Monday 26 July 2021

(463) Baxter of Kilmaron Castle, Kincaldrum House, Gilston House, Teasses House, and Invereighty House, baronets

Baxter of Kincaldrum
This family traces its origins to John Baxter (c.1700-85), a handloom weaver who moved from Fife to Dundee in about 1728. His sons prospered as merchants and linen manufacturers in Dundee, and his grandson John Baxter (1765-1833) became first chairman of the city's chamber of commerce. John's brother, William Baxter (1767-1854) secured the fortunes of the family when he won a Royal Navy contract for the manufacture of sailcloth in 1795. It was Baxter's sailcloth that carried Admiral Lord Nelson's HMS Victory to the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, and the firm continued to supply the navy for much of the 19th century. In 1822, he formed a new partnership (later Baxter Bros. & Co.) with his sons, Edward, John and William, and built a new linen mill at Lower Dens, Dundee, enabling the rapid expansion of his business. His son Edward soon withdrew from the firm to establish a new concern as a general merchant and shipping agent, but was replaced by his brother David (later Sir David Baxter (1793-1872), 1st bt.), whose first business as a sugar refiner had failed in the financial crash of 1826. Sir David became the senior partner in the firm after the death of his father and two brothers in less than three years, 1852-54.

During the 19th century both the linen manufactory (Baxter Bros & Co.) and the merchant house (E. Baxter & Co.) prospered. Sir David Baxter, who purchased Kilmaron Castle (Fife) in 1854, left a fortune of £1.2m at his death in 1872, and although I have not been able to find a more precise figure than 'upwards of half a million' for Edward Baxter, who died the previous year, he was obviously extremely wealthy too; an obituarist called him 'one of the merchant princes of Dundee'. Sir David had no issue, and on his death the firm passed into the hands of his partners, Peter Carmichael and William Ogilvie Dalgleish, while Kilmaron Castle passed first to his widow and then, in 1882, to his nephew, William Edward Baxter (1825-90). A good deal of Sir David's fortune was left to philanthropic causes, continuing a pattern of charitable generosity he and his spinster sisters had set in life. His brother Edward, although equally philanthropic while living, had to provide for a large family, with children by each of his three marriages. Edward had bought Kincaldrum House in 1853, and this also passed to his eldest son, William Edward Baxter (1825-90), along with the family mercantile business. W.E. Baxter, who as a young man had been a considerable traveller, was MP for the Montrose Boroughs for thirty years from 1855, and served in Gladstone's Liberal Government from 1868-73. To provide for his younger sons, John Henry Baxter (1851-1908) and Edward Gorrel Baxter (1855-1928), in 1862 Edward Baxter bought the Gilston estate in Fife, which he left to them jointly. After Edward's death, John Henry Baxter seems to have bought out his brother, and Edward Gorrel Baxter used the proceeds to purchase the Teasses estate, next door to Gilston, before 1874. So by the 1880s, the three brothers held four estates in Angus and Fife between them.

William Edward Baxter died in 1890, and left his mercantile business, along with Kilmaron and Kincaldrum, to his elder son, Edward Armitstead Baxter (1848-1933), who sold Kilmaron in about 1908 and spent most of the remaining capital before his death. E.A. Baxter's younger brother, Sir George Washington Baxter (1853-1926), 1st bt., shared his father's political interests but never became an MP, although he was eventually made a baronet for his services to the Unionist party. He became a partner in Baxter Bros. & Co., renewing the family involvement with that firm, and in 1894 bought Invereighty House (Angus), which stood close to his brother's house at Kincaldrum. Sir George had no children, so once again a family baronetcy died with the person on whom it had been conferred, and when his widow died in 1937, Invereighty passed to E.A. Baxter's second son, Lt-Col. George Lewis Baxter (1883-1962); it was sold after his death. Kincaldrum House passed to E.A. Baxter's eldest son, William Edward Elliot Baxter (1880-1955), who moved to Ireland after his second marriage in 1952.  After he died, the trustees of his son, Normile Baxter (1929-2017), sold the estate (against the latter's wishes) and the house subsequently slid into dereliction. Normile Baxter then bought the House of Aquahorthies in Aberdeenshire as a replacement.

On the deaths of John Henry Baxter and his brother Edward Gorrel Baxter in 1908 and 1928 respectively, the Fife estates of Gilston and Teasses both passed to John Henry's eldest son, Lt-Col. Noel Edward Baxter (1880-1950), who was a career army officer. It seems to have been the intention of Edward Gorrel Baxter that the two estates should be merged and run as one, but Teasses was sold instead in 1932. The capital generated no doubt helped the Gilston estate to survive the difficult mid 20th century years, and it descended to Alan George Laurie Baxter (1927-88) and on his death to Edward Thomas Baxter (b. 1960), the present owner.

Kilmaron Castle, Cupar, Fife

About 1800 the lands on which this house was built were purchased from Captain Barclay of Collarnie, by Oliver Gourlay of Craigrothie and two partners for £2,800. Having bought out his partners, Gourlay proceeded to plant and improve the grounds, and subsequently sold them to a Mr Lumsden, for £20,000. In about 1809 they were sold for £26,000 to Admiral Sir Frederick Maitland, who then spent over £12,000 more in building a new house and outbuildings to the designs of James Gillespie Graham in 1810-11. The house has marked similarities to Gillespie Graham's Culdees Castle (Perths) of 1810, so it is no surprise to find it was designed at much the same time. Both houses have a round tower engaged at one corner of the house and battlemented turrets at the angles. 

Kilmaron Castle: engraving showing the house from the north-east, as first built to the designs of James Gillespie Graham.
The main entrance at Kilmaron was in the centre of the north front, and was protected by a whimsical Gothick porch formed of two miniature turrets linked to each other and to the house by pointed arches under machicolated parapets carrying pyramidal tablets. The interior contained in 1825 a drawing room, dining room, library, and principal bedroom apartment on the ground floor, bedrooms on the first floor, and service accommodation in the basement.

Kilmaron Castle: the house from the south-east after the additions made for Sir David Baxter about 1860, from an old postcard.
Kilmaron cost the Admiral over £38,000, but after years of letting it to tenants and increasingly desparate efforts to sell it, he eventually sold it to an Edinburgh accountant and insurance agent for just £16,250. After Sir David Baxter bought the estate in 1854, the house was altered more radically than has previously been realised. The main entrance was moved from the north to the east front, where a new and much heavier porch was built, and the house was roughly doubled in size to the south, where a new facade rippling with bay windows was created. The new porch led into a broad corridor with the principal rooms to the south and the staircase opening on the north side. Very little of Gillespie Graham's original interior can have survived such a radical remodelling. Further additions were made in 1897 by Alexander Johnston of Dundee, who worked extensively for the Baxter clan and took David William Baxter (who was in his office at this time of these works) into partnership, but it is not clear what the works consisted of. A further major enlargement of the house to the north-west to provide a new billiard room, additional bedrooms and 'other apartments' was carried out after the estate was bought by Sir James Low in about 1908.

