Tuesday, 29 October 2019

(395) Barnardiston of Kedington Hall, Brightwell Hall and The Ryes

Barnardiston of The Ryes
The Barnardistons were an ancient Suffolk gentry family who took their name from the village of Barnardiston near Haverhill. In the 1830s it was claimed that their line could be traced from father to son through twenty-seven generations, but the usual uncertainty of medieval genealogy makes this, at best, a bold claim. What does seem certain is that in the early 14th century they became possessed - probably through ties of marriage with the Newmarch and Willoughby families - of the manor and advowson of Kedington (Suff0lk), which adjoined their ancestral property at Barnardiston, and of the manor of Great Coates near Grimsby in north-east Lincolnshire. In the 14th and 15th centuries they probably divided their time between their Suffolk and Lincolnshire estates, and it seems certain that they occupied a moated hall house adjoining the church at Great Coates, the earthworks of which are still partly preserved. Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1440-1503), with whom the genealogy below begins, had his principal seat at Kedington (or Ketton as it was often called and spelled), and may have built or remodelled the manor house there. He was buried at Great Coates, but he or his widow erected a fine tomb in his memory at Kedington (the first of several to members of the family still preserved there), and endowed a chantry there to pray for their souls. Ironically his widow was not buried there either, for having become a corridan of Walsingham Priory in her old age she elected to be buried there instead. From Sir Thomas' time onwards, there is evidence of a gradual loosening of the ties with their Lincolnshire property, although his son, Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1480-1542), served as mayor of Grimsby in 1515 and the latter's brother, George Barnardiston (c.1485-c.1540), was MP for Grimsby in 1512. In 1521, however, George settled at Northill (Bedfordshire) where he founded a junior branch of the family who became minor gentry in several Bedfordshire villages over the following generations. Thomas and George's sister, Christina (d. by 1538) was the first wife of Sir Thomas Audley (d. 1544), a lawyer and leading servant of King Henry VIII in his religious changes of the 1530s. Two further siblings, John (d. 1557) and William (d. c.1555), were clergymen who adapted readily to the establishment of a Protestant Church of England. John, who was rector of Kedington and later of Great Coates, took advantage of the new freedom for priests to marry, but when Queen Mary came to the throne in 1553 and briefly restored Roman Catholicism as the state religion he was dispossessed because of his marriage, and his will reveals a troubled uncertainty over the legal status and rights of his wife and daughter.

John and William's enthusiastic reception of the new religious order was shared by other members of the family. The preambles to their wills reveal staunchly Protestant - indeed Calvinist - beliefs, and the family were long afterwards to be accounted among the most strongly Puritan of Suffolk gentry families. When Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1509-51) died young, wardship of his young son, Thomas Barnardiston (c.1543-1619) was granted to Sir John Cheke, the classical scholar and humanist who was responsible for educating both King Edward VI and Queen Elizabeth. During the reign of Queen Mary, he sent his young charge to Geneva, where he could experience a Protestant upbringing and education. Later, Thomas had the honour of receiving Queen Elizabeth at Kedington on one of her East Anglian progresses, and he was knighted a few days later. Sir Thomas's long life (he outlived his eldest son and heir apparent) enabled him to see his children and some of his grandchildren settled and married into other godly families. Until this time, younger sons had mainly been settled on subsidiary estates or sent into the law, but from the early 17th century they embraced the new mercantile opportunities afforded by colonial expansion and growing international trade. Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston (c.1588-1653), who inherited the family estates from his grandfather in 1619, seems to have been responsible for this shift. He himself became a member of the Massachusetts Bay Company by 1630, and at least four of his younger sons became merchants trading with Turkey and the eastern Mediterranean as members of the Levant Company, a business which made them independently wealthy.

Suffolk was one of the most strongly Puritan counties, and its politics reflected this. During the personal rule of Charles I in the late 1620s and 1630s, the gentry were opposed to what they saw as the levying of unconstitutional taxes, and Sir Nathaniel, along with many others, refused either to pay them or to act as a commissioner for levying them. For this he was several times imprisoned and fined, although these penalties do not seem to have prevented him rebuilding or remodelling Kedington Hall as a symmetrical Jacobean house, probably in the 1620s or 1630s. Given his pre-war experience, it is no surprise that with the outbreak of the Civil War he became a leading member of the Parliamentary faction in the county, serving as MP for Suffolk and on many local committees, while his son, Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1618-69) was militarily active during the Civil War and later succeeded him as an MP. Both Sir Thomas and his brother Samuel (1620-1707) were astute enough, however, to recognise that the Commonwealth regime was unravelling swiftly after the death of Oliver Cromwell, and to re-position themselves to welcome the Restoration of King Charles II. For this deft circumspection, both men were rewarded with baronetcies, granted a few weeks apart in the spring of 1663.

The Great Coates estate seems finally to have been sold sometime after the death of Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston in 1653, and thereafter the family estates were concentrated in Suffolk. Kedington and Barnardiston descended to Sir Thomas (d. 1669), the 1st baronet, and then to the latter's son, Sir Thomas (c.1646-98), 2nd baronet. The 2nd baronet left four surviving sons, three of whom inherited the estate in turn and died either unmarried or without male issue. When Sir Samuel Barnardiston, the 5th baronet, died in 1736, he left the Kedington estate to his widow for life, but he also left considerable debts and the property passed into the hands of his mortgagees, who sold it in 1781, and the house was pulled down in 1785. The last male heir to the baronetcy was Sir Samuel's nephew, Sir John Barnardiston, 6th baronet, who lived in considerable obscurity in Long Melford (Suffolk) and died without issue in 1745.

Sir Samuel Barnardiston (1620-1707), the other baronet created in 1663, was an ambitious and not particularly scrupulous man who had made a lot of money very quickly as a Turkey merchant in the 1640s and 1650s. He invested wisely and bought into the East India Company, of which he was deputy Governor in 1668-70, but he also made the traditional investment of the successful merchant in land, buying an estate at Brightwell (Suffolk) in 1663 and rebuilding the house there soon afterwards in a fashionable style that was complemented by a formal landscaping of the park. When he gained his baronetcy he was a widower with no children, and although he later married again, he did not produce a family. In the ordinary course of events, therefore, his baronetcy would have died with him, but he had had the foresight to request a special remainder in the patent, which ensured that in the event of his death without male issue, it would pass to his elder brother, Nathaniel (c.1619-80) or his descendants, and then in the event of the failure of that line to his younger brother, Pelatiah (d. 1679) and his sons. Rather curiously, he failed to make similar provision for his other younger brothers, William (d. 1668?) and Arthur (c.1630-92), but whether this indicates any antipathy to them is obscure. His estate at Brightwell followed the same path as the baronetcy, so he was succeeded first by his nephews, Sir Samuel (1660-1710), 2nd baronet and Sir Pelatiah (1663-1712), 3rd bt. (the sons of Nathaniel Barnardiston) and then by Sir Nathaniel (1672-1712), 4th bt. (the son of Pelatiah Barnardiston). None of these nephews produced any children, so in 1712 the baronetcy became extinct. The Brightwell estate, however, passed to the heir male, who was Arthur's son, Samuel Barnardiston (1676-1726), and then to his brother Arthur (1685-1737). Arthur left one infant son at his death, who survived until 1743. The estate then passed, not to his daughters, but, for reasons which are obscure, to his second cousin once removed, Anna Maria, the wife of Sir John Shaw of Eltham (Kent). When she died in the 1750s her son sold the estate, and the house was demolished soon afterwards.

By 1785 both baronetcies were extinct, the Great Coates, Kedington and Brightwell estates had been sold, and the family's two great houses had been demolished. This might have been the end of the Barnardistons as a gentry family, but there was still one line which was prospering. This descended from Thomas Barnardiston (c.1593-1681), a younger brother of Sir Nathaniel (c.1588-1653), who had become a merchant in London and was Comptroller of the Mint during the Commonwealth. Thomas had a long life and a large family, and several of his sons became Turkey merchants like their cousins of the Kedington branch of the family. He lived in or near London all his life, retiring to the village of Hackney (Middx) in his later years, and he became a nonconformist in religion. His eldest son, Thomas (1637-1704), who spent a good deal of his youth in the Middle East and was accounted a 'great traveller', followed a similar life-path to his father, but kept his links to Suffolk alive by retiring to Bury St. Edmunds; he too was a dissenter. His eldest son, Nathaniel Barnardiston (1681-1771) was a merchant (probably a vintner) in London, who had a house at Islington (Middx) and invested some of his surplus capital in landed property in north Hertfordshire and Co. Tipperary. Like his father and grandfather, he was a nonconformist, and he made provision in his will for the support of several Presbyterian ministers. His youngest son, John Barnardiston (c.1720-81) was a solicitor in London, but John's son, Nathaniel (1755-1837) was a mercer and evidently wealthy. His prosperity may have been partly due to inheritances from his father's elder brothers, all lawyers or merchants who failed to marry or produce families. By 1800 he was investing in land in Suffolk and in 1807 he bought a property called The Ryes at Little Henny, which was actually in Essex but fairly close to his family's former estates near Haverhill. Here he built a new Italianate villa to the designs of a young but increasingly well-regarded architect called Robert Lugar. This house, which was of modest size, passed in 1837 to his son, Nathaniel Clarke Barnardiston (1799-1883), who trained as a barrister and was a leading figure in county administration in mid-19th century Essex, serving as a magistrate for more than fifty years and as Chairman of Quarter Sessions, 1844-71. After a spell in the army, his eldest son, Nathaniel Barnardiston (1832-1916) followed a similar career path, and was Chairman of West Suffolk Quarter Sessions, 1876-1909 and first Chairman of West Suffolk County Council, 1890-1900. Several of his sons made military careers, most notably his eldest son, Maj-Gen. Nathaniel Walter Barnardiston (1858-1919), who inherited The Ryes in 1916 but sadly died following an operation three years later. Although he had a number of younger brothers, he left the estate to his American widow for life, and when she died aged 97 in 1955, the property was sold out of the family. It was later used as a school, but has happily recently been restored as a private house.


