of Sir Francis Barnham was published in 1904 it survived only as an 18th century copy among the papers of the Barrett-Lennard family, but it seems not now to be among the papers of that family in the Essex Record Office or the Centre for Kentish Studies. Does anyone know it current whereabouts?
  • I should be most grateful if anyone can provide photographs or portraits of people whose names appear in bold above, and who are not already illustrated.
  • As always, any additions or corrections to the account given above will be gratefully received and incorporated.

Revision and acknowledgements

This post was first published 21 January 2020 and was updated 30 January 2020. I am grateful to Mrs. Kendrick for corrections to my draft account of Boughton Monchelsea Place.