In the late 20th century the house fell into disrepair and was extensively damaged by dry rot. The Morrison-Low family moved out into a smaller new house built nearby; the contents were sold in 1969; the fittings stripped out in 1970, and the house stood as a roofless shell until 1985, when it was rather tragically blown up by the army as a training exercise. The army made a mess of the demolition, which had to be completed by more traditional means, and nothing survives today except the pretty stable block which has miniature turrets echoing those of the former mansion.

Descent: built for Adm. Sir Frederick Lewis Maitland (1777-1839), who let to his kinsman, Patrick Maitland (c.1770-1821), Capt. & Mrs. Douglas (fl. 1824); sold 1835 to James Auchinleck Cheyne (d. 1853), who also let it from about 1847; sold 1854 to Sir David Baxter (1793-1872); to widow (d. 1882); to nephew, William Edward Baxter (1825-90); to son, Edward Armitstead Baxter (1848-1933); sold about 1908 to Sir James Low (1849-1923), 1st bt.; to son, Sir Walter John Low (later Morrison-Low) (1899-1955), 2nd bt.; to son, Sir James Richard Morrison-Low (1925-2012), 3rd bt., who demolished it in 1985.

Kincaldrum House, Angus

The estate belonged to the Guthries of Guthrie Castle from 1457, and later passed to the Bowers, a Catholic family who supported the Stuart cause at the time of the 1745 rebellion, as a result of which the head of the family was killed and the family lost possession of the property for a time. Their house here was modest, apparently consisting of six main rooms in addition to service accommodation when it was advertised to let in 1745. When Kincaldrum was offered for sale in 1801 nothing was said about its chief residence. 

Kincaldrum House: the footprint of the early 19th century house
as shown on the OS 1st edn. map of 1858 
By 1816, however, there was a house 'fit for the immediate reception of any family', and this building probably formed the centre of the later mansion. Later photographs and maps suggest the original building was a double pile house with the entrance front to the south. The central three bays on this side were occupied by a deeply recessed portico in antis, with a broad flight of stone steps leading up to a screen of Tuscan columns, within which further stairs led up to the main entrance at piano nobile level. Behind this entrance lay an oval staircase hall with a glazed dome. To either side of the centrepiece were shallow curved bows. I
n 1852 this house was considered 'modern, and in perfect repair', although  Edward Baxter found it necessary to make further repairs in 1853-54 after purchasing the property.

Kincaldrum House: the house from the south-east after the enlargement of 1873 by John Carver of Kinloch. Image: Estate of Normile Baxter.
In 1873, the house was greatly enlarged to the designs of John Carver of Kinloch by the addition of wings at either end of the existing building, giving it seven reception rooms and sixteen bedrooms on the principal floors. The wing on the west side was of three storeys, with a high basement to accommodate the fall of the land, higher rooms than in the original house on the principal floor, and lower attic rooms above them with windows that rose above the wallhead as dormers. The larger east wing extended to the north of the original block and terminated in a tower-like block, perhaps meant to suggest early origins as a tower-house.

Kincaldrum House: the ruins in 2007. Image: Anne Burgess. Some rights reserved.
In 1952 William Elliot-Baxter moved to Ireland following his second marriage, and the following year the contents of the house were sold. Kincaldrum was subsequently abandoned and slowly fell into ruin. In the 1970s some windows and internal fittings were still intact, but it is now almost a complete ruin, with bare stone walls.

Descent: Alexander Bower (d. 1801)... Robert Stirling Graham (d. 1846); to daughter, Jessie Graham (d. 1852); sold 1853 for £42,000 to Edward Baxter (1790-1871); to son, William Edward Baxter MP (1825-90); to son, Edward Armitstead Baxter (1848-1927/33); to son, William Edward Elliot-Baxter (1880-1955); who sold it shortly before his death.

Gilston House, Fife

Gilston House: detail of an engraving of 1813 showing the house designed by Robert Balfour for Col. Dewar in about 1800.
The core of the present house is a two-storey house designed by Robert Balfour of St. Andrews for Col. (later Maj-Gen.) David Erskine Dewar, who had made a fortune in India and bought three farms here to form an estate 
commanding a fine view across Largo Bay to the Lothian hills. The house was said in 1813 to have been 'built a few years ago' and was probably built about 1800. An engraving of 1813 shows its original form, with a seven by three bay front block and a lower wing at the rear. The seven bay entrance front had a pedimented central breakfront with three closely spaced windows on the first floor and a broad semi-circular porch below. When it was advertised for sale in 1818 there were four reception rooms and fourteen principal bedrooms.

Gilston House: the house after the remodelling by John Currie & Son in 1879, from an old postcard.
In 1874 tenders were invited for building new a new stable block to the designs of John Currie & Son of Elie (Fife), and in 1879 the same architects made large additions to the house itself, consisting of irregular wings sprouting from the east and west flanks of the building, and the remodelling of the existing centre, with the addition of a new taller centre and porch on the south front, and elaborate Classical pedimented aedicule surrounds to the ground floor windows. Further minor additions and alterations were made between 1894 and 1907 by James Gillespie & Scott. 

Gilston House: the house and gardens in 2021. © Stewart Atkinson.

Later in the 20th century, the east and west wings were pulled down and the side elevations tidied up. The grounds were laid out for James Wyld in the early 19th century and the areas near the house  were developed later as attractive gardens, which have been open to the public occasionally for the National Gardens Scheme since the mid 20th century.

Descent: built c.1800-05 for Col. (later Maj-Gen.) David Erskine Dewar (d. 1821); sold c.1821 to Capt. Parsons; sold c.1825 to James Wyld, a Leith merchant; to son, who sold 1862 to Edward Baxter (1791-1871), who gave it to his son, John Henry Baxter (1851-1908), who let it until he came of age; to son, Noel Edward Baxter (1880-1950); to son, Alan George Laurie Baxter (1927-88); to son, Edward Thomas Baxter (b. 1960).

Teasses House, Ceres, Fife

The original plain neo-Jacobean house was designed by William Burn for Robert Christie, and built in 1825-26. Unfortunately, no view of the house as built seems to survive, but it was apparently constructed to a reduced version of the designs (which survive in the RIBA), two rooms deep rather than three; however, the arrangement of the principal rooms along the south front (drawing room, vestibule, dining room) appears to follow Burn's proposed arrangement. 

The house as it exists today is largely the creation of John Currie, who remodelled the Burn house in his own version of the Tudor-Jacobean style for Edward Gorrell Baxter in 1879. Currie's additions encased the earlier house, the main walls of which were retained as its core. Currie added the three-storey tower over the entrance, the canted bays and angle turrets. The roofline was simplified during alterations by Gillespie & Scott in 1930-33 for Major W.C.J. Black, and the house has been thoroughly restored by the present owners since 1996.

