Thursday, 10 December 2020

(439) Batchelor of Combe Florey House

Batchelor of Combe Florey 
Benjamin Batchelor (1783-1856), with whom the genealogy below begins, was brought up in a heavily wooded part of Hampshire at Alton, and may have come from a family with experience in the timber trade. After the death of his first wife in 1806, he moved to Newport in Monmouthshire, where he commenced business as a timber merchant and shipbuilder: two trades that were often pursued together in the era of wooden-hulled vessels. In 1809 he married again and produced twelve children, many of whom went on to have noteworthy and interesting lives. He remained in business until his death, after which the firm was continued by his son-in-law, Edmund Jones (1809-37) and his eldest son, Tom Benjamin Batchelor (1815-76). When Jones died just a year later, however, Tom continued alone until about 1850, when he was joined in a partnership by his youngest brother Samuel Batchelor (1829-1903). Both men became leading figures in the commercial world of Newport, and served as Mayor of the town, respectively in 1850 and 1890. In between Tom and Samuel there were four other brothers: John, Henry, Sydney and George. Henry became a naval architect and engineer, and George a solicitor, but John and Sydney moved to Cardiff, where they also became timber (and slate) merchants and shipbuilders. However, John's active role in local Liberal politics brought him into conflict with the powerful interests of the Marquess of Bute in the town. As a result, the Bute estate set out to make life as difficult as possible for John, denying him opportunities which were afforded to others and finding ways to disrupt his business. When combined with the economic depression of the mid-1860s, these pressures were sufficient to push John into bankruptcy, and although he was rescued by a subscription raised by his Liberal friends in the town, he was never again in business on the same scale as before. He married twice and produced twelve children (seven sons and five daughters). Of the six sons who survived to maturity, two became architects (one of whom emigrated to Chile), two engineers and industrial chemists, one a solicitor, and one a colliery inspector.

Out of Benjamin's large family, only Tom Benjamin Batchelor died wealthy, leaving £140,000 at his death in 1876. Like his father and brother, he had twelve children, and he was able to afford to send his three surviving sons to public schools and then, if they wished, to Oxford or Cambridge. His second son, Allan Edward Batchelor (1853-1916) became a barrister, bought property in Warwickshire, and became a JP for that county, eventually moving from his first home at Hill Wootton to a new house called Greystoke, built for him to the designs of Percy Morley Horder.
Greystoke, Warwick, by P. Morley-Horder, 1904-06

Kensworth House: at one time the seat of W.G. Batchelor.
The youngest son, Walter Gerard Batchelor (1860-1914) went to Cambridge, married the daughter of a civil servant, and settled first at Kensworth House on the Hertfordshire-Bedfordshire border and later at Burnham in Somerset; he seems never to have had a profession, but lived on his income from investments. The eldest son, George Benjamin Batchelor (1852-1927) became a partner in his father's firm, T.B. & S. Batchelor at Newport, but retired in 1885 and moved away from Newport, first to Monk Hopton Hall in Shropshire, and then in 1896 to Combe Florey House in Somerset. By 1900, if not before, all three brothers were leading the life of country gentlemen, but they were not sustaining the value of their inheritances in real terms, and only George handed his estate on to the next generation. His son, Vivian Allan Batchelor (1882-1960) was a career soldier who was wounded four times in the First World War and whose bravery is demonstrated by his winning the DSO twice. He never married and lived at Combe Florey with his sister, Gwendolen (1881-1965), who devoted herself to charitable works. Since they had no heirs to inherit Combe Florey House and found it an increasing burden as they got older, they decided to sell it in the 1950s, and moved to the Old Rectory nearby, a smaller house which had once been the parsonage of the Rev. Sydney Smith, the early 19th century writer, wit and raconteur. Combe Florey House was sold to the novelist, Evelyn Waugh (d. 1966), whose family remained in residence until 2008.

Combe Florey House, Somerset

The medieval manor house no doubt stood close to the church, and was apparently rebuilt in the late 16th century for John Fraunceis. It is said to have been demolished 'after the Civil War' - perhaps because it had been damaged in the fighting - and the only part which survives today is the red sandstone gatehouse, set between two later single-storey wings. 

Combe Florey House: the surviving, if reduced, gatehouse of the Elizabethan house, from an old postcard.

