Monday, 22 April 2019

(372) Bargrave of Bifrons Place and Eastry Court

Bargrave of Bifrons and Eastry
The family of Bargrave (or Bargar as it often appears in the earlier records) were yeomen at various places in east Kent in the 16th century. One of them, Robert Bargar (d. 1600) of Bridge, was also a tanner, and became sufficiently prosperous to send several of his sons to university or the inns of court, thus beginning their transition to gentry status. His eldest son, John Bargrave (1571-1624), entered the army in the service of the Earl of Essex, and is said to have taken part in his campaigns against the Spanish, perhaps including the capture of Cadiz in 1596. Soon afterwards, he seems to have abandoned the military life, perhaps as a result of his marriage early in 1597 to the daughter and co-heiress of a wealthy London haberdasher. She brought him a large dowry, which he invested in expanding the estate at Bridge and Patrixbourne that he inherited from his father in 1600, and in building a new mansion there, which he called Bifrons Place (and which must be distinguished from Bifrons at Barking (Essex)). The unusual name of the house evidently reflected the fact that the two facades of the house were of very different character, although only the appearance of the garden side of the house seems to be recorded. When the Virginia Company was founded in 1606, John Bargrave seems to have borrowed money to buy a stake in the colony, and in 1618 he established a settlement on his lands there. His brothers George Bargrave (c.1578-c.1630) and Rev. Thomas Bargrave (1581-1621) also emigrated to Virginia. John soon became embroiled in a dispute with his neighbour on the James River, John Martin, over the ownership of cattle, and this escalated into a row about the governance of the colony. He found he needed to be in Virginia to manage his lands and develop them into a successful enterprise, and to be in England to carry on his legal battle with the Virginia Company; but he could not be in two places at once and in the end both his legal affairs and his settlement failed. Bifrons seems to have been shut up or let, and by the time of his death he was acutely short of money and forced to sell his American interests; his two brothers both died in Virginia.

In the next generation, John's two surviving sons, Robert Bargrave (1600-58) and the Rev. John Bargrave (1610-80), were prominent supporters of the Royalist cause. Robert, who was a naval officer in the 1620s and 1630s, took an active part in the Royalist Kentish rebellion of 1648, and went to Holland to recruit mercenaries for the cause. When the rebellion was crushed, he had to flee to the continent and his estate was sequestrated, although he was allowed to return after the execution of King Charles I in 1649. In 1651 he eventually negotiated the return of his estate in return for a fine of £350,  but on top of the debts he had inherited from his father or incurred elsewhere, this was more than the estate could sustain, and after his death, his son, John Bargrave (1637-68) was obliged to sell Bifrons to Sir Arthur Slingsby in 1661 or 1662. He seems to have then gone abroad, or (according to one account) to Colchester in Essex. His brother, John Bargrave (1610-80) became a Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge, in 1637, but was deprived of his fellowship in 1644 because of his Royalist views. Soon afterwards he went abroad, and between 1645 and 1660 he travelled in France, Italy, Germany and the Low Countries, eeking out a living by acting as bear-leader to young men sent abroad to acquire some knowledge of the world and more polished manners on what would come to be known as the Grand Tour. During his travels he kept a diary, part of which survives, and formed a collection of prints and antiquities, and he is believed to have been the chief author of one of the first guides for tourists, published in 1648 under the name of his nephew, John Raymond, who had been one of his charges the previous year. When news of the Restoration of the Monarchy reached him in 1660 he raced home and recovered his Fellowship, and shortly afterwards he was ordained. In 1662 he successfully petitioned Charles II for appointment to a canonry at Canterbury Cathedral, pointing out the extent of the hardships he and his family had endured for their support of the Royalist cause, and in 1665 he married a rich widow, so that he ended his days in some comfort, living in one of the canonry houses at Canterbury. His last, most dangerous and most romantic assignment for his monarch came in 1662-63, when he was appointed to take £10,000 raised by public subscription to Algiers and to negotiate the ransom from slavery of British subjects captured by Barbary pirates, a mission which he successfully accomplished. It was clearly his proudest achievement: when he died, the shackle of one of the prisoners he had freed was hung above his tomb in Canterbury Cathedral.