Teasses House: the house as remodelled in 1879, altered in the 1930s and restored since 1996.

The house is irregular in plan, with the large square entrance tower of 1879 to the south, and a projecting wing at the rear. The main block is of two storeys over a basement which is in part exposed by the fall of the ground. It is built of grey sandstone rubble laid in courses with ashlar dressings. The attractive and playful elevations are asymmetrical, with canted and square projecting bays, Tudor style drip moulds above the principal windows of the main floor and  tower, and a parapet with incised vertical flute detailing, from which triangular wallhead pediments rise. At the corners, small bartisans are corbelled out from the walls, with crosslet loop, arrow slot and quatrefoil detailing. 

The interior now largely dates from the remodelling of 1932-33 by Gillespie & Scott, which toned down the more wilful details of the 1870s. The interior decoration of that date seems to have been contracted out to Dobie & Son of Edinburgh. The timber main staircase with twisted balusters and bulbous knops survives from 1879, and the principal rooms retain their elaborate Victorian cornices. There are fine neo-Jacobethan timber chimneypieces in the billiard room and dining room, somewhat simplified in 1933. The drawing room has a  Caroline-style chimneypiece of 1933.

Descent: built for Robert Stark Christie (1792-1862); to son, James Stark Christie, who sold c.1874 to Edward Gorrell Baxter (1855-1928); to nephew, Col. Noel Edward Baxter (1880-1950); sold 1932 to Brig. W.C. Gordon Black; to son, W.G.M. Black... sold 1996 to Sir (Alexander) Fraser Morrison (b. 1948).

Invereighty (alias Inverighty) House, Angus

An early 19th century Classical house of two storeys, set on a high basement. The house was a rectangular block of five by three bays, with the wider central bay of the entrance front stepped slightly forward, and having a simple porch on the ground floor and a tripartite window above. The elevations were Greek Revival in their severity and plainness. 

Invereighty House: the house as first built, from a mid 19th century engraving.
The estate formed part of the property of the Earls of Strathmore in the mid 19th century, but in 1872 one half of the estate was sold to W.E. Baxter and added to the Kincaldrum property, while the other half, including the house, was sold to James Paterson of Kinnettles House. Paterson renovated the mansion at Invereighty, adding bay windows on the south and west fronts, but then leased it out to tenants before selling it to Sir George Washington Baxter (1853-1926), 1st bt. by 1894.

During the Second World War a children's home from Broughty Ferry was evacuated to the house, and later it fell into poor repair like so many others. It was bought in about 1967 by Derek Thomson, the managing director of D.C. Thomson Ltd. of Dundee, who demolished it and built a smaller new house a few yards to the north. A 19th century lodge survived until 1993 when it was demolished for the widening and realignment of the A90 south of Forfar. 

Descent: Lt-Col. John Lawrenson (d. 1836); sold or leased to James Aynsworth; sold to Claud Bowes-Lyon (1824-1904), 13th Earl of Strathmore & Kinghorne; sold 1872 to James Paterson, who let to W.G. Don and by 1894 sold to Sir George Washington Baxter (1853-1926), 1st bt.; to widow, Edith, Lady Baxter (d. 1937); to nephew, George Lewis Baxter (1883-1962)...sold 1967 to Derek Thomson (1922-2002); to widow, Jean Thomson (1926-2016).

Baxter family of Kilmaron Castle and Kincaldrum House

Baxter, John (c.1700-85). Son of John Baxter (b. 1670) and his first wife, Janet Leper, said to have been born about 1700 at Tealing (Fife). He moved to Dundee in about 1728 to pursue his trade as a handloom weaver. He married 1st, 25 October 1734 at Perth, Elizabeth Butcher, and 2nd, 25 July 1749 at Dundee, Mary Grieve (d. 1791), and had issue:
(1.1) John Baxter (b. c.1735) (q.v.);
(1.2) Rachel Baxter (1737-1814), baptised at Dundee, 16 July 1737; married, 18 September 1755, James Nicoll and had issue; buried 23 March 1814;
(1.3) William Baxter (fl. 1807); merchant; married 1st, Isabella Catto (d. 1793) and had issue four sons and four daughters; married 2nd, 14 December 1794, Helen Shaw, and had one further daughter; married 3rd, 11 December 1797, Elizabeth Birnie; married 4th, 8 November 1807, Mary Spaid;
(1.4) Thomas Baxter (fl. 1802); manufacturer; married 1st, 30 November 1762, Elizabeth Craik (d. 1776) and had issue four sons; married 2nd, 27 March 1778, Margaret Morison (d. 1781) and had further issue one daughter; married 3rd, Elizabeth Lindsay (d. 1787); married 4th, 5 March 1792, Christina Paul;
(1.5) George Baxter (c.1746-1825); manufacturer; married, 7 June 1765, Rebecca Hunter (d. 1806) and had issue four sons and two daughters; died August 1825.
He lived in Dundee.
He died in December 1785. His first wife died before 1749. His widow was buried 30 January 1791.

Baxter, John (b. c.1735). Eldest son of John Baxter (c.1700-85) and his first wife, Elizabeth Butcher, born about 1735. Linen manufacturer in Dundee. He married, 29 December 1762, Margaret, daughter of John Milne, manufacturer, and had issue:
(1) Margaret Baxter (b. 1764), born 21 April 1764 and baptised at Dundee, April 1784; married, 3 November 1783, as his second wife, Dr. John Mudie (1756-1830), of Arbroath (Angus), surgeon, son of William Mudie, and had issue four sons and eight daughters; death not traced;
(2) John Baxter (1765-1833), of Idvies, born 17 July 1765 and baptised at Dundee, April 1784; merchant in Dundee; founding Chairman of Dundee Chamber of Commerce, 1814; married Mary Gorrell (c.1759-1837), and had issue seven children; died 25 August 1833;
(3) William Baxter (1767-1854) (q.v.);
(4) Mary Baxter (b. 1769), born 21 April 1769; probably died before 1784;
(5) Elizabeth Baxter (1771-1850), born 7 April 1771; married, 4 July 1790, Dr. John Crichton (1772-1860) of Dundee, surgeon, and had issue fourteen children; died at Dundee, 28 April, and was buried at Howff Graveyard, Dundee, 2 May 1850;
(6) Alison Baxter (1772-1801?), born 1 October 1772; married, 4 September 1795 at Edinburgh, William Mudie (b. 1777) of Edinburgh, stationer (who m2, 24 September 1803 at Forfar, Margaret Wallace), son of George Mudie; died in or before 1803 and was perhaps the 'Alison Baxter' buried at Dundee, 28 February 1801;
(7) Helen Baxter (b. 1774), born 5 April 1774 and baptised at Dundee, April 1784; died young;
(8) David Baxter (b. c.1776); died young before 1784;
(9) Isabella Baxter (b. 1778), born 10 December 1778 and baptised at Dundee, April 1784; married, 28 March 1803, Thomas Collier (fl. 1836), factor to William Ramsay Maule, 1st Baron Panmure of Brechin Castle (Angus), and had issue at least two sons; death not traced;
(10) Hannah Baxter (1780-1829?), born 10 July 1780 and baptised at Dundee, April 1784; said to have died in 1829;
(11) Jean Baxter (b. 1783), born 1 March 1783 and baptised at Dundee, April 1784;
(12) Charlotte Baxter (1784-1860), born 19 April and baptised at Dundee, April 1784; married, 26 June 1809 at Dundee, William Small (1777-1822), Town Clerk of Dundee, son of David Small, and had issue five sons and one daughter; died 16 December 1860.
He lived in Dundee.
He died before 1795. His wife's date of death is unknown.