Kedington Hall, Suffolk


Kedington (also called Ketton) Hall was the principal seat of the Barnardistons from the late 15th century until the family died out in the male line in the mid 18th century.
Kedington Hall: drawing by Anne Mills drawn in the 1820s, recording
the house demolished 35 years earlier.
Nothing is known of the house which must have existed here in late medieval and Tudor times, but it seems to have been rebuilt in the early 17th century for Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston (c.1588-1653), kt., 'esteemed the most eminent of his knightly family', who inherited the estate from his grandfather in 1619. He was a Puritan who was noted in his day for running a 'Godly household', with ‘ten or more servants so eminent for piety and sincerity that never was the like seen all at once in any family'. In the 1620s he was MP for Sudbury and later for Suffolk, and during the Civil War he was a leading figure in the Parliamentary faction in Suffolk. The only known record of his house is a drawing (of which I have only the low-resolution image above) made by Anne Mills in the 1820s, which must have been based on earlier representations or perhaps just on her memories of a building demolished 35 years earlier. It is therefore perhaps not entirely reliable, but it shows a generally believable symmetrical Jacobean house with shaped gables and a five bay centre recessed between projecting windows that end in canted bay windows. To either side of the house and framing the entrance court were detached single-storey service ranges, also with shaped gables on their ends. The house was occupied by Sir Nathaniel's descendants until about 1757, by which time the estate was in the hands of mortgagees, who sold it in 1781. The 
house was pulled down in about 1785 and never replaced.

Descent: Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1440-1503), kt.; to son, Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1480-1542), kt.; to son, Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1509-51), kt.; to son, Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1543-1619), kt.; to grandson, Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston (c.1588-1653), kt.; to son, Sir Thomas Barnardiston, (c.1618-69), 1st bt.; to son, Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1646-98), 2nd bt.; to son, Sir Thomas Barnardiston (1674-1700), 3rd bt.; to brother, Sir Robert Barnardiston (c.1676-1728), 4th bt.; to brother, Sir Samuel Barnardiston (1681-1736), 5th bt.; to widow, Catherine Barnardiston (1708-57); to mortgagees, who sold 1781; demolished c.1785.


Brightwell Hall, Suffolk


The medieval and Tudor house of the Jermy family and their successors was apparently pulled down and replaced by Sir Samuel Barnardiston, 1st bt., after he bought the estate in 1663. 
Brightwell Hall: engraving from Britannia Illustrata showing the late 17th century house. The colouring is modern.

An engraving of the new house was published by Knyff & Kip in Britannia Illustrata in 1707 and shows a two-storey H-shaped house with hipped roofs topped by leaded flats with balustrades that were evidently intended as a place to admire the prospect from the house on fine days. The main fronts were of five bays with projecting two-bay wings, and in the centre of the house was a tall cupola, apparently with two storeys projecting above the roof, like that at Gillingham Hall (Norfk). The house was largely dismantled by Sir John Shaw (1728-94), 4th bt., in about 1760 (some sources say in 1753), apart from a small section which was retained as a farmhouse. Materials from the mansion were sold off and reused in other houses and churches: the staircase, with three twisted balusters to each step and blank brackets on the tread ends, is said to be at Walton Hall, near Felixstowe; some of the panelling lines the chancel of Levington church; and parts of a screen were used to make a west gallery at St. Clement, Ipswich and later repurposed to form a screen at the east end of the north aisle in the same church.

Descent: Edmund Jermy (fl. 1542)...Sir William Hewitte (fl. early 17th cent.)... Sir Anthony Wingfield (fl. 1638)... Thomas Essington (fl. 1655); sold 1663 to Sir Samuel Barnardiston (1620-1707), 1st bt.; to nephew, Sir Samuel Barnardiston (1660-1710), 2nd bt.; to brother, Sir Pelatiah Barnardiston (1663-1712), 3rd bt.; to cousin, Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston (1672-1712), 4th bt; to first cousin once removed, Samuel Barnardiston (1676-1726); to brother, Arthur Barnardiston (1685-1737); to son, Arthur Barnardiston (1737-43); to third cousin, Anna Maria (1697-1755), wife of Sir John Shaw (1687-1739), 3rd bt; to son, Sir John Shaw (1728-94), 4th bt., who demolished it c.1760.


The Ryes, Little Henny, Essex


The house, originally known as 'The Ryes Lodge', was designed by Robert Lugar for Nathaniel Barnardiston (1755-1837); his drawings were exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1809 and published in his Plans and Views in 1823. 


The Ryes: engraving of the house as designed by Robert Lugar.
The house was sited and the approach designed, so that the house 'bursts upon the sight' of the approaching visitor as he emerges from a plantation 'with the most pleasing effect of rural beauty'. The house is a villa of white brick and stucco, and has a slate roof with wide eaves supported on paired brackets. The entrance front originally had two bays with pedimented gables either side of a recessed centre with a portico with two pairs of Doric columns, and a recessed service wing on the left. The garden front has a two-storey semi-circular bow. 
The Ryes: the house as restored for domestic occupation since 2012. Image: Feilden & Mawson architects


In 1884 a two bay addition was made to the designs of E.F. Bisshopp in the angle between the entrance front and the service wing. This occasioned the regrettable removal of one of Lugar's gables, even though the addition keeps to a plain classical style. The main reception rooms survive from Lugar's time, and the dining room has Egyptian columns and pilasters. Lugar's staircase was a casualty of the 1884 enlargement, when it was replaced by a new entrance hall and a large new staircase was made in the service wing. In the late 20th and early 21st century, the house was used as a special needs school, which closed in 2012, and since then the house has been restored by Feilden & Mawson, architects, and returned to single domestic use.

Descent: Nathaniel Barnardiston (1755-1837); to son, Nathaniel Clarke Barnardiston (1799-1883); to son, Nathaniel Barnardiston (1832-1916); to son, Maj-Gen. Nathaniel Walter Barnardiston (1858-1919); to widow, Sarah Hall Barnardiston (1857-1955); sold after her death.



Barnardiston family of Kedington (Ketton) Hall



Barnardiston, Sir Thomas (c.1440-1503), kt. Son of Thomas Barnardiston (who m2, Joan (d. 1482), daughter of Sir Thomas Waterton) and his first wife Alice, daughter of Sir Henry Vavasour of Haslewood (Yorks), born about 1440. He was knighted at the marriage of Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon, 14 November 1501. His widow re-roofed Kedington church and installed a stained glass window in his memory. He married Elizabeth (d. 1526), daughter of George Newport of Brent Pelham (Herts), and had issue, with two further sons and four daughters who probably died young:
(1) Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1480-1542), kt. (q.v.);
(2) George Barnardiston (c.1485-c.1540), born about 1485; educated at Lincoln's Inn (admitted 1511); MP for Great Grimsby, 1512; purchased a lease of Orchard Grange, Northill (Beds) from Warden Abbey, 1521; JP for Bedfordshire by 1534; married 1st, by 1516, Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Burley of Kings Lynn (Norfk) and had issue one son [from whom descended the Barnardistons of Ickwell Bury]; married 2nd, Anne or Catherine, daughter of Richard  Godfrey and widow of [forename unknown] Hatcliffe; living in 1536 and dead by 1545;
(3) Nicholas Barnardiston (fl. 1502);
(4) Rev. John Barnardiston (d. 1557), rector of Kedington (Suffk), 1506, and of Great Coates (Lincs); deprived for clerical marriage, 1554; married Agnes Hogge; will proved 1557;
(5) Rev. William Barnardiston (d. c.1555), rector of Barnardiston (Suffk), 1537; prebendary of York Minster, 1534-c.1555;
(5) Christina Barnardiston (fl. 1502); married Sir Thomas Audley (1488-1544), 1st Baron Audley of Walden, KG, Lord Chancellor (who m2, 1538, Lady Elizabeth Grey, daughter of Thomas Grey, Marquess of Dorset), but had no issue; died before 1538;
(6) Elizabeth Barnardiston (d. 1548); married 1st, before 1502, William Eyre (d. 1507) of Great Cressingham (Norfk) and had issue; married 2nd, 1509 (settlement 16 May), Sir George Fitzwilliam (d. 1536) of Mablethorpe (Lincs); died 26 October 1548; will proved 27 October 1548;
(7) Mary Barnardiston (fl. 1502).
He inherited the Great Coates estate in Lincolnshire and the Kedington estate in Suffolk from his father, and made his home in Suffolk. He was also heir to his stepmother in 1480.
He died 29 June 1503 and was buried at Great Coates, where he is commemorated by a memorial brass; he also has a tomb at Kedington, where he founded a chantry, which his widow obtained licence to endow permanently; his will was proved 11 August 1503 and an inquisition post mortem was held 1 December 1503. His widow appears to have become a corrodian of Walsingham Priory, where she asked to be buried at her death in September 1526; her will was proved by the Prior of Walsingham, 26 September 1526.

Barnardiston, Sir Thomas (c.1480-1542). Eldest son of Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1440-1503), kt. and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Roger Newport of Pelham (Herts), born about 1480. Mayor of Grimsby, 1515. He married Anne (d. 1560), daughter of Sir Thomas Lucas of Saxham (Suffk), solicitor general to King Henry VII, and had issue including:
(1) Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1509-51), kt. (q.v.);
(2) John Barnardiston (fl. 1542-73), born after 1521; married, before 1559, Elizabeth [surname unknown] (fl. 1559); living in 1573;
(3) Agnes Barnardiston (fl. 1542); married, before 1542, William Ayloffe (d. 1569) (who m2, Margaret Foster) of Braxted (Essex), High Sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire, 1563, and had issue; 
(4) Elizabeth Barnardiston (fl. 1542-59); married 1st, Bartholomew Brokesby (d. 1559) and 2nd, as his fourth wife, Francis Clopton;
(5) Mary Barnardiston (fl. 1542); married, before 1542, William Strangman (d. 1573) of Hadleigh Castle (Essex) (who m2, Joan, daughter of Sir William Kemp), and had issue;
(6) Margaret Barnardiston (fl. 1542-52);
(7) Anne Barnardiston (fl. 1559).
He inherited the Kedington and Great Coates estates from his father in 1500.
He died 7 November 1542 and was buried at Kedington; his will was proved 8 November 1542; an inquisition post mortem was held at Sudbury, 5 April 1543. His widow died in 1560; her will was proved 3 May 1560.