The gatehouse is dated 1591 and is now of two fairly tall storeys, but is said to have been reduced from four storeys in the early 19th century, when it was re-roofed. Unfortunately no visual record is known to survive showing it in its original form, so we cannot be certain that it was ever taller, but an imposing entrance would be consistent with the quality of the surviving details: the complex moulding of the carriage arch, and the lavish decoration of the first-floor chamber inside. This room has a fine overmantel dated 1593, on which pairs of terms (male and female) flank a central panel with elaborate strapwork and fruit decoration around a full carved achievement of the Fraunceis arms. The room also has an elaborate plaster ceiling with a complex pattern of thin ribs and a scrolled frieze, attributed to Robert Eaton of Stogursey.

Combe Florey House: the overmantel of the fireplace in the 'Tudor Room' of the gatehouse, attributed to Robert Eaton of Stogursey. 

When the Elizabethan house behind the surviving gatehouse was pulled down in the mid 17th century (dates of 1665 and 1675 are quoted), it is said to have been replaced by a new house on the present site higher up the hill. Whether or not this is true, no 17th century fabric is now apparent thanks to a remodelling or rebuilding for William Fraunceis in 1730. He gave the house its present attractive yet very formal five-bay ashlar south front, of two storeys above a basement. This is built of local red sandstone, with golden Bath stone used for the cornice, window architraves and pedimented doorway. The ground floor windows and doorcase have fine Gibbsian rustication. 

Combe Florey House: the exterior in about 1966.
Inside, a hall with curved corners leads to an open-well staircase with twisted balusters, while the main rooms to either side have moulded cornices and carved wooden fireplaces. In 1845, when the property was advertised to let, the reception rooms were denoted as dining room, drawing room, morning room and library, and there were six principal bedrooms with dressing rooms and two nurseries on the first floor. The house merits more detailed research and analysis.

Descent: Sir Nicholas Fraunceis (1477-1526); to son, Sir William Fraunceis (1508-47); to son, John Fraunceis (d. 1620); to son, William Fraunceis (d. 1636); to nephew, John Fraunceis; to brother, Thomas Fraunceis (d. 1686); to brother, Nicholas Fraunceis; to son, William Fraunceis (d. 1718); to son, John Fraunceis (d. 1719); to brother, William Fraunceis (b. 1706); to son, John Fraunceis (1728-89); to son, John Francis (later Gwyn) (1761-1846); who sold 1799 to John Perring (1747-1821); to daughter, Maria (d. 1875), wife of Rev. Henry Helyar (1784-1856); then tenanted until sold 1896 to George Benjamin Batchelor (1852-1927); to son, Vivian Allan Batchelor (1882-1960) and daughter, Gwendolen Beatrice Batchelor (1881-1965), who sold 1956 to Evelyn Waugh (1903-66); to son, Auberon Waugh (1939-2001); to widow, Lady Teresa Waugh (b. 1940), who sold 2008 to Mr & Mrs M. Cox.