Baxter, William (1767-1854). Second son of John Baxter (b. c.1735) and his wife Margaret, daughter of John Milne, born 20 April 1767. Export merchant and sailcloth manufacturer, who in 1795 secured the Royal Navy contract for canvas sailcloth. He later took his sons into partnership in the firm that became Baxter Bros & Co. He played no part in public life. He was a friend of William Godwin, whose daughter, the future author, Mary Shelley, lived in his household from 1812-14 while recovering from illness [but see the comment at the end of this article]. He married, 16 October 1787, Elizabeth (c.1763-1804), daughter of Edward Gorrell, and had issue:
(1) Ellen Baxter (1788-1868), born 29 September 1788; died unmarried, 8 December 1868 and was buried at Roodyards Cemetery, Dundee; will confirmed 2 April 1869 (estate under £100,000);
(2) Edward Baxter (1791-1871) (q.v.);
(3) Sir David Baxter (1793-1872) (q.v.);
(4) Margaret Baxter (1794-1845), born 25 June and baptised at Dundee, 29 June 1794; died unmarried, 10 March 1845 and was buried at Roodyards Cemetery, Dundee;
(5) John Gorrell Baxter (1796-1853), born 20 May and baptised at Dundee, 29 May 1796; partner in Baxter Bros, 1822-53; died unmarried, 19 April 1853 and was buried at Roodyards Cemetery, Dundee; will confirmed 23 June 1853;
(6) William Gorrell Baxter (1798-1852), born 16 March and baptised at Dundee, 18 March 1798; partner in Baxter Bros, 1822-52; lived at Reres House, Broughty Ferry (Angus); died unmarried, 17 December 1852 and was buried at Roodyards Cemetery, Dundee; will proved at York, November 1854 (effects under £3,000);
(7) Mary Ann Baxter (1801-84), born 4 May 1801; philanthropist; co-founder of University College, Dundee (forerunner of the University of Dundee), 1881, to which she gave £120,000; she also helped her brother and sister create and endow Baxter Park, Dundee, and endowed the Misses Baxter scholarships at Edinburgh University, 1869, the Congregational Church of Scotland Theological Hall, Edinburgh, 1877, and funded London Missionary Society expeditions to New Guinea, 1874, 1881; she died unmarried, 19 December 1884; her will  was confirmed 10 June 1885 (estate £283,586);
(8) Elizabeth Baxter (1802-83), born 26 April 1802; co-founder of Royal Dundee Institution for the Blind, 1865; married, 21 October 1833 at Dundee, Francis Molison of Errol Park (Perths), and had issue one daughter; died 2 October 1883; will confirmed 20 November 1883 (estate £210,006).
He lived at Balgavies (Angus) and Ellengowan, a villa in Dundee.
He died 22 February 1854 and was buried at Roodyards Cemetery, Dundee; his will was confirmed 3 October 1854. His wife died 5 November 1804 and was buried at the Old Burying Ground, Dundee.

Sir David Baxter (1793-1872) 
Baxter, Sir David (1793-1872), 1st bt.
Second son of William Baxter (1767-1854) and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Gorrell, born 13 March and baptised at Dundee, 24 March 1793. Manager of Dundee Sugar Refining Co. to 1826 (when it collapsed) and subsequently a partner (senior partner after 1854) in Baxter Bros & Co., linen and sailcloth manufacturers. 
He was also a partner in Turnbull & Co (later Boase & Co), which operated a bleachfield at Claverhouse; this firm was later taken over by Baxter Bros. A Liberal in politics, he played a relatively small part in public affairs as a young man, being chosen as a police commissioner in 1825, a guild councillor in 1828, and a member of the harbour board. In 1861-63 he and his sisters Mary Ann and Ellen gave 37 acres of land for the establishment of a public park in Dundee and funded its laying out by Sir Joseph Paxton and the provision of an endowment fund of £10,000 to secure its future maintenance. His principal philanthropic work was, however, connected with education. He founded a school for young ladies at Cupar, and the foundation of the Albert Institute of Literature, Science, and Art (now the McManus Galleries) was largely due to gifts and bequests by Sir David and other members of his family. By a bequest of £20,000, he founded the Dundee Technical Institute (predecessor of Abertay University), and he endowed the Sir David Baxter Scholarships, and the Regius Chair of Engineering at Edinburgh University in 1863-68. He was created a baronet in recognition of his charitable works, 1 January 1863. He married, 22 April 1833, Elizabeth (1801-82), daughter of Robert Montgomery of Barrahill (Ayrshire), but had no issue.
He purchased Kilmaron Castle in 1854.
He died 13 October 1872, when his baronetcy became extinct, and was buried at Cupar (Fife); his will was confirmed October 1872 (estate £1,200,000). His widow died 11 September 1882 and was buried at Cupar with her husband; her will was confirmed 21 December 1882 (estate £40,379).