Barnardiston, Sir Thomas (c.1509-51). Elder son of Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1480-1542), kt. and his wife Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas Lucas of Saxham (Suffk), born c.1509. Knighted at the coronation of King Edward VI, 22 February 1546/7. He married Mary, second daughter of Sir Edward Walsingham, kt., of Scadbury (Kent), Lieutenant Governor of the Tower of London, and had issue*:
(1) Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1543-1619), kt. (q.v.);
(2) Elizabeth Barnardiston; married 1st, 1555 (settlement 1 January 1554/5), John Everard (d. 1572) of Brundish (Suffk) and had issue one daughter; married 2nd, as his second wife, Sir Charles Framlingham (d. 1595) of Crows Hall, Debenham (Suffk) and 3rd, as his second wife, Sir Henry Gawdy MP (c.1547-1621) of Claxton (Norfk);
(3) Anne Barnardiston (d. 1607); married William Clopton (c.1539-1612) of Liston Hall, son of William Clopton of Liston, and had issue; buried at Liston, 21 November 1607.
He inherited the Kedington and Great Coates estates from his father and was granted an estate at Great Wratting (Suffk), Little Thurlow and Withersfield (Essex) by King Henry VIII in 1543/4.
He died in September 1551; his will was proved 2 October 1551; an inquisition post mortem was held at Ipswich, 14 June 1552. His widow married 2nd, after 1555, as his third wife, Francis Clopton of Kedington, the uncle of her younger daughter's husband, who later married her first husband's sister, Elizabeth Barnardiston (see above); her date of death is unknown.
* Some accounts mention also a third daughter, Hannah, but she is not mentioned in her father's or grandmother's will and I have found no evidence that she existed.

Barnardiston, Sir Thomas (c.1543-1619), kt. Only son of Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1509-51), kt. and his wife Mary, second daughter of Sir Edward Walsingham, kt. of Scadbury (Kent), born about 1543. After his father died, his wardship was granted to Sir John Cheke, the classical scholar and humanist who had been tutor to King Edward VI and Queen Elizabeth when they were children and became Secretary of State. During the reign of Queen Mary, Thomas was sent to Geneva (Switzerland) so that he could receive a Protestant upbringing and education, but returned to England after her death in 1558 and was educated at the Inner Temple (admitted 1560). In 1578, Queen Elizabeth made a progress through East Anglia, stayed the night at Kedington on 1 August, and knighted Thomas on 5 August at Bury St. Edmunds. Much later, he was among the 22 men named to receive a baronetcy at the first institution of the order of baronets on 22 May 1611, but he was one of four men on the list whose patents never passed the Great Seal; the reason for his elevation being stayed is unknown. High Sheriff of Suffolk, 1580-81. He married 1st, Elizabeth (c.1545-84), daughter of Thomas Hanchet esq. of Hamels, Braughing (Herts) and 2nd, 1587/8 (licence 3 February), Anne (d. 1641), daughter of [forename unknown] Bygrave of Bedfordshire, yeoman, and had issue:
(1.1) Sir Thomas Barnardiston (1564-1610), kt. (q.v.);
(1.2) Elizabeth Barnardiston (b. 1565), baptised at Braughing, 5 August 1565; probably died young;
(1.3) Mary Barnardiston; married 1st, Richard Colvile (d. 1601) of Newton Colvile (Cambs) and had issue two sons and three daughters; married 2nd, Thomas Golding (d. 1626) of Hinxworth (Herts) and Poslingford (Suffk), and had further issue;
(1.4) Anne Barnardiston (d. 1609); married Sir Anthony Everard (d. 1614) of Great Waltham (Essex) (who m2, Anne, daughter of Sir Anthony Felton, of Playford (Suffk), and had issue four children (of whom three died young); died 19 December 1609 and was buried at Great Waltham, where they are commemorated by a monument;
(1.5) Edmund Barnardiston; probably died young;
(1.6) William Barnardiston; probably died young;
(2.1) Grizel Barnardiston (1593-1609), baptised at Tottenham, 1 April 1593; died young, 27 June 1609 and was buried at Kedington;
(2.2) Anne Barnardiston (1595-1616), baptised at Clare, 7 November 1595; “a gentlewoman of exact beauty and comeliness and of exemplary piety”; married, 1 January 1610/11, Sir William Clopton (1593-1619), kt. of Kentwell Hall (who m2, 30 October 1617, as her second husband, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Giles Alington, kt. of Horseheath Hall (Cambs) and widow of Sir Henry Palavicini (d. 1615), kt., of Babraham Hall (Cambs)), son of Thomas Clopton of Kentwell, and had issue one daughter (Anne, later the wife of Sir Simonds d'Ewes, kt.); died 4 February 1615/6 and was buried at Long Melford;
(2.3) Giles Barnardiston (d. 1679) of Clare Priory (Suffk); mentioned in his father's will in 1618, when he was a minor; married Philippa (fl. 1620-37), daughter of Sir William Waldgrave, kt. of Smallbridge, and had issue five sons and three daughters;
(2.4) Hannah Barnardiston (1605-73), baptised at Clare, 7 November 1605; mentioned in her father's will in 1618; married, 24 May 1623 at St Olave, Hart St., London, John Brograve (1597-1671) of Hamels (Herts) and had surviving issue one son and two daughters; buried at Braughing, 4 September 1673;
(2.5) Samuel Barnardiston; died young, before 1617.
He inherited the Kedington and Great Coates estates from his father, but in 1588 was living at Tottenham (Middx) and in 1618 at Clare (Suffk).
He died 23 December 1619 and was buried at Kedington, where he is commemorated by an elaborate table tomb; his will was proved 2 February 1619/20 and an inquisition post mortem was held 22 September 1620. His first wife died 26 September 1584 and was buried at Kedington. His widow died in 1641.


Sir Thomas Barnardiston (d. 1610)
Barnardiston, Sir Thomas (1564-1610), kt. Eldest son of Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1543-1619), kt., and his first wife Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Hanchet, esq. of Hamels, Braughing (Herts), baptised at Braughing, 23 August 1564. Educated at Queens' College, Cambridge (matriculated 1580) and Inner Temple (admitted 1582/3). He was knighted at Whitehall, 23 July 1603. He married 1st, 1585 (settlement 30 June), Mary (d. 1594), daughter of Sir Richard Knightley, kt., of Fawsley (Northants) and 2nd, 1599, Catherine (d. 1632), daughter of Thomas Banks esq. of London, barber-surgeon, and widow of Bartholomew Soame (d. 1596) of London, girdler, and had issue:
(1.1) Thomas Barnardiston (b. 1586), baptised at Fawsley, 27 July 1586; died young before 1593;
(1.2) Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston (c.1588-1653), kt. 
(q.v.);
(1.3) Elizabeth Barnardiston (fl. 1610-33); married, before 1610, Sir William Fish (d. 1646) of Carlton and Biggleswade (Beds); living in 1632/3;
(1.4) Arthur Barnardiston (c.1590-1655), born about 1590; educated at Inner Temple (admitted 1610; called 1620); barrister-at-law; a Master in Chancery under Cromwell; married Anne (d. 1677), daughter of James Harvey esq. of Dagenham (Essex) and widow of Sir Roger Thornton, kt. of Snailwell (Cambs), and had issue two sons and two daughters; buried 18 November 1655; will proved 19 December 1655;
(1.5) Thomas Barnardiston; died in infancy;
(1.6) Mary Barnardiston; died in infancy;
(1.7) Thomas Barnardiston (c.1593-1681) [for whom see below, Barnardiston of London and The Ryes]
He lived at Witham Place (Essex).
He died in the lifetime of his father, 29 July 1610 and was buried at Kedington, where he is commemorated by an altar tomb; his will was proved 1 November 1610. His first wife died 3 March 1593/4. His second wife married 3rd, c.1612, William Towse (1551-1634) of Bassingbourne Hall, Takeley (Essex), serjeant-at-law and MP for Bramber, 1586, Beverley, 1614 and Colchester, 1621-28, and had issue; she died 3 March 1632/3 and was buried at St Michael-le-Querne, London, but she is commemorated on her husband's monument at Kedington; her lengthy and complex will was proved in the PCC, 19 March 1632/3, and endowed three scholarships in the University of Cambridge among many other charitable bequests.


Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston (c.1588-1653)
Barnardiston, Sir Nathaniel (c.1588-1653), kt. Eldest surviving son of Sir Thomas Barnardiston (1564-1610), kt., and his first wife Mary, daughter of Sir Richard Knightley, kt., of Fawsley (Northants), born about 1588. Admitted to Inner Temple, c.1606. He was knighted at Newmarket, 21 December 1618. JP for Suffolk, 1622-53; High Sheriff of Suffolk, 1623-24; DL for Suffolk, c.1622-27 and 1642. In the 1620s and 1630s he refused to collect ship money and the forced loan or to pay his own contribution, which led to his imprisonment. By 1630 he was a member of the Massachusetts Bay Company, and in his will he left money for education in the American colony. MP for Sudbury, 1624, 1626 and for Suffolk, 1628, 1640-48; he survived 'Pride's Purge' of the Commons in 1648 but did not sit thereafter. He has been described as 'the dominant figure' in Civil War Suffolk, when he sat on the County Committee and many local commissions. He was a strong Presbyterian in religion, and was noted for maintaining a 'godly household' in which he had ‘ten or more servants so eminent for piety and sincerity that never was the like seen all at once in any family'; he became an elder of the Clare classis in 1645. He married, 16 May 1613 at St Pancras, Soper Lane, London, Jane (d. 1669), daughter of Sir Peter Soame, kt., of London and Little Thurlow (Suffk), Lord Mayor of London in 1598-99, and had issue:
(1) Anne Barnardiston (c.1616-91); married, c.1640, Sir John Rolt (1616-51), kt., of Milton Ernest (Bedfordshire) and had issue one son and five daughters; buried at Milton Ernest, 18 August 1691;
(2) Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1618-69), 1st bt. (q.v.);
(3) Nathaniel Barnardiston (c.1619-80) [for whom see Barnardiston family of Brightwell Hall below];
(4) Sir Samuel Barnardiston (1620-1707), 1st bt. [for whom see Barnardiston family of Brightwell Hall below];
(5) Pelatiah Barnardiston (d. 1679) [for whom see Barnardiston family of Brightwell Hall below];
(6) Jane Barnardiston; married 1st, John Brook (d. 1652), second son of Sir Robert Brook of Cockfield Hall, Yoxford (Suffk) and 2nd, before 1666, as his second wife, Sir William Blois (d. 1675), kt. of Grundisburgh Hall (Suffk), and had issue a daughter;
(7) Stephen Barnardiston; living in 1651; died unmarried before 1669;
(8) William Barnardiston (d. 1668?); Turkey merchant; unmarried; living in 1651 and was probably the man of this name buried at Brantham (Suffk), 18 June 1668;
(9) John Barnardiston; died unmarried, probably before 1651;
(10) Arthur Barnardiston (c.1630-92) [for whom see Barnardiston family of Brightwell Hall below].
He inherited the Kedington and Great Coates estates from his grandfather in 1619 and evidently built a new house at Kedington. Great Coates seems to have been sold to the Sutton family in the 1650s.
He died at Hackney, 25 July 1653, and was buried at Kedington, where he is commemorated by a table tomb. It is said that some 200 people went to meet his corpse on its return to Suffolk, and that 'many thousands' attended his funeral; his death was also marked by a collection of elegies, published in a pamphlet entitled Suffolk's Tears, 1653. His will was proved 28 September 1653. His widow died 17 August and was buried at Kedington, 15 September 1669; her will was proved 12 September 1669.