Batchelor family of Combe Florey

Batchelor, Benjamin (1783-1836). Second son of Henry Batchelor (1753-1814) of Alton (Hants) and his wife, Jemima Hollis (1755-97) of Ropley (Hants), born 3 February 1783 and baptised at Alton, 5 March 1784. Timber merchant and shipbuilder; 'an intelligent, straight-forward and honest man of business'. He married 1st, 9 May 1803 at Newton Valence (Hants), Hannah Tilbury (d. 1806), and 2nd, 7 September 1809 at Llandough (Glam.), Anne (1786-1869), daughter of David Elias of Newcastle (Glam.), and had issue:
(2.1) Mary Emma Batchelor (1810-88), born 17 July 1810; died unmarried, 12 December 1888; administration of goods granted to her brother Sydney, 31 May 1894 (effects £98);
(2.2) Sarah Batchelor (1812-88), born 20 February 1812 and baptised at Mill St. Chapel, Newport, 12 February 1815; married, 5 October 1853, as his second wife, John Allen (1811-1902), copper agent (who m3, 1890, Annie Staggins Croggan (b. 1834)), but had no issue; died 9 March 1888;
(2.3) Martha Ann Batchelor (1813-93), born 3 June 1813; married, 15 November 1834, Edmund Jones (1809-37), son of Edmund Jones, but had no issue; died 28 November 1893; administration of goods granted to her brother Sydney, 31 May 1894 (effects £98);
(2.4) Thomas Benjamin Batchelor (1815-76) (q.v.);
(2.5) Amelia Batchelor (1816-94), born 5 September 1816; married, 25 June 1846, William Henry Michael (1822-92), surgeon (MRCS) and later barrister-at-law (QC), and had issue two sons and three daughters; retired with her husband to Schloss Labers, Merano, Tyrol (Austria), where she died 19 October 1894;
(2.6) Fanny Batchelor (1818-72), born 24 October 1818 and was baptised at Hope Chapel, Newport, 14 February 1819; married, 16 April 1844 at Newport Independent Chapel, John Latch (1819-92), customs officer and later ship broker, and had issue four sons and seven daughters; died 11 January 1872 and is commemorated by a plaque in Llandaff Cathedral;
(2.7) John Batchelor (1820-83) (q.v.); 
(2.8) Henry Batchelor (1822-86), born 27 December 1822 and baptised at Hope Chapel, Newport, 22 January 1823; naval architect and marine engineer; married, 27 December 1847 at St Saviour, Southwark, London, Mary Eliza (c.1829-1902), daughter of Henry John Crouch of Devonport (Devon), and had issue one son and two daughters; died 23 January 1886;
(2.9) Sydney James Batchelor (1824-1915), born 6 September and baptised at Hope Chapel, Newport, 29 December 1824; timber merchant and shipbuilder in Cardiff; lived at one time next door to his brother John, with whom he was apparently in business; JP for Cardiff; married, Apr-Jun 1854, Sarah (1824-85), daughter of George Reese, but had no issue; retired to Sussex, where he died aged 91 on 19 October 1915; will proved 30 November 1915 (effects £102);
(2.10) Lydia Ann Batchelor (1826-37), born 15 April and baptised at Hope Chapel, Newport, 12 April 1826; died young, 17 March 1837;
(2.11) George Batchelor (1827-89), born 24 November 1827 and baptised at Hope Chapel, Newport, 20 December 1828; solicitor in Newport and clerk to Newport School Board; married, 7 June 1855 at John St. Chapel, Bedford (Beds), Mary Jane (1829-90), daughter of John Cribb Stephens of Maidstone (Kent), and had issue two sons and four daughters; died of blood poisoning, 13 November 1889; administration of goods granted 24 May 1890 (effects £286);
(2.12) Samuel Batchelor (1829-1903), born 28 June and baptised at Hope Chapel, Newport, 22 July 1829; timber merchant and ship owner in Newport in partnership with his brother Thomas, trading as T.B. & S. BatchelorMayor of Newport, 1890; married 1st, 22 April 1858, Caroline Thomas Edwards (1832-79) but had no issue; retired to Portishead (Som.) and married 2nd, 1897, Ellen Hughes (1874-1954), and had issue one son; died 5 February 1903; will proved 9 April 1903 (estate £6,641).
He lived at Austin Friars, Newport (Mon.).
He died 20 February 1836; administration of his goods was granted to his eldest son, 28 July 1836 (effects under £4,000). His first wife was buried at Medstead (Hants), 12 June 1806. His widow died 17 July 1869; her will was proved 10 March 1870 (effects under £1,000).