Baxter, Edward (1791-1871). Elder son of William Baxter (1767-1854) and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Gorrell, born 3 April and baptised at Dundee, 6 April 1791. He entered upon his business career in partnership with his father as an export merchant in 1813; they also operated a mill at Glamis. In 1822, in partnership with his father and younger brothers, he built a spinning mill at Lower Dens, Dundee, and the firm of Baxter Bros. & Co. was established to operate it and others built subsequently. In 1831 Edward withdrew from this partnership and founded E. Baxter & Co., merchants and shipping agents, in Dundee, which eventually extended its activities from the import and export of physical goods to overseas investment activities, especially in the United States (one of his clerks was Robert Fleming, later founder of the Scottish American Investment Trust). He became US Vice-Consul in Dundee in 1834. In about 1850, Edward took his eldest son into partnership, but he continued to manage the firm in person until a few months before his death. He was a Congregationalist in religion, and like several of his siblings, a noted philanthropist and reformer: he was a founder member of the Anti-Corn Law League, 1838, and later President of its Dundee branch; and took a particular interest in educational causes, including the reform and building of new premises for Dundee High School. He was admitted a burgess of Dundee, 1816, and was a member of the reformed Town Council for some years, holding the office of Bailie; he also served as Dean of the Guildry of Dundee, 1831. He matriculated his arms at the office of Lord Lyon King of Arms in 1855. He married 1st, 12 July 1824 at Dundee parish church, Euphemia (1793-1833), daughter of William Wilson of Whitfield, Dundee, merchant; 2nd, 15 September 1835, Elizabeth (1804-42), daughter of David Jobson, baker and provost of Dundee; and 3rd, 19 April 1844, Jean (c.1819-99), daughter of Rev. Dr. John Paterson DD, a missionary in Scandinavia and Russia, and had issue:
(1.1) William Edward Baxter (1825-90) (q.v.);
(1.2) Jane Elizabeth Baxter (1827-1913) of Castle Huntly (Aberdeens), born 10 January 1827; married, 19 May 1848 at Dundee Presbyterian Church (sep. 1872), George Armitstead (1824-1915), 1st Baron Armitstead, jute merchant and shipowner and MP for Dundee, 1868-73, 1880-85, but had no issue; died 6 January 1913; will confirmed 8 April 1913 (estate £48,302);
(1.3) Euphemia Wilson Baxter (1830-97), born 28 March 1830; married, 25 July 1851, James Ramsey (1827-1907), merchant at Dundee and later of Balhousie Castle (Perths), and had issue three sons and six daughters; died 18 October 1897; will confirmed 5 February 1898 (estate £19,690);
(2.1) Marion Crawford Baxter (1838-1911), born 17 July and baptised at Dundee, 9 October 1838; married, 6 June 1861, Thomas Bett (c.1833-1905) of Dundee and later of Down Place, Compton (Surrey), Russian fur merchant, and had issue five sons and two daughters; died 12 July 1911;
(2.2) Elizabeth Jobson Baxter (1842-1927), born 17 June 1842; married, 8 May 1866, Alexander Robertson (1833-1902) of Burnside, Forfar (Angus), advocate and sheriff depute of Forfar, son of Hercules James Robertson, Lord Benholme, and had issue two sons; died 14 February 1927 and was buried at Newmonthill Cemetery, Forfar (Angus); will confirmed 27 April 1927 (estate £13,038);
(3.1) John Henry Baxter (1851-1908) [for whom see Baxter family of Gilston and Teasses below]
(3.2) Emily Margaret Baxter (1853-1926), born at Newton Abbot (Devon), 18 May and baptised at Dundee, 29 June 1853; married, 6 September 1882 at Teasses (Fife), Maj. Randle Jackson (1839-1902) of The Priory, St. Andrews (Fife) and later of Swordale House (Ross & Cromarty), and had issue two daughters; died 14 March 1926 and was buried at Swordale; will confirmed 2 August 1926 (estate £34,683);
(3.3) Edward Gorrel Baxter (1855-1928) [for whom see Baxter family of Gilston and Teasses below]
(3.4) Lucy Eleanor Baxter (1858-1943), born 30 April 1858; married, 3 June 1880 at Edinburgh, Charles Julian Brewster Macpherson (c.1855-1942) of Balavil alias Belleville House, Kingussie (Inverness), son of Lt-Col. David Edward Macpherson, and had issue one son; died 9 February 1943;
(3.5) Flora Jean Baxter (1860-1953), born 26 January 1860; married, 28 February 1881 at Edinburgh, Arthur Raymond Heath (1854-1943) of Thorpe Hall (Lincs) and Kitlands (Surrey), Conservative MP for Louth (Lincs), son of Vice-Adm. Sir Leopold George Heath, and had issue two sons and one daughter; died aged 93 on 23 July 1953.
He bought Kincaldrum House in 1853.
He died at Kincaldrum, 26 July 1871; by his will he left 'upwards of half a million' pounds. His first wife died 22 August 1833. His second wife died 2 July 1842. His widow died 23 December 1899; her will was confirmed 8 March 1900 (estate £56,986).

Rt. Hon. W.E. Baxter MP
Baxter, Rt. Hon. William Edward (1825-90).
Only son of Edward Baxter (1791-1871) and his first wife Euphemia, daughter of William Wilson of Dundee, born 25 June 1825. Educated at Dundee High School and Edinburgh University. A partner in E. Baxter & Co (later W.E. Baxter & Co.) of Dundee, merchants and commission agents; Chairman of the Dundee Savings Bank. A Liberal in politics, he was MP for Montrose District Burghs, 1855-85; and served in Government as Secretary to the Admiralty, 1868-71 and  Secretary to the Treasury, 1871-73; sworn of the Privy Council, 1873. When the Liberal party split over Home Rule for Ireland in 1886, he supported the Unionist faction. A commissioner of supply (from 1853), DL and JP for Angus. Beyond his business and public appointments, he was noted as a linguist and traveller, and was the author of several books, including Impressions of Central and Southern Europe (1850); 
The Tagus and the Tiber, or Notes of Travel in Portugal, Spain, and Italy (1852); America and the Americans (1855) and Hints to Thinkers, or Lectures for the Times (1860)His health was affected by an accident while travelling in Norway from which he never fully recovered. He was a Congregationalist in religion and was involved as a young man with a number of local nonconformist organisations. Later, he supported more charitable bodies in Dundee, including the Albert Institute, the Dundee Industrial Schools Society and the Dundee Model Lodging House Association. He was a Trustee of University College, Dundee, which was largely endowed by his aunt. He married, 3 November 1847 at Dundee, Janet (1824-1910), daughter of John Home Scott of Dundee, and had issue:
(1) Edward Armitstead Baxter (1848-1933) (q.v.);
(2) Mary Euphemia Baxter (1850-1914), born 17 March 1850; married, 21 April 1871 at Kensington Independent Chapel (Middx), Edward Francis Maitland (1845-1929) of Dundee, manufacturer, third son of Edward Maitland, Lord Barcaple, and had issue two sons and three daughters; died 20 October 1914; will confirmed 23 April 1915 (estate £1,423);
(3) Jessie Scott Baxter (b. 1852), born 30 August and baptised at Dundee, 19 October 1852; married 1st, 11 June 1879 at Kensington Congregational Chapel (Middx), Cdr. Herbert Dolphin (1839-83) and had issue one son and one daughter; married 2nd, 22 December 1885 at St Paul's Episcopal Church, Dundee, Capt. Stanhope Grove Price (later Grove) (1837-1909) of Taynton (Glos), and had no further issue; died at Bishopton House, Stratford-on-Avon (Warks), 12 December 1886;
(4) Sir George Washington Baxter (1853-1926), 1st bt. (q.v.);
(5) Alice Jane Baxter (b. 1855), born 30 June 1855; married, 26 January 1882 at Calcutta (India) (div. 1893 on grounds of her adultery with Capt. Henry Blackie Brownlow), Maj. (later General Sir) Alfred Gaselee (1844-1918) (who m2, 20 August 1895, Alice Margaret, daughter of Gartside Gartside-Tipping of Rossferry (Co. Fermanagh)), younger son of Rev. John Gaselee, rector of Little Yeldham (Essex); death not traced;
(6) Edith Eleanor Baxter (1857-1923), born 19 March 1857; married, 5 March 1886 at Kincaldrum House, Henry Charles Mylne (1853-1919) of Wokingham (Berks), then an employee of her father's company but later a consulting engineer and ten times Mayor of Wokingham, fourth son of James Mylne WS of Edinburgh, and had issue one daughter; died 21 November 1923 and was buried at Dean Cemetery, Edinburgh, with her husband; will confirmed 11 February 1924 (estate £16,170);
(7) Rosa Elizabeth Baxter (1860-1943), born 6 January 1860; married, 18 January 1894 at Jubbulpore (India), Lt-Col. Ludlow Tonson Bowles (1859-1939) of St. Saviour's (Jersey), eldest son of Rev. John Wright Bowles, but had no issue; died 8 February 1943; her will was proved in Jersey, 12 February 1943;
(8) David Montgomery Baxter (1863-64), born 22 December 1863; died in infancy, 11 October 1864;
(9) A son (b. & d. 1865), born 17 December 1865; died in infancy, 22 December 1865.
He built a villa called Ashcliff on Perth Rd., Dundee to the designs of Charles Wilson in 1854 and lived there until he inherited Kincaldrum from his father in 1871. He also inherited Kilmaron Castle on the death of his aunt in 1882, and he rented houses in London for use during his attendance in Parliament.
He died 10 August 1890 and was buried at Inverarity (Angus); his will was confirmed 18 November 1890 (estate £128,903). His widow died 17 October 1910; her will was confirmed 11 January 1911 (estate £3,343).