Barnardiston, Sir Thomas (c.1618-69), kt. and 1st bt. Eldest son of Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston (c.1588-1653), kt., and his wife Jane, daughter of Sir Peter Soame, kt., Lord Mayor of London, born about 1618. Educated at St Catherine's College, Cambridge (matriculated 1633) and Grays Inn (admitted 1635). He was knighted by King Charles I at Whitehall, 4 July 1641, but like his father he supported the Parliamentarian faction during the Civil War, and commanded a regiment of foot against the King's forces at Colchester in 1648. He was MP for Bury St. Edmunds, 1645-48, Suffolk, 1654-59 and Ipswich, 1661-62, but supported the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, for which he was created a baronet by King Charles II, 7 April 1663. He married, before 1643, Anne (1624-71), daughter and co-heir of Sir William Armine (1593-1651), 1st bt. of Osgodby (Lincs), and had issue:
(1) Jean alias Jane Barnardiston (1643-65), perhaps the child of this name baptised in London, 10 July 1643; died unmarried and was buried at Kedington, 29 January 1664/5;
(2) Nathaniel Barnardiston; died young in the lifetime of his father;
(3) Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1646-98), 2nd bt. (q.v.);
(4) William Barnardiston; died without issue;
(5) Mary Barnardiston (d. 1725); married, 1 July 1674 at St Dunstan-in-the-East, London, Sir Joseph Brand (d. 1714), kt., of Edwardstone (Suffk) and had issue one son; lived latterly in Haverfordwest (Pembs); will proved 20 November 1725;
(6) Nathaniel Barnardiston (d. 1678); apprenticed to Arnold White of London, citizen and fishmonger, 1670; died without issue and was buried at Kedington, 25 March 1678;
(7) Samuel Barnardiston (b. 1654), baptised at Kedington, 20 May 1654; died without issue;
(8) Anne Barnardiston (1655-83), baptised at Kedington, 10 December 1655; married, 9 June 1679 at St Bride, Fleet St., London, as his second wife, Sir Philip Skippon (1641-91), kt., FRS, of Wrentham (Suffk), MP for Dunwich, 1679-85, 1689-91, and had issue one son and two daughters; buried at Kedington, 11 October 1683;
(9) John Barnardiston (1658-90), baptised at Kedington, 11 June 1658; married Margaret, daughter of Sir Robert Cordell, bt. of Long Melford (Suffk), but had no issue; administration of goods granted, January 1690;
(10) Elizabeth Barnardiston (b. 1659), baptised at Kedington, 30 August 1659; married Thomas Williams esq. of Tendring Hall, Stoke-by-Nayland (Suffk), and had issue;
(11) Martha Barnardiston (b. & d. 1663), born 18 June 1663; died in infancy and was buried at Milton Ernest (Beds), 7 July 1663;
(12) Armyne Barnardiston (1664-77), born 3 December and baptised at Coleby (Lincs), 22 December 1664; died young and was buried at Kedington, 10 April 1677;
(13) Michael Barnardiston (b. 1666), baptised at Stallingborough (Lincs), 10 July 1666; Turkey merchant; died unmarried at Smyrna.
He inherited the Kedington estate from his father in 1653.
He died 4 October and was buried at Kedington, 14 October 1669. His widow was buried at Kedington, 25 August 1671.

Barnardiston, Sir Thomas (c.1646-98), 2nd bt. Eldest surviving son of Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1618-69), 1st bt. and his wife Anne, daughter and co-heir of Sir William Armine, bt. of Osgodby (Lincs), born about 1646. Educated at St Catherine's College, Cambridge (matriculated 1664) and Grays Inn (admitted 1667). He succeeded his father as 2nd baronet, 4 October 1669. MP for Grimsby (Lincs), 1685-87, 1689-90 and for Sudbury, 1695-98. Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster Honour of Clare, 1689-91. He married, 1670 (licence 26 July), Elizabeth (c.1651-1707), daughter and heir of Sir Robert King, kt., of Boyle (Co. Roscommon) and his wife Sophia, formerly Viscountess Wimbledon, and had issue:
(1) Sir Thomas Barnardiston (1674-1700), 3rd bt. (q.v.);
(2) Nathaniel Barnardiston (c.1675-80), born about 1675; died in infancy and was buried at Kedington, 15 February 1679/80 or 13 April 1680;
(3) Sir Robert Barnardiston (c.1676-1728), 4th bt. (q.v.);
(4) Sophia Barnardiston (d. 1679); died in infancy and was buried at Kedington, 15 March 1678/9;
(5) Nathaniel Barnardiston (b. 1679), baptised at Kedington, 20 May 1679; died unmarried in the East Indies;
(6) Sir Samuel Barnardiston (1681-1736), 5th bt. (q.v.);
(7) Elizabeth Barnardiston (b. & d. 1683), baptised 2 June 1683; died in infancy and was buried at Kedington, 8 June 1683;
(8) John Barnardiston (d. 1731) (q.v.).
He inherited the Kedington estate from his father in 1669.
He died 7 October was buried at Kedington, 15 October 1698. His widow was buried at Kedington, 21 October 1707.

Barnardiston, Sir Thomas (1674-1700), 3rd bt. Eldest son of Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1646-98), 2nd bt. and his wife Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Sir Robert King of Boyle (Co. Roscommon), born 7 August 1674. Educated at Jesus College, Cambridge (matriculated 1692). He succeeded his father as 3rd baronet, 7 October 1698. He married, 1693/4 (licence 14 February) Anne (d. 1701), daughter and co-heir of Sir Richard Rothwell, 1st bt. of Stapleford (Lincs), and had issue:
(1) Elizabeth Barnardiston (1695-1701), born 23 January 1694/5 and baptised at Kedington, 6 May 1695; died young and was buried at Kedington, 7 May 1701;
(2) Anna Maria Barnardiston (1697-1755), baptised 1 July 1697; inherited Brightwell Hall from her third cousin, Arthur Barnardiston (1737-43); married, 27 September 1716, Sir John Shaw (1687-1739), 3rd bt. of Eltham (Kent) and had issue one son and one daughter; died 30 November and was buried at Eltham, 10 December 1755; will proved 16 December 1755;
(3) Charlotte Barnardiston (1699-1731); married, 1720 (licence 4 June) at Kedington, as his second wife, Sir Anthony Thomas Abdy (1688-1731), 3rd bt. of Felix Hall (Essex), and had issue two daughters; died 17 February 1731.
He inherited the Kedington estate from his father in 1698.
He died 12 November was buried at Kedington 'in great state', 21 November 1700; his will was proved 14 February 1701/2. His widow died 14 February and was buried at Kedington, 21 February 1701/2; her will was proved in July 1702.

Barnardiston, Sir Robert (c.1676-1728), 4th bt. Second surviving son of Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1646-98), 2nd bt. and his wife Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Sir Robert King of Boyle (Co. Roscommon), born about 1676. He succeeded his elder brother as 4th baronet, 12 November 1700. He was nearly ruined by law suits respecting his right of succession to the estates of the Armyne family of Osgodby. He married, in or after 1706, Elizabeth, daughter of [f.u.] Cheeke?, but had no issue.
He inherited the Kedington estate from his brother in 1700, but was living at Hatch Court (Somerset) when he made his will.
He died 16 July and was buried at Kedington, 24 July 1728; his will was proved in the PCC, 20 January 1728/9. His widow died 16 February and was buried at Long Melford (Suffk), 20 February 1737/8; her will was proved 16 March 1737/8.

Barnardiston, Sir Samuel (1681-1736), 5th bt. Fifth son of Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1646-98), 2nd bt. and his wife Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Sir Robert King of Boyle (Co. Roscommon), baptised 20 January 1680/1. He succeeded his elder brother as 5th baronet, 16 July 1728. He married, August 1730, Catherine (1708-57), daughter of Sir Rowland Winn, 3rd bt. of Nostell Priory (Yorks WR), but had no issue.
He inherited the Kedington estate from his brother in 1728; at his death these passed to his widow for life.
He died at Kedington Hall, 4 February and was buried at Kedington, 13 February 1735/6. His widow was buried at Kedington, 3 December 1757; her will was proved 22 December 1757.

Barnardiston, John (d. 1731). Youngest son of Sir Thomas Barnardiston (c.1646-98), 2nd bt. and his wife Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Sir Robert King of Boyle (Co. Roscommon, Ireland), born after 1681. He married Sophia (d. 1729?), daughter of [forename unknown] Rich esq. of Scotland, and widow of Hon. William Gray, brother of 10th Lord Gray, and had issue:
(1) Sir John Barnardiston (d. 1745), 6th bt. (q.v.).
He lived at Long Melford (Suffk).
He was buried at Kedington, 11 December 1731; his will was proved 1 February 1731/2. His wife died before him and may have been the Mrs. Barnardiston buried at Kedington, 9 March 1729.

Barnardiston, Sir John (d. 1745), 6th and last bt. Only son of John Barnardiston (d. 1731) and his wife Sophia, daughter of [forename unknown] Rich esq. of Scotland, and widow of the Hon. William Gray, brother of the 10th Lord Gray, born after 1700. He succeeded his uncle as 6th baronet, 4 February 1735/6. He married, before July 1737, Elizabeth, daughter of William Blakeway of Stepney (Middx), sailmaker, but had no issue.
He lived at Long Melford (Suffk).
He died in September 1745, when the baronetcy became extinct, and was buried at Kedington, 29 September 1745. His widow was living in 1749.