Batchelor, Thomas Benjamin (1815-76). Eldest son of Benjamin Batchelor (1783-1836) and his second wife, Anne, daughter of David Elias of Newcastle (Glam.), born 5 January 1815. Timber and slate merchant in Newport (Mon.), initially in partnership with his brother-in-law, Edward Jones and later with his brother Samuel, trading as T.B. & S. Batchelor. JP for Newport by 1850. Mayor of Newport, 1850. He married, 1 September 1846 at Hope Chapel, Newport (Mon.), Sarah (1819-97), eldest daughter of Alderman Richard Mullock of Newport, and had issue:
(1) Clara Anne Batchelor (b. & d. 1847), born 15 August 1847; died in infancy, 14 October 1847;
(2) Clara Martha Anne Batchelor (1848-51), born 5 August 1848; died young, 27 March 1851;
(3) Sarah Mary Amelia Batchelor (1850-1905), born 27 March 1850; married, 8 June 1880, William Henry Davies JP (1844-1924) of Penner House, Newbridge (Mon.), physician and surgeon, and had issue two sons; died 31 July 1905; will proved 5 September 1905 (estate £1,064);
(4) George Benjamin Batchelor (1852-1927) (q.v.);
(5) Allan Edward Batchelor (1853-1916), of Hill Wootton House (Warks) and later Greystoke near Warwick (which was built for him by Percy Morley-Horder in 1904-06), born 31 July 1853; educated at Clifton College, Exeter College, Oxford (matriculated 1872; BA 1877) and Middle Temple (called, 1879); barrister-at-law; an officer in Duke of Lancaster's Own Yeomanry (Lt., 1885); JP for Warwickshire (from 1898); married, 14 April 1896 at All Saints, Ennismore Gardens, Knightsbridge (Middx), Veronica Luce (1870-1951), third daughter of Col. Sir William Thomas Makins MP, 1st bt., of Rotherfield Court (Oxon) and had issue two daughters; died 15 November 1916; will proved 3 April 1916 (estate £46,400);
(6) Francis Leighton Batchelor (1855-56), born 24 January 1855; died in infancy, 17 March 1856;
(7) Clara Bertha Batchelor (1856-60), born 31 July 1856; died young, 20 February 1860;
(8) Hannah Martha Batchelor (1857-59), born 8 September 1857; died in infancy, 24 December 1859;
(9) twin, Beatrice Batchelor (1859-61), born 21 January 1859; died young, 21 May 1861;
(10) twin, Eleanor Batchelor (1859-1915), born 21 January 1859; married, 2 August 1883, Francis Joseph Davies JP (1851-1926) of Abercarn Fach and later of Hurtmore Croft, Compton (Surrey), surgeon, and had issue two sons; died 22 November and was buried at Compton (Surrey), 25 November 1915; will proved 10 February 1916 (estate £1,185);
(11) Walter Gerard Batchelor (1860-1914), of Kensworth House (Herts) and later The Shelter, Burnham (Som.), born in Cheltenham, 10 June 1860; educated at Clifton College, Malvern College and Jesus College, Cambridge (matriculated 1880); married, 23 June 1885 at St Augustine, Highbury (Middx), Edith Grace (1864-1950) (who m2, 3 June 1919, George Robert Gilling-Lax (1861-1933), eldest son of Rev. G.R. Gilling-Lax, rector of Fitzhead (Som.)), eldest daughter of Edmund Baden of The Alders, Stevenage (Herts), civil servant, and had issue one son and one daughter; died 18 April 1914; will proved 15 August 1914 (estate £23,245);
(12) Mary Batchelor (1862-1948), born 8 June 1862; lived at Chipping Campden (Glos); died unmarried, 4 April 1948; will proved 23 June 1948 (estate £16,314).
He lived at Newport and Maindee (Mon.). After his death his widow moved to Park Lawn, The Park, Cheltenham (Glos).
He died 18 August 1876 and was buried at St Woolas, Newport, where he is commemorated by a monument in the churchyard; his will was proved 16 October 1876 (effects under £140,000). His widow died 21 November 1897; her will was proved 18 April 1898 (effects £1,963).

Batchelor, George Benjamin (1852-1927). Eldest son of Thomas Benjamin Batchelor (1815-76) and his wife Sarah, eldest daughter of Richard Mullock of Newport (Mon.), born 11 April 1852. Educated at Clifton College and Pembroke College, Oxford (matriculated 1871). He was a partner in the family business (trading as T.B. & S. Batchelor) as a timber and slate merchant in Newport until he retired in 1885. After moving to Combe Florey, he became Chairman of the West Somerset Conservative Association. He married, 6 July 1880 at Commercial St. Baptist Chapel, Newport, Mary (k/a Minnie) (1859-1904), third daughter of Ebenezer Miles Lewis JP of Maindee Hall, Newport (Mon.), and had issue:
(1) Gwendolen Beatrice Batchelor (1881-1965), born 18 June 1881 and baptised at Holton (Oxon), 13 April 1897; Serving Sister of the Order of St John of Jerusalem and County Lecturer for Somerset Federation of Women's Institutes; lived with her brother at Combe Florey House; died unmarried, 19 February 1965, and was buried at Combe Florey; will proved 28 June 1965 (estate £29,764);
(2) Vivian Allan Batchelor (1882-1960) (q.v.).
He leased Monk Hopton House (Shrops.) until he purchased Combe Florey House in 1896 for £4,350.
He died 11 July 1927; his will was proved 22 September 1927 (estate £65,245). His wife died 8 December and was buried at Combe Florey, 13 December 1904.