E.A. Baxter (1848-1933)
Image: Nat. Galleries of Scotland 
Baxter, Edward Armitstead (1848-1933).
Eldest son of Rt. Hon. William Edward Baxter (1825-90) and his wife Janet, daughter of John Home Scott of Dundee, born 25 September and baptised at Dundee, 28 September 1848. Educated at Dundee High School and St. Andrews University (admitted 1865). Landowner and partner in W.E. Baxter & Co., merchants and commission agents. JP and DL for Fife; but took little part in public affairs. He married, 29 October 1879 at St Andrews Cathedral, Isobel (c.1853-1943), daughter of William Scott-Elliot of Arkleton (Dumfries), and had issue:
(1) William Edward Elliot Baxter (1880-1955) (q.v.);
(2) Lt-Col. George Lewis Baxter (1883-1962), born 18 January 1883; educated at Eton; an officer in the army (2nd Lt., 1905; Lt., 1911; Capt., 1914; T/Maj. 1915; T/Lt-Col., 1917; retired as Lt-Col. 1920), who served in the First World War and was awarded the DSO, 1916; during the Second World War he served with the Angus Home Guard and was appointed OBE, 1944; he inherited Invereighty from his aunt in 1937; married, 28 December 1933, (Jeannette Elizabeth Edith) Grizel (1894-1981), second daughter of Brig-Gen. William Charles Douglas of Brigton (Angus) and formerly wife of Capt. William Gilbert Don (1888-1961), and had issue one daughter (who died young in an accident); died at Pittenweem (Fife), 7 April 1962;
(3) Herbert Home Baxter (1885-1932), born 1885; educated at Eton; an officer in the army (2nd Lt., 1905; Lt., 1908; Capt., 1914; Maj. 1916; retired 1930), who served in the First World War and was awarded the MC, 1916; married, 5 January 1932, Helen Agnes (1885-1971), daughter of John Murray Purves, but had no issue; died suddenly at sea, 22 July 1932; will proved 18 October 1932 (estate £5,413);
(4) Marjory Isobel Baxter (1888-1961), born 8 April 1888; artist, living chiefly in Chelsea (Middx) and the island of Jersey; died unmarried, 5 March 1961; will proved 3 August 1962 (estate £19,031);
(5) Isobel Mary Baxter (1894-1970), born 19 March 1894; married, 1 June 1923, Lt-Col. Robert Alexander Wolfe-Murray DSO MC (1889-1973) of Daviot House (Inverness), eldest son of Cdr. Philip Charles Knightly Wolfe-Murray RN, and had issue one son and one daughter; died 7 November 1970.
He inherited Kincaldrum and Kilmaron Castle from his father in 1890. He sold Kilmaron Castle in about 1908.
He died 17 January and was buried at Inverarity (Fife), 21 January 1933; his will was confirmed 13 May 1933 (estate £23,799). His widow died in Hove (Sussex), 26 December 1943 and was also buried at Inverarity.

Baxter, William Edward Elliot (1880-1955). Eldest son of Edward Armitstead Baxter (1848-1933) and his wife Isobel, daughter of William Scott-Elliot of Arkleton (Dumfries), born 30 July 1880. An accident in childhood left him partly deaf, and since as a young man he was a keen cyclist, he invented and saw widely adopted by deaf cyclists a symbol to indicate the disability to overtaking motorists. Educated at Oriel College, Oxford; Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester; and Crystal Palace School of Engineering. As a result of his deafness, he was rejected as unfit by the British army in the First World War, but he was accepted by the French army (Capt.) and was awarded the Croix de Guerre. He married 1st, 27 October 1927 at St Margaret, London, Ellen Oda Ingrid Marie (d. 1950), a nursing sister in the First World War, second daughter of Rasmus Theodore Alexander Rasmussen Skovsgaard, of Skovsgaard, Nakskov (Denmark), and 2nd, November 1952, Louisa Frances Chichester (1888-1975), daughter of Henry Chichester Hart and widow of Col. Marcus Maxtone Moore (d. 1948), and had issue:
(1.1) Normile Edward Alexander George Wyndham Elliot Baxter (1929-2017), born 2 October 1929; educated at Eton; an officer in the army (Capt.; retired 1969); director of Colvilles Ltd; settled at the House of Aquahorthies (Aberdeens); married, 7 May 1955 at St John's Episcopal Church, Forfar (Angus), Anne Margaret Robertson (d. 2004), daughter of Col. Lionel Edward Hill OBE MC of Overdale, Forfar, and had issue three sons and one daughter; died aged 88 on 15 November 2017;
(1.2) Daria Ethelinda Vanessa Atalanta Louisa Polly Elliot Baxter (1933-2008), born 30 July and baptised at the English church in Copenhagen (Denmark), October 1933; educated at Heathfield School, Ascot; married, 26 June 1951 at St John the Evangelist, Edinburgh, Capt. Christopher Lorimer (1904-91) of Gibliston, Kilconquhar (Fife), eldest son of the architect Sir Robert Stodart Lorimer KBE (1864-1929) of Gibliston, and had issue three sons and one daughter; died 31 July 2008.
He inherited Kincaldrum from his father in 1933, but found that it was more or less bankrupt. He moved to Ireland in 1952 after his second marriage, and his trustees broke up and sold the estate, against the wishes of his son.
He died at Portrush (Co. Antrim), 28 January 1955. His first wife died 3 September 1950. His widow died 25 December 1975; her will was proved 10 June 1976 (estate £6,683).