Barnardiston family of Brightwell Hall


Sir Samuel Barnardiston (1620-1707), 1st bt.
Image: British Museum
Barnardiston, Sir Samuel (1620-1707), 1st bt. Third son of Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston (c.1588-1653), 1st bt. and his wife Jane, daughter of Sir Peter Soame, kt., Lord Mayor of London, born 23 June 1620. He was apprenticed to John Langham of London, Turkey merchant in 1639, and is reputed to have taken part in the riots against Charles I in London in 1640. His close-cropped hair was remarked by Queen Henrietta Maria in 1641, and is said to have given rise to the use of the term 'Roundheads' for the Parliamentarian party. Having completed his articles he became a Turkey merchant himself and he was out of England between 1643 and 1652 on his business affairs. On his return, he was made free of the Grocers' Company, 1654, and became prominent in the affairs of the Levant Co. from 1654 and the East India Co. from 1657. In 1660, he supported the restoration of the monarchy, for which he was rewarded with a baronetcy, 11 May 1663, as 'a person of irreproachable loyalty'. The patent included a special remainder (in default of male issue) to his elder brother Nathaniel and his descendants and then to his younger brother Pelatiah and his issue. He was deputy governor of the East India Company, 1668-70, and in that capacity was the principal defendant in a case before the House of Lords in which he was fined £300, though the Commons resolved that he had ‘behaved himself like a good commoner of England’. He was a Presbyterian in religion, and employed an ejected minister as his chaplain. His purchase of an estate in Suffolk in 1663 and building of a house there meant a gradual broadening of his interests into estate management and politics, and he was admitted to Grays Inn, 10 March 1673/4. He was High Sheriff of Suffolk, 1666-67 and MP for Suffolk, 1673-81. After the Rye House Plot of 1683 he wrote a series of indiscreet letters to his niece’s husband, Sir Philip Skippon, which fell into the hands of the Government and led to his conviction for seditious libel, with a fine of £10,000. He fled to Holland, and his estate was seized until the fine was paid. He was thus out of England for most of the reign of James II, returning in the summer of 1688, having ‘made his peace by an easy composition by the means of a noble Catholic lord’. With the revolution of 1689 he returned to favour, his conviction was quashed and he eventually recovered about £1,900 of his fines. He was again MP for Suffolk, 1690-1702 and a Commissioner for the Public Accounts, 1691-94; he was also JP and DL for Suffolk, 1689-1707. He married 1st, Thomasine (d. 1654), daughter of Joseph Brand of Edwardstone (Suffk) and 2nd, after 1679, Mary (1639-1730), daughter of Sir Abraham Reynardson, kt., Lord Mayor of London in 1648-49, and widow of Richard Onslow of London, merchant, but had no issue.
He purchased the Brightwell Hall estate in Suffolk in about 1663 and rebuilt the house.
He died 8 November and was buried at Brightwell, 28 November 1707; his will was proved in December 1707 and December 1710. His first wife died in 1654. His widow was buried with her parents at St Martin Outwich, London, 13 February 1729/30; her will was proved February 1729/30.

Barnardiston, Nathaniel (c.1619-80). Second son of Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston (c.1588-1653), 1st bt. and his wife Jane, daughter of Sir Peter Soame, kt., Lord Mayor of London, born about 1619.  A Turkey merchant, trading between Smyrna and London like his brothers. He was a Presbyterian in religion. He married, 24 May 1648, Elizabeth (1629-83), daughter of Thomas Bacon esq. of Friston (Suffk), and had issue:
(1) A stillborn child (b. & d. 1650); buried at Hackney, 11 February 1650:
(2) Ann Barnardiston (1651-57?), born 27 January and baptised at Hackney, 13 February 1651; probably the person of this name who was buried at Kedington, 15 December 1657;
(3) Jane Barnardiston (b. 1653), baptised at Hackney, 26 May 1653; married, 1669 (licence 4 October), Robert Man (b. c.1643) of Norwich, son and heir of Alderman Man of Norwich;
(4) Nathaniel Barnardiston (1654-68?), born 24 November and baptised at Hackney, 7 December 1654; died young and was probably the person of this name buried at Kedington, 10 September 1668;
(5) Thomas Barnardiston (1656-69?), born 25 August and baptised at Hackney, 11 September 1656; died young and was probably the person of this name buried at Kedington, 14 October 1669;
(6) Samuel Barnardiston (b. 1657), baptised at Hackney, 11 November 1657; died in infancy before 1660;
(7) Elizabeth Barnardiston (1658-91), born 17 November and baptised at Hackney, 26 November 1658; married, 11 February 1678 at St Stephen, Coleman St., London, Samuel Blackerby (1653-1714) of Grays Inn (who m2, 1692, Mary, daughter of Sir Samuel Luke and widow of Arthur Barnardiston), and had issue one son and four daughters; buried at St Sepulchre, Holborn (Middx), 13 November 1691;
(8) Sir Samuel Barnardiston (1660-1710), 2nd bt. (q.v.);
(9) Sir Pelatiah Barnardiston (1663-1712), 3rd bt. (q.v.);
(10) Martha Barnardiston (d. 1667), buried at Kedington, 24 December 1667; 
(11) Anne Barnardiston (fl. 1679); born after 1658; living unmarried in 1679.
He lived at Shoreditch Place, Hackney (Middx). He bought lands in Suffolk where his two surviving sons were able to live as gentlemen.
He was buried at Kedington, 13 April 1680; his will was proved 9 July 1680. His widow was buried at Kedington, 8 June 1683.

Barnardiston, Sir Samuel (1660-1710), 2nd bt. Fourth but eldest surviving son of Nathaniel Barnardiston of Shoreditch Place, Hackney, and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Bacon esq. of Friston (Suffk), born 28 January and baptised at Hackney, 9 February 1659/60. Educated at Grays Inn (admitted 1679/80). An officer in the Suffolk militia (Capt.); MP for Ipswich, 1698-1700. He succeeded his uncle as 2nd baronet, 8 November 1707.  He married, 13 August 1709, Martha (who brought him a portion of £6,000), daughter and co-heir of Thomas Richmond of London, apothecary, but had no issue.
He inherited the Brightwell Hall estate from his uncle in 1707, but lived at St Peter's Hall, South Elmham (Suffk).
He died in Charterhouse Yard, London, 3 January and was buried at Kedington, 11 January 1709/10; administration of his goods was granted 20 January 1709/10. His widow married 2nd, 2 October 1712 at Grays Inn Chapel, Charles Edwin (fl. 1718) of Lincoln's Inn; she died in Holborn (Middx), in or before 1718 and administration of her goods was granted in 1720.

Barnardiston, Sir Pelatiah (1663-1712), 3rd bt. Youngest son of Nathaniel Barnardiston and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Bacon esq. of Friston (Suffk), baptised at Hackney, 9 September 1663. He succeeded his elder brother as 3rd baronet, 3 January 1709/10, but at the time of his death he was involved in a Chancery dispute with the executors of his uncle, Sir Samuel Barnardiston (1620-1707), 1st bt. over the residuary estate of his father. He was unmarried and without issue.
He inherited the Brightwell Hall estate from his brother in 1710, but lived at St Peter's Hall, South Elmham (Suffk).He died 4 May and was buried at Kedington, 13 May 1712; his will was proved 12 June 1712.

Barnardiston, Pelatiah (d. 1679). Fourth son of Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston (c.1588-1653), 1st bt. and his wife Jane, daughter of Sir Peter Soame, kt., Lord Mayor of London, born after 1620.  Merchant in London. He married, 24 June 1658 at Totteridge (Herts), Martha (d. 1687), daughter of Richard Turner esq. of Totteridge (Herts/Middx) and sister of Sir William Turnor, kt., of Bromley (Kent), and had issue:
(1) Martha Barnardiston (b. & d. 1671), baptised at Hackney, 9 March 1670/1; died in infancy and was buried at Kedington, 7 July 1671;
(2) Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston (1672-1712), 4th bt. (q.v.);
(3) Jane Barnardiston (d. 1673); buried at Kedington, 24 April 1673.
He lived at Homerton in Hackney (Middx).
He was buried at Kedington, 23 or 28 July 1679; his will was proved in the PCC, 27 January 1679/80. His widow was buried 29 June 1687.

Barnardiston, Sir Nathaniel (1672-1712), 4th and last bt. Only son of Pelatiah Barnardiston (d. 1679) and his wife Martha, daughter of Richard Turner esq. of Totteridge, baptised at Hackney (Middx), 5 September 1672. He succeeded his uncle as 4th baronet, 4 May 1712. He was unmarried and without issue.
He inherited the Brightwell Hall estate from his uncle in May 1712.
He died 21 September 1712, when the baronetcy became extinct, and was buried at Kedington, 3 October 1712; his will was proved 23 October 1712.

Barnardiston, Arthur (c.1630-92). Youngest son of Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston (c.1588-1653), 1st bt. and his wife Jane, daughter of Sir Peter Soame, kt., Lord Mayor of London, born about 1630. He married 1st, 1658 at Kedington, Mary Darkin; 2nd, 2 January 1671/2 at Westminster Abbey (Middx), Mary (d. 1687), daughter of Sir Richard Lloyd, kt., of Hallom (Notts), and 3rd, 23 December 1691 at St James, Duke's Place, London, Mary (1641-1718), daughter of Samuel Luke of Woodend, Cople (Beds) and widow of Simon Middleton of Hackney and Richard Ellis (who m4, 1692 at Holy Trinity, Minories, London, as his second wife, Samuel Blackerby esq.), and had issue*:
(2.1) Samuel Barnardiston (1676-1726), baptised at St Leonard, Shoreditch (Middx), 21 November 1676; Turkey merchant; inherited the Brightwell Hall estate from his cousin, Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston, 4th bt., in 1712; married, 31 October 1711 at St Benet, Paul's Wharf, London, Ann (fl. 1726), daughter of Samuel Blackerby of Grays Inn, and had issue one son, who died young; buried at Brightwell, 13 February 1726; his will was proved 9 August 1726;
(2.2) Nathaniel Barnardiston (d. 1680); died in infancy and was buried at Kedington, 15 February 1679/80 or 13 April 1680;;
(2.3) Arthur Barnardiston (1685-1737) (q.v.);
(2.4) Mary Barnardiston (d. 1733); married, 9 August 1710 at St Michael Queenhithe, London, Sir Robert Clarke (1683-1746), 2nd bt. of Snailwell (Cambs), MP for Cambridgeshire, 1717-22, and had issue four sons and three daughters; died January 1732/3;
(2.5) Jane Barnardiston (d. 1704); died unmarried and was buried at Kedington, 16 June 1704.
He lived at Hoxton (Middx).
He was buried at Kedington, 7 January 1691/2; his will (written before his final marriage) was proved 16 January 1691/2. His first wife's date of death is unknown. His second wife died about 11 May and was buried at Kedington, 19 May 1687. His widow died about 1 May 1718.
* Some accounts state he also had a daughter Ann, who became the first wife of Edward Fowler, bishop of Gloucester. This is an error: the bishop's wife was his cousin, the daughter of that Arthur Barnardiston who was a Master in Chancery during the Commonwealth.