Batchelor, Vivian Allan (1882-1960). Only son of George Benjamin Batchelor (1852-1927) and his wife Mary, third daughter of Ebenezer Miles Lewis JP of The Maindee, Newport (Mon.), born 24 August 1882 and baptised at Holton (Oxon), 13 April 1897. Educated at Rugby and Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. An officer in the Royal Artillery (2nd Lt., 1900; Lt., 1903; Capt., 1913; Maj., 1915; Lt-Col., 1929; ret. 1932), who served in First World War (wounded four times; mentioned in despatches three times, awarded DSO, 1917, and bar, 1919, and the Belgian Croix-de-Guerre). JP for Somerset (from 1933). As a young man he rode with the West Somerset Foxhounds and he remained on the hunt committee until his death. In retirement, he worked for the British Legion and was District Commissioner of Boy Scouts. He was unmarried and without issue.
He inherited Combe Florey House from his father in 1927 but sold it in 1956 to Evelyn Waugh, and lived subsequently at The Old Rectory, Combe Florey.
He died 24 October 1960 and was buried at Combe Florey; his will was proved 30 March 1961 (estate £2,338).

John Batchelor (1820-83) 
Batchelor, John (1820-83).
Second son 
of Benjamin Batchelor (1783-1836) and his second wife, Anne, daughter of David Elias of Newcastle (Glam.), born 5 April 1820 and baptised at Hope Chapel, Newport, 22 January 1823. Educated privately and then apprenticed to his father before being sent to shipyards in Scotland to observe their work and to work in shipyards in Sunderland and New Brunswick (Canada), where he remained for three years. On his return to South Wales he established a timber importing and shipbuilding business in Cardiff in 1843, with his brother Sydney James Batchelor (1824–1915). For ten years the business thrived and built a number of vessels, but with the coming of the railway to Cardiff he was obliged to relocate his shipyard to the West Bute Dock, where he was a tenant of the Bute estate. He was a nonconformist and a radical Liberal in politics and on this account the Bute estate seems to have pursued a policy of active discrimination against him that was sufficiently successful to make him bankrupt in the depression of 1866; he was rescued by his friends who raised £3,700 by public subscription. He was elected to the town council in 1850 and served as Mayor of Cardiff, 1853. He was President of Cardiff Liberal Association, 1869-83 and a member of Penarth and Cardiff School Boards (and Chairman of the latter, 1873-82). In 1882 he was appointed Crown Inspector of Collieries at a salary of £600 a year by Gladstone's Liberal government, leading to accusations of jobbery by his political opponents. He evidently pursued other business ventures and at his death was described as a china clay merchant. He married 1st, 4 October 1845 at the British Embassy in Paris (France), Hannah Reese (1820-49), and 2nd, 5 August 1851 at Bocking Congregational Church, Braintree (Essex), Fanny Edith (1824-1909), daughter of John Burder, farmer, of Great Codham Hall, Wethersfield (Essex), and had issue:
(1.1) Lydia Mary Batchelor (1846-1912), born 24 June 1846; married, 9 July 1878 at St Margaret, Westminster (Middx), Edward Raymond Lewis (1853-1915) of Lladness House, St. Fagans (Glam.), farmer and quarry manager, and had issue five sons and one daughter; emigrated to Dog Pound Creek, Alberta (Canada) after 1901, but died on a visit to Wales, 8 February and was buried at Michaelston-super-Ely (Glam.), 13 February 1912;
(1.2) Annie Gertrude Batchelor (1847-88), born 23 November 1847; nursing sister in hospitals in London; died unmarried at Ramsgate (Kent), 20/21 December 1888;
(2.1) Edith Evangeline Batchelor (1852-1919), born 1852; married, 3 August 1893 at Penarth (Glam.), William Thomas Edwards JP (1820-1915) of Cardiff, physician and founder of the Cardiff Medical School, but had no issue; died 7 July 1919; will proved 13 September 1919 (estate £5,381);
(2.2) John George Herbert Batchelor (1854-1912) of Fernbank, Llanishen (Glam.), born Jul-Sept 1854; inventor, mechanical engineer and chemist, who was working for and lodging with his brother Cyril in 1911; died unmarried, 24 November 1912; will proved 21 December 1912 (estate £2,317);