Baxter, Sir George Washington (1853-1926), 1st bt. Second son of  Rt. Hon. William Edward Baxter (1825-90) and his wife Janet, daughter of John Home Scott of Dundee, born 20 November 1853. Educated at St. Andrews (admitted 1869) and Edinburgh Universities. A partner in Baxter Bros & Co. JP for Angus and DL and JP for city of Dundee. He was President of the Scottish Unionist Association, 1919, and unsuccessfully contested Dundee twice and Montrose Boroughs once in the Unionist interest. He was President of University College, Dundee (Hon. LLD, 1889); a director of Dundee Royal Infirmary; and chairman of city of Dundee Territorial Army Association. He was knighted, 1904, and created a baronet, 21 June 1918. He married, 20 February 1889, Edith OBE JP (d. 1937), herself a notable Unionist politician in the years after the Great War, daughter of Maj-Gen. James Lawtie Fagan, but had no issue.
He purchased Invereighty House in about 1894 and also had a house at Keswick (Cumberland). After his death Invereighty passed to his widow for life and then to his nephew, Lt-Col. George Lewis Baxter (1883-1962).
He died at Keswick, 26 November 1926, when his baronetcy became extinct; his will was confirmed 26 January 1927 (estate £78,964). His widow died 29 January 1937; her will was confirmed in April 1937 (estate £11,248).

Baxter family of Gilston and Teasses

Baxter, John Henry (1851-1908). Eldest son of Edward Baxter (1790-1871) and his third wife, Jean (c.1819-99), daughter of Rev. Dr. John Paterson DD, born 24 June 1851 and baptised at Dundee the same day. Educated at St. Andrews University and Trinity College, Cambridge (matriculated 1870; BA 1874; MA 1881). JP for Fife from 1877. A member of the Royal Company of Archers from 1874. Captain of the Royal & Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews, 1890; he was also a keen supporter of the Fife Hunt. He was elected a Fellow of Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1880. A Conservative in politics. He married 1st, 19 September 1876 at St John's Episcopal Church, Edinburgh, Amy Constance Brewster (1853-81), daughter of Col. David Edward Macpherson of Balavil (Inverness), and 2nd, 18 October 1892 at Thakeham (Sussex), Ethel Louisa (1863-1945), daughter of Frederick King of Fryern (Sussex), and had issue:
(1.1) Evelyn Vida Baxter (1879-1959), born 29 March 1879; naturalist and ornithologist, who became an expert in the patterns of bird migration, which she studied particularly on the Isle of May in the Firth of Forth with her life partner, Leonora Jeffrey Rintoul  (1878-1953); she and Rintoul were co-founders of Scottish Ornithologists' Club in 1936 and served jointly as its President, 1936-48; she was also active in the Scottish Women's Rural Institutes and served as Chairman of the Fife Federation three times between 1925 and 1943; in the Second World War she worked as an organiser for the Women's Land Army (MBE 1945); co-author of several publications, including The Birds of Scotland (1953); elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1951; a member of the British Ornithologists Union (Vice-President; Union Medal); awarded an honorary degree by University of Glasgow (LLD, 1955); died unmarried, 1 October 1959 and was buried at Largo Cemetery;
(1.2) Noel Edward Baxter (1880-1950) (q.v.);
(2.1) Charles William Baxter (1895-1969), born 16 February 1895; educated at Charterhouse; served in army in First World War (MC 1918); an official in the diplomatic service, 1919-50 (First secretary, 1928; acting Counsellor of Embassy, 1938-40; Counsellor, 1940-47; HM Minister to Iceland, 1947-50); married, 24 June 1924, Patience Violet (1898-1974), second daughter of  Sir Henry Charles Miller Lambert KCMG, CB of Larklands, Banstead (Surrey), and had issue two sons and one daughter; died 21 April 1969; will proved 20 August 1969 (estate £71,719);
(2.2) Ralph Frederick Baxter (1897-1915), born 25 May 1897; an officer in the army (2nd Lt., 1914); died unmarried when he was killed in action, 25 September 1915; buried at Dud Corner Cemetery, Loos (Belgium).
His father bequeathed the Gilston House estate to him and his brother Edward Gorrel Baxter in 1871, but he was already resident by 1868. He had bought out his brother's interest by 1874.
He died 30 March 1908 and was buried at Largo Cemetery; his will was confirmed 16 May 1908 (estate £100,314). His first wife died of complications following childbirth 27 January 1881. His widow died at Storrington (Sussex), 11 December 1945; her will was proved 29 April 1946 (estate £25,418).

Col. N. Baxter (1880-1950) 
Baxter, Lt-Col. Noel Edward (1880-1950).
Only son of John Henry Baxter (1851-1908) and his first wife, 
Amy Constance Brewster, daughter of Col. David Edward Macpherson of Balavil (Inverness), born 25 November 1880. Educated at Eton and Royal Military College, Sandhurst; an officer in the army (2nd Lt., 1900; Lt., 1901; Capt., 1905; Maj. by 1920; Lt-Col., 1926; retired 1941) who served in the Boer War, First World War (wounded; prisoner of war, 1914-18) and Second World War; a member of the Royal Company of Archers from 1908. Convenor of Fife County Council, 1945-49; DL (from 1942) and JP for Fife. He married, 24 July 1923, Evelyn Mary (1894-1974), daughter of Sir Wilfred Emilius Laurie, 5th bt., and had issue:
(1) John Edward Baxter (1925-44). born 2 February 1925; educated at Eton; an officer in the Scots Guards (Lt.); died unmarried when he was killed in action in Italy, 16 October 1944; buried in Castiglione South African Cemetery (Italy);
(2) Alan George Laurie Baxter (1927-88) (q.v.); 
(3) David Julian Baxter (1930-59), born 18 June 1930; farmer at Windyhill Farm, Kincardine (Fife); died unmarried, 9 September 1959.
He inherited Gilston House from his father in 1908 and Teasses House from his uncle in 1928; he sold Teasses in 1932.
He died 29 March 1950; his will was proved 1 August 1950 (estate £116,100). His widow died 9 May 1974 and was buried at Largo.