Barnardiston, Arthur (1685-1737). Youngest son of Arthur Barnardiston and his first wife Mary, daughter of Sir Richard Lloyd, kt., of Hallom (Notts), baptised at St Leonard, Shoreditch, 11 May 1685. He was apprenticed to John and Walter Morrice, mercers and members of the Levant company, 1703, and became a Turkey merchant, who lived for some years in Smyrna. He married 1st, 16 July 1727 at Quendon (Essex), Anne, daughter and co-heir of John Morice of Newman's Hall, Quendon, and 2nd, 20 July 1732 at St James, Piccadilly, Westminster, Mary, daughter of Richard Jennens of Princethorpe (Warks), and had issue:
(1.1) Anne Barnardiston (b. 1729), baptised at St Andrew, Holborn, 2 October 1729; her portrait painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds, c.1754; married Thomas Wetham of Wyboston (Beds)
(1.2) Mary Barnardiston (1730-60), born 21 October and baptised at St Andrew, Holborn, 5 November 1730; her portrait painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds, c.1754; married [forename unknown] Jefferys;
(2.1) Elizabeth Barnardiston (c.1733-1803); married, 25 November 1756 at St George, Bloomsbury, Richard Heber (1727-66) of Marton (Yorks) and had issue four daughters; died 18 March 1803 and was buried at Marton;
(2.2) Jane Barnardiston (b. c.1734); died unmarried;
(2.3) Arthur Barnardiston (1737-43), born 15 April and baptised at St Andrew, Holborn, 28 April 1737; inherited the Brightwell Hall estate from his father in 1737, but died young and was buried at Brightwell, 23 February 1742/3.
He inherited the Brightwell Hall estate from his brother in 1726. At his death it passed to his only son and then on the latter's death to his kinswoman, Lady Shaw. His widow lived latterly at Hayes (Middx).
He died at Staines (Middx), 3 April and was buried at Brightwell, 11 April 1737, where he is commemorated by a monument. His first wife died in about 1731. His widow was buried at Brightwell, 18 May 1788; her will was proved 17 June 1788.


Tuesday, 15 October 2019

(394) Barnard of Kempston Hoo, Cople House and Furzebrook House

Joseph Barnard (1745-1825), with whom the genealogy below begins, was the son of a Hertfordshire yeoman. He was apprenticed to a London clothworker, and became a freeman of the city of London in 1768, but soon afterwards he seems to have made a complete change of career, and set himself up as a coal merchant in Cambridge. In 1776 he moved his business to Bedford, where he also dealt in building supplies and was in partnership with John Mott until the end of 1785. His firm proving profitable, he turned to banking in the 1790s as a way of employing his surplus capital. The date when he took up banking is given variously between 1793 and 1801, but the earliest certain reference to the Bedford Bank seems to be in 1803, when he was in partnership with John Wing and John Perkins. His elder son, Joseph Talbot Barnard (1775-1834), who became a cornfactor, was declared bankrupt in 1803, and the provisions of Joseph's will suggest that he was never trusted financially thereafter. Joseph's younger son, Thomas Barnard (1784-1853), became a partner in the Bank in 1810, and Francis Green was also a partner by 1812. By then the firm had successfully weathered two emergencies: a run on the bank in 1809-10 and the theft of over £15,000 of the firm's investment capital by a Bank of England cashier. The firm traded as Barnard & Green until 1826, after which it operated under Thomas Barnard's name only (later Thomas Barnard & Co.) until 1857. By then Thomas had died and his two sons, Talbot Barnard (1827-67) and Thomas Barnard (1830-1909) were running the business. They brought in Thomas Twining Wing as a partner from 1857-73 and after Talbot Barnard's death, Thomas was joined by his brother-in-law, Frederick Stanley Carpenter (1817-90). Thomas Barnard retired in 1908 and his son, Thomas Henry Barnard (1866-1916) took over as managing partner until in 1915 the firm was sold to Parr's Bank. According to T.H. Barnard's younger son, Sir Geoffrey Barnard, his father was so successful at encouraging the young men he employed in the bank to join up for service in the First World War that he was left with insufficient staff to cope with the workload, and that this led both to the sale of the business and his father's sudden death at the breakfast table the following year.

After the vicissitudes of its early years, the Bedford Bank made successive generations of the family prosperous. Thomas Barnard (1784-1853) continued to live in the town of Bedford, but his two sons, Talbot Barnard (1827-67) and Thomas Barnard (1830-1909) both acquired properties outside the town. Talbot Barnard bought Kempston Hoo around the time of his marriage in 1849. The house had been built a few years earlier for Thomas John Green, who seems to have been a nephew of the Francis Green who was a partner in the Bedford Bank in the 1820s. Talbot Barnard apparently extended the house, and this may have been done as soon as he bought it, for he lived in Torquay for most of 1850 and his eldest son, Talbot Barnard (1850-88) was born there. Talbot Green senior died in his fortieth year and within a few years his widow had moved to Ealing (Middx). Talbot Green junior took over Kempston Hoo, but seems not to have worked in the family bank. In 1884 he sold the house and moved abroad, possibly on health grounds, for he died in Monte Carlo in 1888. His widow had returned to England by 1893, when she was bankrupted - apparently partly as a result of gambling debts incurred at Monte - but after that she disappears and her death has not been traced. Her eldest son became an engineer in the oil industry, and was murdered in Azerbaijan in 1911; her younger son emigrated to Canada; and her daughter and her husband emigrated to America. 

Thomas Barnard (1830-1909) rented Cople House (Beds) from the Duke of Bedford from 1855, and later purchased the freehold. He enlarged the house in about 1875, and it continued to be occupied by his widow (who died aged 96 in 1929) and their daughter until it was requisitioned in the Second World War for use as a hostel by the Women's Land Army. It continued to be used as a hostel until 1950, but by then the family had sold it; the house burned down in 1971 and was subsequently demolished.

Thomas Barnard's only son, Thomas Henry Barnard (1866-1916), the last of the family to run the Bedford Bank, bought Kempston Hoo when it came on the market in 1898, and lived there until his death in 1916. His widow and young family remained in occupation for a few years afterwards, but the house was sold again in about 1920, and demolished in the 1930s to make way for housing development. T.H. Barnard's eldest son, Thomas Theodore Barnard (1898-1983), undertook postgraduate research at Cambridge after returning from the First World War, and became an academic. From 1924-34 he held a teaching post in South Africa, where his three children were all born, and when he came back to England he looked for a house near the sea. His choice settled on Furzebrook House near Wareham (Dorset), where an added attraction was a flooded claypit on the estate which had gained a reputation with artists as a beauty spot, and which he developed as a tourist attraction known as The Blue Pool. It was closed in the Second World War, but reopened in 1946 under the management of his teenage daughter, Jennifer Barnard (b. 1929), who still owns and operates it today, in a remarkable example of business continuity.


Kempston Hoo, Bedfordshire


Kempston Hoo: the house in 1920.
A neo-Jacobean house of stone, built, apparently as a speculation rather than for his own occupation, in the early 1840s by Thomas John Green (1806-68), a leading Bedford citizen who served as County Treasurer and was Mayor of Bedford, 1843-45. The house has similarities of style to the former Pavenham Bury, remodelled in 1842 for Green's cousin and partner, Thomas Abbot Green, and it seems very likely the two men employed the same architect, who may have been J.T. Wing, probably then the leading architect in Bedford, although most of Wing's known was in a classical style. Wing is known to have restored Pavenham church for T.A. Green in the 1840s, and like the Greens and Talbot Barnard - who bought Kempston Hoo in 1849 - he was a member of the oligarchy that controlled Bedford at this time; his father had also been a partner in the Bedford Bank. The house is said to have been considerably enlarged by Talbot Barnard and this was perhaps done in 1849-51, when Barnard was living in rented accommodation in Torquay (Devon).


Kempston Hoo: the house in 1931, on the eve of demolition.

The house stood in extensive grounds south-west of the village of Kempston, and in 1884 was advertised as containing an entrance hall with the staircase leading out of it; a drawing room, dining room, morning room and library; and ten bedrooms and two dressing rooms, apart from the service accommodation. After the house was sold to Thomas Henry Barnard in 1898 it seems to have been modernised, with some of the bedrooms being sacrificed to make bathrooms, and the installation of electric light. Downstairs, a billiard room and conservatory seem to have been added, although when the house was valued under the 1925 Rating & Valuation Act, the assessor noted that the former was actually 'used for Badminton'.
Kempston Hoo: the house in its setting in 1882, from the 1st edn 6" OS map.
Image: National Library of Scotland.
Overall, he considered it a 'Very Good House', 
but ominously, another hand has commented 'Rather on the large side', and when the property was sold in 1931 the 'very good grounds' became a suburban housing estate and the house itself was demolished.

Descent: built for Thomas John Green (1806-68), who sold or let to Robert Hobson; sold 1849 to Talbot Barnard (1827-67); to son, Talbot Barnard (1850-88), who sold 1884 to Robert Orr Campbell (d. 1892); sold to Hugh d'Oyly Tweedy (d. 1898); sold to Thomas Henry Barnard (1866-1916); sold to Lt-Col. Oscar L. Eugster (d. 1930); sold 1931 for redevelopment and demolished.


Cople House, Bedfordshire


A three-storey early 19th century house that was probably originally L-shaped, built for the Duke of Bedford, whose family had owned the Cople and Willington estates since 1774. The house replaced an earlier building, and a bell which survived from the predecessor house was dated 1678, perhaps giving an indication of its date. 
Cople House: the garden front [Image: Bedfordshire Archives BD1391/5]

The new house was built by Nixon of Woburn, and was apparently constructed in about 1822, when the Cople estate was let to George James Ludlow (1758-1842), 3rd Earl Ludlow. Thomas Barnard took on the tenancy in 1855, but seems to have bought the freehold between 1861 and 1875, when the house was considerably enlarged by the addition of a west wing. With this addition, the house was a little larger than Kempston Hoo, with four reception rooms in addition to the entrance hall and fifteen principal bedrooms.