(2.3) Edward Ernest Batchelor (1856-1925), of Llandaff (Glam.), born Jan-Mar 1856; coal inspector for Cape Government (South Africa); married, 22 February 1898 at St John, Clifton, Bristol (Glos); Edith Amelia (1859-1949), daughter of Clement Lucas, banker; died 12 April 1925; will proved 4 July 1925 (estate £12,936);
(2.4) Cyril Talworth Batchelor (1857-1926), of Lapworth (Warks), born 6 January 1857; civil engineer and later inventor and owner of a tin recovery factory; Member of the Institution of Civil Engineers; married, 1903 at Olton (Warks), Bessie Kate Knipe (1875-1969) and had issue three sons and two daughters; died 25 April 1926 and was buried at Packwood (Warks); will proved 23 July 1926 (estate £83,896);
(2.5) John Burder Batchelor (1858-1937), born 1858; solicitor; a freemason from 1885; married, 6 June 1889 at Wanstead (Essex), Selina Charlotte Lane (1865-1951), and had issue two daughters; died 21 July 1937; will proved 24 September 1937 (estate £40,676);
(2.6) Arthur Llewellyn Batchelor (1859-1915), born Jul-Sept 1859; architect in private practice; emigrated to South America, 1890; died in Valparaiso (Chile), 19 November 1915; will proved 5 September 1917 (effects in England, £802);
(2.7) Tom Eustace Batchelor (1860-62), born Oct-Dec 1860; died in infancy, Oct-Dec 1862;
(2.8) Ethel Caroline Agnes Batchelor (1862-1916), of Fernbank, Llanishen (Glam.), born Jan-Mar 1862; died unmarried, 13 November 1916; administration of goods granted to her brother Cyril, 10 January 1917 (estate £967);
(2.9) Mildred Davey Mary Batchelor (1864-1937); patient in St Andrew's Mental Hospital, Northampton; died 15 July 1937; administration of goods granted 28 September 1937 (estate £6,550);
(2.10) Roger Beechworth Batchelor (1867-1931), born Apr-Jun 1867; architect and surveyor (LRIBA 1911), articled to J.P. Seddon, 1887-89; assistant to Seddon, 1889-92; commenced independent practice in Cardiff, 1893 but later retired to Worcestershire; married, 27 October 1896 at the Church of the Ascension, Balham Hill (Surrey), Mary Augusta, daughter of John Latch, colliery proprietor, and had issue two sons; died 19 December 1931; will proved 19 April 1932 (estate £2,378).
He lived at the Upper Cliffs, Penarth (Glam.).
He died of a stroke, 29 May 1883 and was buried in Cathays Park Cemetery, Cardiff; administration of his goods was granted to his son Edward, 3 July 1883 (estate £297). He is commemorated by a public statue erected in The Hayes, Cardiff, in October 1866; when his opponents, tried to have 'the effigy' moved and wrote a mock epitaph in the Tory Western Mail, his sons took a dog whip to the editor outside the railway station and then brought an unsuccessful prosecution for libel, which reaffirmed the principle that the dead cannot be libelled. His first wife died suddenly while on holiday with her daughters at Portishead (Som.), 29 July 1849. His widow died 12 March 1909; her will was proved 22 May 1909 (estate £1,778).

Principal sources

Burke's Landed Gentry, 1952, p. 128; J. Collinson, The history of Somerset, 1791, vol. 3, pp. 247-48; A. Brodie et al., Directory of British Architects, 1834-1914, 2001, vol. 1, pp. 131-32; J. Orbach & Sir N. Pevsner, The buildings of England: Somerset - South and West, 2014, p. 215.

Location of archives

No significant accumulation is known to survive.

Coat of arms

Or, three dragons' heads, couped at the neck, two and one, bendwise, and a chief, sable.

Can you help?

  • I should be most grateful if anyone can provide photographs or portraits of people whose names appear in bold above, and who are not already illustrated.
  • Any additions or corrections to the account given above will be gratefully received and incorporated. I am always particularly pleased to hear from members of the family who can supply recent personal information for inclusion.

Revision and acknowledgements

This post was first published 10 December 2020 and updated 11 April 2021. I am grateful to Carol Cook for corrections.

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