Baxter, Alan George Laurie (1927-88). Second, but eldest surviving, son of Lt-Col. Noel Edward Baxter (1880-1950) and his wife Evelyn Mary, daughter of Sir Wilfred Emilius Laurie, 5th bt., born 5 June 1927. Educated at Eton, Trinity College, Cambridge (MA) and Edinburgh University (LLB 1956). Undertook National Service with the Black Watch (2nd Lt., 1949). Writer to the Signet. DL for Fife; Member of Royal Company of Archers; County Cadet Commandant for Fife, 1965-75. He married, 6 September 1956, Elizabeth June (b. 1933), only daughter of Vice-Adm. Sir Thomas Hope Troubridge KCB DSO of Oakshott, Hawkley, Liss (Hants), and had issue:
(1) Elizabeth Anne Baxter (b. 1958), born 9 January 1958; living in 2001;
(2) Edward Thomas Baxter (b. 1960) (q.v.);
(3) Sarah Evelyn Baxter (b. 1962), born 31 August 1962; married, 20 October 1984, Richard Hugh Cundall (b. 1960) of Driffield (Yorks ER), and had issue one son and two daughters; now living;
(4) Mary Emma Baxter (b. 1965), born 28 November 1965; married, 6 September 1999, Sir Geoffrey Doyne Adams KCMG (b. 1957), diplomat, Ambassador to the Netherlands, 2013-17 and to Egypt, 2018-date, son of Sir Philip Doyne Adams KCMG of London, and had issue one son and one daughter; now living;
(5) Louisa Jane Baxter (b. 1969), born 14 August 1969; charity worker and Mangalitza pig farmer; married, 24 June 1995, Mihai Cochris, a Romanian artist blacksmith, and had issue two sons and one daughter; now living.
He inherited Gilston House from his father in 1950. After his death, his widow moved to St. Andrews (Fife).
He died in 1988. His widow is now living.

Baxter, Edward Thomas (b. 1960). Only son of Alan George Laurie Baxter (1927-88) and his wife (Elizabeth) June (fl. 2001), only daughter of Vice-Adm. Sir Thomas Hope Troubridge KCB DSO of Oakshott, Hawkley, Liss (Hants), born 2 March 1960. Educated at Eton and Edinburgh University (BSc). Land agent and surveyor (ARICS). Member of Royal Company of Archers. Member of the Guildry of Dundee. He married 1st, 4 July 1992 (div. 1995), Camilla Jane St. John (b. 1960) (who m2, 1997, as his second wife, George Dominick Mackintosh Warre (b. 1949) and had issue one daughter), daughter of Ronald Carlile Buxton MP of Kimberley Hall (Norfk), and 2nd, February 2004, Catherine E. Brown.
He inherited Gilston House from his father in 1988.
Now living. His second wife is now living.

Baxter, Edward Gorrel (1855-1928). Second son of Edward Baxter (1791-1871) and his third wife, Jean (d. 1899), daughter of Rev. Dr. John Paterson DD, born 28 August 1855. Educated at Merchiston Castle, Clifton College and Pembroke College, Cambridge (matriculated 1873; BA 1877; MA 1891). An officer in the 1st Fifeshire Light Horse Volunteers (2nd Lt., 1878; Lt., 1884) and a member of the Royal Company of Archers from 1879. A director of the Royal Bank of Scotland, 1895-1928. He was a freemason from 1876, and a member of Council of the Episcopal Church of Scotland, 1885-1928. JP for Fife from 1877. Elected a Fellow of Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1880. He was unmarried and without issue.
He purchased the Teasses estate before 1874 and remodelled the house in 1879.  After his death it passed to his nephew, Lt-Col. Noel Edward Baxter (1880-1950).
He died in Edinburgh, 13 February 1928; his will was confirmed 22 May 1928 (estate £282,003).

Principal sources

Burke's Landed Gentry of Scotland, 2001, pp. 61-64; B. Lenman, C. Lythe and E. Gauldie, Dundee and its textile industry, 1850-1914, Abertay Historical Society, 1969; James Macaulay, The Gothick Revival, 1745-1845, 1975, p.245; 

Location of archives

Baxter Bros. & Co.: minute books, ledgers, journals, balance books, wages books, production records, contract and order books, technical drawings and misc. papers including genealogical notes on the Baxter family, 1795-1992 [Dundee University Archives, MS 11; MS 102; 1981/400]
Baxter, Rt. Hon. William Edward (1825-90): travel diaries, 1850-52 [National Library of Scotland, MS.15906-15907]

Coat of arms

Ermine, on a chevron engrailed between three mullets gules, as many garbs or.

Can you help?

  • Can anyone provide additional or better pictures of the houses illustrated above, and in particular a view of the original house at Teasses or the present house at Invereighty?
  • I should be most grateful if anyone can provide photographs or portraits of people whose names appear in bold above, and who are not already illustrated.
  • If anyone can offer further information or corrections I should be most grateful. I am always particularly pleased to hear from descendants of the family who can supply information from their own research or personal knowledge for inclusion.

Revision and acknowledgements

This post was first published 26 July 2021 and was updated 3 and 11 November 2021 and 13 January 2023. I am grateful to Robin Baxter and Iain Scott for corrections.


  1. Hello Nick, I've just found your very useful site. I too have been rummaging about in the Baxter family history and just wanted to pint out something in the above. It was not William Baxter (1767-1854 who the young Mary Godwin stayed with but his cousin, William Thomas Baxter. It easy to confuse them, aprticularly as they only lived a few doors apart at the point Mary was in Dundee, William Baxter at Ellengowan and William Thomas Baxter at The Cottage, both then on Broughty Ferry Road.

    William Thomas Baxter (c1765-1842) was the son of Thomas Baxter & Elizabeth Craik. He first married Elizabeth Doig in 1788 and had 8 children. He later married Mary Ann Scott.

    Unlike his cousin, William Thomas Baxter did not achive much success in the textile industry and went bakrupt c1828 (see By 1841, he was living on a farm in Coaltown of Balgonie (Markinch, Fife), where he died the following year.

  2. I (Robin Edward Elliot Baxter) am a grandson of William Edward Elliot Baxter. It is incorrect to say he let Kincaldrum slide into decay! His parents (Edward Armistead and his wife Isobel) basically spent all the capital and when WEEB inherited, the estate was bankrupt. My trustees of my father (Normile Elliot Baxter) trustees then sold the estate, against my father's wishes.

    1. Thank you for this correction, which I will reflect above.

  3. My father (Normile Elliot Baxter) did not sell House of Aquahorthies in 2013 as you state above. It was inherited by my elder brother Angus.

    1. Again, thanks for the correction, which I will insert above.

  4. Aiden James Baxter21 November 2023 at 12:28

    I (Aiden James Baxter) find this very helpful to learn about my family's history, as my father (Mark James Baxter) and grandfather (John Barry Baxter) has never told me much about this as there is a lot of dark rumours, which you could include? regards.

    1. Thanks for your comment. You may like to contact me through the contact form in the right-hand side-bar to explain what you know, and perhaps you could also explain how your line fits into the families discussed above.


Please leave a comment if you have any additional information or corrections to offer, or if you are able to help with additional images of the people or buildings in this post.