The house was requisitioned for use as a Women's Land Army hostel in the Second World War, and continued to be used for that purpose until 1950. It was presumably then returned to private occupation, but the house was destroyed by fire in 1971 and demolished. The stable block survived the fire but was derelict by 1978, when it was divided into three dwellings. The site of the house is now occupied by a housing estate.

Descent: Duke of Marlborough sold 1774 to executors of John Russell (1710-71), 4th Duke of Bedford, whose son, Francis Russell (1765-1802), 5th Duke of Bedford came of age in 1786; to brother, John Russell (1766-1839), 6th Duke of Bedford; to son, Francis Russell (1788-1861), 7th Duke of Bedford; to son, William Russell (1809-72), 8th Duke of Bedford, who probably sold it to Thomas Barnard (1830-1909); to widow, Isabella Barnard (1832-1929); to daughter, Beatrice Catherine Isabella Barnard (1861-1947); requisitioned for use by Women's Land Army, 1943-50; sold 1947...burnt 1971 and demolished. Successive Dukes of Bedford let the house in 1800-02 to George Ferdinand Fitzroy (1761-1810), 2nd Baron Southampton; in 1803-42 to George James Ludlow (1758-1842), 3rd Earl Ludlow; in 1842-53 to George Stevens Byng (1806-86), Viscount Enfield (later 7th Earl of Strafford); in 1853-55 to T.W. and Richard C. Wing of Bedford; and from 1855 to Thomas Barnard (1830-1909).


Furzebrook House, Church Knowle, Dorset


The house is perhaps rather small to be regarded as a true country house, but it is undeniably a gentleman's residence. There seems to have been a house on the site by 1862, when it was tenanted, but in 1865 this was still described as a cottage.  The property formed part of the Furzebrook estate of the Pike family, who operated a series of claypits in the vicinity producing high quality clay for use in the Staffordshire pottery industry, and in the 1880s Lawrence Warburton Pike (d. 1900) took up residence here with his wife. He may have enlarged or rebuilt the existing cottage, but the simple gabled elevation and minimal neo-Jacobean detail of the house could have been built at any time in the mid to late 19th century. 


Furzebrook House: the property when it was advertised for sale in 1933.

By the early 20th century, one of the flooded abandoned clay workings near the house was attracting artists and other visitors because of the striking blue colour of the water there. After the house was sold to the Barnard family in 1935, about 25 acres of the grounds around 'the Blue Pool' were fenced off and landscaped as a visitor attraction, and a tea house was built to sell refreshments to the visitors. Although closed for the duration of the Second World War, the family revived this facility after they regained possession of the estate in 1946, and it remains open today.

Descent: perhaps built for Lawrence Warburton Pike (1849-1900); to widow, Eleanor (1853-1933), who handed it on after 1911 to Lawrence's brother, Arnold Pike (1861-1930); to widow, Bertha Louise Pike (d. 1930); to kinsman, Leonard Gaskell Pike (1864-1939), who sold 1935 to Thomas Theodore Barnard (1898-1983); to son, Thomas Peregrine Barnard (b. 1930).


Barnard family of Kempston Hoo and Furzebrook House


Barnard, Joseph (1745-1825). Younger son of John Barnard (1713-87) of Parsonage Farm, Sawbridgeworth (Herts) and his wife Mary Cramphorne (1716-83), baptised at Sawbridgeworth, 9 August 1745. He was apprenticed to Francis Hutchins, a London clothworker, and was admitted a freeman of the City of London in 1768. It seems probable that shortly after this he began business as a coal merchant. He apparently lived at Cambridge for some time, but by 1773 he was living at Earith (Hunts.). In 1776 he leased premises in Bedford St Mary comprising the former 'Chapel of Herne' (the building in which John Bunyan had been tried in 1661, but then a warehouse) and a coal yard. He was admitted a freeman of the Borough in 1781 and was invited to serve as Mayor in 1806, but declined the honour. In the 1790s he moving into banking and founded Barnard's Bank (also known as Bedford Bank) in 1799. In 1809-10 there was a run on the bank and in 1811 a cashier at the Bank of England embezzled over £15,600 of the firm’s investment funds, almost causing the bank to fail, but the firm survived thanks to the loyalty of Joseph's friends, Samuel Whitbread and the Duke of Bedford. He married, 23 February 1773 at Linton (Cambs), Mary (1741-1824), daughter of Thomas Talbot of Linton, attorney, and had issue:
(1) Joseph Talbot Barnard (1775-1834), baptised at Bluntisham-cum-Earith (Hunts), 18 May 1775; corn factor in Bedford (bankrupt 1803); he was left only an annual allowance in his father's will; died unmarried, 1 September and was buried at Bawburgh (Norfk), 5 September 1834;
(2) Mary Barnard (b. 1777), baptised at Bedford, 3 October 1777; probably died young;
(3) John Barnard (b. 1779), baptised at Bedford, 18 June 1779; probably died young;
(4) Martha Barnard (1780-1804), born 18 December 1780; married, 28 April 1803 at St Paul, Bedford, Digby Thomas Carpenter (1780-1853), and had issue one son, who died young; said to have died at Gibraltar following the birth of her son, 1804;
(5) Thomas Barnard (1784-1853) (q.v.).
He lived in Bedford.
He was buried at St Paul, Bedford, 6 September 1825; his will was proved in the PCC, 22 September 1825. His wife died about 4 March and was buried at St Paul, Bedford, 10 March 1824.

Barnard, Thomas (1784-1853). Youngest son of Joseph Barnard (1745-1825), and his wife Mary, daughter of Thomas Talbot of Linton (Cambs), attorney, born 18 March and baptised at Bedford, 31 July 1784. Coal merchant (until 1827) and banker at Bedford; Treasurer of Bedford General Infirmary; Director of the Bedford Charities. He married, 9 May 1820, Anne (1792-1864), third daughter of Thomas Fisher of Cambridge, banker, and had issue:
(1) Mary Barnard (1821-1904), born 6 May and baptised at St Paul, Bedford, 13 May 1821; married, 28 December 1841 at St Paul, Bedford, Rev. Alexander Grant (1818-80), rector of Manningford Bruce (Wilts), son of Edward Grant, judge in India, and had issue one son; died in Rome, 26 November 1904; will proved 14 February 1905 (estate £1,447);
(2) Joseph Barnard (1822-42), baptised at St Paul, Bedford, 7 July 1822; died unmarried, 2 March, and was buried at St. Paul, Bedford, 10 March 1842;
(3) Emma Barnard (1825-1922), born 3 August and baptised at St Mary, Bedford, 5 August 1825; married, 2 April 1850, Frederick Stanley Carpenter JP (1817-90) of Bromham (Beds) and had issue five sons and two daughters; died aged 96 on 13 January 1922; will proved 15 May 1922 (estate £2,309);
(4) Talbot Barnard (1827-67) (q.v.);
(5) Gertrude Barnard (1828-46), born 1828 and baptised at St Paul, Bedford, 11 January 1829; died unmarried, 21 July and was buried at St Paul, Bedford, 28 July 1846;
(6) Thomas Barnard (1830-1909) (q.v.);
(7) Octavius Bernard (b. & d. 1831), baptised at St Paul, Bedford, 31 August 1831; died in infancy, 9 September 1831.
He lived in Bedford.
He died 3 June 1853 and was buried at St Paul, Bedford, 10 June 1853; his will was proved in the PCC, 29 June 1853. His widow died at Cople House, 14 January 1864; her will was proved 2 February 1864 (effects under £1000).

Barnard, Talbot (1827-67). Elder son of Thomas Barnard (1784-1853) and his wife Anne, daughter of Thomas Fisher of Cambridge, banker, baptised at St Paul, Bedford, 19 September 1827. Educated at Bedford School and Emmanuel College, Cambridge. Banker in Bedford in partnership with his father and younger brother, Thomas Barnard. He had antiquarian interests and was a leading figure in the Bedfordshire Architectural and Archaeological Society (Vice-President). JP for Bedfordshire; High Sheriff of Bedfordshire, 1856-57. He was particularly noted for his contribution to public improvements and charitable causes, and for the improvements he made to the cottages on his estate. He married, 25 September 1849 at St Paul, Bedford, Mary (1829-1909), daughter of Nicholas Fitzpatrick MD of Bedford and had issue:
(1) Talbot Barnard (1850-88) (q.v.);
(2) Gertrude Marye [sic] Barnard (1851-1942), born 4 December and baptised at Kempston, 28 December 1851; died unmarried 28 April 1942; will proved 9 June 1942 (estate £13,410);
(3) Mary Blanche Barnard (1854-1923), born 22 June and baptised at Kempston, 6 September 1854; died unmarried, 11 December 1923; will proved 22 February 1924 (estate £12,755);
(4) Arthur Fitzpatrick Barnard (1856-1942), born 26 December 1856 and baptised at Kempston, 25 January 1857; emigrated to Springfield, Manitoba (Canada) but later returned to England and worked as a market gardener in Ealing; married, 1880 (div. c.1892) at Lisgar, Manitoba, Lucy (1861-1918), daughter of Samuel Arkell of Lisgar, farmer, and had issue one son; died 31 January 1942; will proved 26 October 1942 (estate £317);
(5) Amy Caroline Barnard (1859-1940), born 14 July and baptised at Kempston, 14 August 1859; died unmarried 13 June 1940; will proved 2 September 1940 (estate £10,338).
He purchased Kempston Hoo in about 1849. After his death his widow moved to Ealing (Middx).
He died after a long illness on 15 December and was buried at Kempston, 21 December 1867. His widow died in Ealing (Middx), 15 January 1909; her will was proved 20 February 1909 (estate £2,886).

Barnard, Talbot (1850-88). Elder son of Talbot Barnard (1827-67) and his wife Mary, daughter of Nicholas Fitzpatrick MD of Bedford, born at Torquay (Devon), 10 July 1850. He married, 26 October 1875 at Christ Church, Ealing (Middx), Lilian (1855-98), daughter of Col. William Augustin John Mayhew, Adjutant-General of the Bengal Army, and had issue:
(1) Talbot Arthur Fitzpatrick Barnard (c.1880-1911), probably born late in 1880; educated at Edinburgh University and Penzance School of Mines; lived with his grandmother in Ealing (Middx); oil engineer; married, August 1906 at Bagillt (Flints), Marie Beatrice Morris, and had issue one daughter; murdered at Grozny, Chechnya (Russia), when he 'sacrificed his life in saving that of Mrs MacGarvey, the wife of the manager of the Anglo-Terek Petroleum Company's works', 22 February 1911; buried at Baku (Azerbaijan), 28 February but exhumed and reburied at Perivale (Middx), 16 March 1911; administration of goods granted, 11 April 1911 (estate £575);
(2) Sidney Edgar Barnard (b. c.1881), probably born late in 1881; emigrated to Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada), when he was living in 1921; married, Jan-Mar 1913 in Chelsea (Middx), Lillian May Tothill (b. 1890) and had issue three children; presumably died in Canada;
(3) Rosalie Winifred Barnard (1882-1969), born 8 October 1882; married, 26 April 1904 at Guestling (Sussex), Lawrence Ashburnham (1870-1944), fourth son of Sir Anchitel Ashburnham, 8th bt., and had issue one daughter; emigrated to America and died in Los Angeles, California (USA), 12 May 1969.
He inherited Kempston Hoo from his father in 1867, but sold it in 1884.
He died at the Villa Beaumarchais, Monte Carlo (Monaco), 16 September 1888. His widow was bankrupted in 1893, partly as a result of gambling at Monte Carlo; she married 2nd, 14 July 1896 at Simla (India), William Herbert Henry Smith, civil engineer, but died without further issue at Cawnpore (India), 19 August 1898, and was buried there the following day.

Barnard, Thomas (1830-1909). Younger son of Thomas Barnard (1784-1853) and his wife Anne, daughter of Thomas Fisher of Cambridge, banker, born 21 March and baptised at St Paul, Bedford, 22 March 1830. Educated at Bedford School. Banker at Bedford (retired 1908); Whig MP for Bedford, 1857-59. JP (by 1859) and DL (from 1862) for Bedfordshire. He was a personal friend of Samuel Whitbread (who was his fellow MP for Bedford) and the Duke of Bedford. He married, 24 February 1859, Isabella Henrietta Theodora (1832-1929), daughter of Henry Lawes Long of Hampton Lodge, Shackleford (Surrey), and had issue:
(1) Beatrice Catherine Isabella Barnard (1861-1947), born 24 November and baptised at Cople, 26 December 1861; lived at Cople House (Beds); died unmarried, 17 February 1947; will proved 3 July 1947 (estate £32,943);
(2) Muriel Eve Alexandra Barnard (1863-1942), born 14 April and baptised at Cople, 13 May 1863; married, 28 June 1887, William Reginald Currie (1860-1900), only son of Henry William Currie of Rushden House (Northants), and had issue one son; as a widow lived with her sister at Cople House and at Hambledon House, Child Okeford (Dorset); died 29 April 1942; will proved 5 June 1942 (estate £12,344);
(3) Hilda Florence Audrey Barnard (1864-1938), born 22 June and baptised at Cople, 5 October 1864; married, 18 July 1894 at St Saviour, Chelsea (Middx), Adm. Sir Hugh Evan-Thomas GCB KCMG CVO (1862-1928), but had no issue; died 21 February 1938; will proved 1 April 1938 (estate £46,867);
(4) Thomas Henry Barnard (1866-1916) (q.v.);
(5) Sybil Mary Theodora Barnard (1867-1947), born 22 December 1867 and baptised at Cople, 22 April 1868; lived at Haslemere (Surrey); died unmarried, 13 September 1947; will proved 21 November 1947 (estate £23,909);
(6) A daughter (b. & d. 1870), born 18 April 1870 but died unbaptised the same day;
(7) Elsie Marjorie Anne Barnard (1873-94), born 16 April and baptised at Cople, 27 May 1873; lived at Playden (Sussex); died unmarried, 19 April 1894.
He rented Cople House from 1855 and purchased the freehold from the Duke of Bedford before 1875.
He died at Cople House, 31 March 1909; his will was proved May 1909 (estate £230,122). His widow died at Cople House, 29 January 1929; her will was proved 22 April 1929 (estate £2,331).

Barnard, Thomas Henry (1866-1916). Only son of Thomas Barnard (1830-1909) and his wife Isabella, daughter of Henry Lawes Long of Hampton Lodge, Shackleford (Surrey), born 5 March and baptised at Cople, 8 May 1866. Educated at Eton (where he played cricket and was Master of Beagles) and Trinity College, Cambridge (matriculated 1885). Banker with Thomas Barnard & Partners in Bedford (managing director from 1908), but having encouraged all the young men in the firm's offices to join up in the First World War he was unable to sustain the workload and sold the business to Parrs Bank (later part of the Westminster Bank Ltd.) in 1915. JP for Bedfordshire; High Sheriff of Bedfordshire, 1914-15; County Treasurer of Bedfordshire, 1909-16. He was a keen member and Secretary of the Oakley Hunt. He married, 4 November 1897, Bertha Mary (1869-1959), daughter of Henry Lambton of Winslow (Bucks) and granddaughter of William Henry Lambton of Biddick Hall (Co. Durham), and had issue:
(1) Thomas Theodore Barnard (1898-1983) (q.v.);
(2) Mary Barnard (b. & d. 1899), born about 14 June 1899; died in infancy and was buried at Cople, 16 June 1899;
(3) Ralph Henry Barnard (b. 1901), baptised at Kempston, 1 February 1901; died in infancy;
(4) Vice-Admiral Sir Geoffrey Barnard (1902-74), born 12 November and baptised 31 December 1902; educated at Cheam and Royal Naval College, Dartmouth; an officer in the Royal Navy, 1916-59 (Sub-Lt., 1922; Cmdr, 1935; Capt., 1942; Rear-Adm., 1951; Vice-Adm., 1954), he served throughout the Second World War and was chief of staff to naval commanders-in-chief in the Mediterranean theatre, 1942-45 and of the Home Fleet, 1946-47; director of Royal Navy Tactical School, 1948-49; Deputy Chief of Naval Staff and Admirality Commissioner, 1953-54; naval attaché at British embassy in Washington (USA), 1954-56; President of Royal Naval College, Greenwich, 1956-59; appointed KCB, 1957; CBE, 1943; and DSO, 1942, 1945; awarded the Legion d'honneur and Croix de Guerre; lived at Bramdean Lodge (Hants); married, 26 June 1926, Julyan Frances (1903-89), younger daughter of Francis Crawley of Stockwood Park (Beds) and had issue one son and two daughters; died 19 December 1974; will proved 5 February 1975 (estate £15,218);
(5) Muriel Elizabeth Anne Barnard (1906-95), born 2 March 1906; married, 25 September 1948, William Harold Worrall of Ubley Park Farm, Chewstoke (Som.), but had no issue; died 31 January 1995; will proved 28 February 1995 (estate under £125,000);
(6) Gwendolen Bertha Barnard (1912-88), born 10 January 1912; artist; died unmarried, 24 April 1988; will proved 21 July 1988 (estate under £70,000).
He re-purchased Kempston Hoo in 1898. After his death his widow moved to Woodlands, Boars Hill (Berks) and the house was sold in about 1920.
He died at breakfast, 16 March 1916, having 'worked himself to death', according to his son, Sir Geoffrey Barnard; his will was proved 27 May 1916 (estate £201,302). His widow died 4 June 1959; her will was proved 25 August 1959 (estate £60,590).

Barnard, Thomas Theodore (1898-1983). Eldest son of Thomas Henry Barnard (1866-1916) of Kempston Hoo (Beds) and his wife Bertha Mary, daughter of Henry Lambton of Winslow (Bucks) and granddaughter of William Henry Lambton of Biddick Hall (Co. Durham), born 31 August and baptised at St Peter, Bedford, 26 September and again at Cople, 25 October 1898. Educated at Eton, Christ Church, Oxford (MA 1924) and Kings College, Cambridge (PhD, 1924). An officer in the Coldstream Guards, 1917-19 (Lt.) and 1940-45 (Capt.); awarded MC, 1919. Professor of Social Anthropology and Director of the School of African Life and Languages at the University of Cape Town (South Africa), 1926-34. The artist Paul Nash and his wife were friends of the family, and stayed on several occasions at Furzebrook House, although plans for him to illustrate a guidebook to the Blue Pool, discussed in 1937, never came to fruition. He was a keen naturalist, and his observations of rare species including the Dartford Warbler and Sand Lizard at the Blue Pool led to its designation as a Site of Special Scientific Interest in 1985. He married, 28 October 1924, Gillian Sarah (1904-61), only daughter of Lt-Col. the Hon. Antony Schomberg Byng DSO, and had issue:
(1) Jennifer Sarah Barnard (b. 1929), born 10 January 1929; proprietor of the Blue Pool Tea Room since 1946; unmarried; now living;
(2) Thomas Peregrine Barnard (b. 1930), born 20 November 1930; educated at Eton; after national service, he became an engineer, racing driver (chiefly with Lotus), boat builder, racing track designer, and inventor of the Barnard Formula Six racing car; published an autobiography, I gathered no moss (2011); unmarried and without issue; now living;
(3) Margaret Susan Barnard (1933-2015), born 22 March 1933; died unmarried, 10 June 2015; will proved 14 December 2015.
He purchased Furzebrook House, Wareham, on returning to England in 1934.
He died 20 August 1983; his will was proved 17 November 1983 (estate £21,427). His wife died 26 or 29 May 1961; her will was proved 10 August 1961 (estate £22,439).



Principal sources


Burke's Landed Gentry, 1952, p. 114; introduction to Bedfordshire Archives catalogue of Barnard papers (BD);
http://bedsarchives.bedford.gov.uk/CommunityArchives/Kempston/KempstonHoo.aspx
http://bedsarchives.bedford.gov.uk/CommunityArchives/Cople/CopleHouse.aspx


Location of archives


Barnard family of Bedford and Kempston: deeds, family and estate papers, and banking business papers, 13th-20th cents. [Bedfordshire Archives & Records Service, BD]
Vice-Adm. Sir Geoffrey Barnard (1902-75): diaries, correspondence and papers, 1916-66 [Imperial War Museum]; correspondence and papers, 1930-52 [National Museum of the Royal Navy].


Coat of arms


None recorded.


Can you help?


  • I should be most grateful if anyone can provide photographs or portraits of people whose names appear in bold above, and who are not already illustrated.
  • As always, any additions or corrections to the account given above will be gratefully received and incorporated. 


Revision and acknowledgements


This post was first published 15 October 2019 and updated 14 and 21 January 2020.