The youngest son of Robert Bargrave (d. 1600), yeoman and tanner of Bridge, was Isaac Bargrave (1587-1643), who was sent to Cambridge in about 1603 and pursued the conventional academic path to a clerical career; he was ordained in 1611. However there are indications that he was an able man with wider interests. In particular, in 1615 he was one of the performers who put on George Ruggle's Latin comedy, Ignoramus, in Cambridge before King James I, and soon afterwards he became chaplain to Sir Henry Wotton while the latter was Ambassador in Venice. Wotton, who was a seasoned traveller and diplomat and is said to have coined the double entendre that "An ambassador is an honest gentleman sent to lie abroad for the good of his country", sent him home in 1618 with a recommendation to King James I. Clearly identified as a 'rising star', in 1618 he married into the Dering family, who were among the leading Kentish gentry, and bought a lease of a Canterbury Cathedral estate at Eastry Court (Kent). In 1622 King James appointed him as vicar of St Margaret, Westminster, chaplain to Charles, Prince of Wales (later King Charles I), and to a canonry in Canterbury Cathedral. And when Dean John Boys (who was his brother-in-law) died in 1625, he succeeded him as Dean of Canterbury. The years 1622-25 marked the apogee of his career, when it said that he had the ear of both the king and parliament, but after he left Westminster and moved to Canterbury his influence waned. In 1627 he preached a sermon strongly in support of Charles I's right to raise taxes without parliamentary approval, which annoyed the parliamentarian party, and he became embroiled in petty squabbles with the Archbishop of Canterbury, his fellow canons, and the diocesan registrar at Canterbury. He remained a firm, vocal supporter of the king, and was the target of attacks in Parliament from the late 1630s. When the King raised his standard at the start of the Civil War and sent out a Commission of Array for the raising of armed forces in each county it was Bargrave who hosted a meeting of the Kentish justices to decide how to proceed. Just a few weeks later, however, his house in Canterbury was seized by a parliamentarian commander, and he himself was arrested and thrown into the Fleet prison. Although he was released without charge three weeks' later, his health was broken, and he died in January 1643.

Dean Bargrave's widow lived on until 1667, and probably remained the chatelaine of Eastry Court until her death. By then, the lease was in the hands of her grandson, Charles Bargrave (1651-1713), who pulled down part of the house in 1675 and added a new wing. Through his marriage in 1676, he acquired a manor at Charing (Kent), but Eastry seems to have remained his main home. At his death Eastry passed to his son, Isaac Bargrave (1680-1727), who pulled down more of the house and built a regular new front which survives today. His only son, Isaac Bargrave (1721-1800), was a bachelor, who having no family left the estate to his niece, Christian (1751-1806), and her husband Robert Tournay (c.1757-1825), who took the name Tournay-Bargrave. They also had no sons, and Eastry Court passed to their elder daughter, Christian (1782-1858) and her husband William Bridger (d. 1855). They left four daughters as co-heirs, and after Christian's death the lease was sold away from the family.

The story of one more member of the family must be explored further. This was the Dean's younger son, Robert Bargrave (1628-61), who seems to have inherited both his father's interest in the theatre and his cousin John's love of travel. He went very early to Grays Inn and Cambridge, but after the outbreak of the Civil War was moved to Oxford, which was a more comfortable berth for those of a Royalist persuasion. In 1647 he left England, perhaps largely for political reasons, and accompanied Sir Thomas Bendish to Constantinople, where Bendish had been appointed ambassador to the Porte. He then became established in business as a merchant, trading with the Levant and around the Mediterranean. Like his cousin John (with whom he spent several weeks in Italy in 1647), he kept a diary of his travels which conveys the flavour of the life of an Englishman abroad at this time. It also reveals his continuing interest in drama, for it contains the text, musical setting and dance notation for a masque of his devising, as well as a good deal of poetry. In 1656, Robert returned to England and became secretary to Lord Winchilsea, and when the Earl was appointed ambassador to Constantinople he accompanied him on his journey in order to take up the post of Secretary of the Levant Company in Constantinople. However, he died of a fever at Smyrna (now Izmir) early in 1661, and was thus deprived of the possibility of the sort of comfortable old age his older cousin John enjoyed.

Bifrons Place, Patrixbourne, Kent

Bifrons Place at Patrixbourne in Kent was not, in origin, the seat of one of the manors of Patrixbourne, but was built in 1607-11 for John Bargrave, the majority of whose lands lay in the neighbouring parish of Bridge. We would probably know rather little about the house he built were it not for the happy survival of a birds-eye view of the estate painted in about 1700, perhaps by Jan van der Vaardt (1647-1721) (but previously attributed to Jan Wyck, John Wootton and Jan Siberechts), which is now in the collection of the Yale Center for British Art. 

Bifrons, Patrixbourne: the red brick house built for John Bargrave in 1607-11. Image: Yale Centre for British Art.

The unusual name of the house is said to mean 'two fronts', and although it could be argued that most country houses have at least two fronts, here it was perhaps coined because the two fronts were so different (there was another house in Essex with the same name). The painting shows the garden side of the red brick house, but it gives some hints about the entrance side.
Bifrons, Patrixbourne: detail of the birds-eye view above.
A close-up allows one to see the tops of three formal gables peeking over the roof, so the entrance side was probably flatter and more formal. On the garden side the main block was of three storeys, with the middle level being apparently a lower mezzanine of a rather curious kind. From this projected a central porch and two long wings composed of an open arcade on the ground floor with enclosed roofs above. The view also shows the side elevation of the building, where oriel windows on the first floor hint at richly decorated chambers within. It is clear that even if Bifrons was smaller than the great contemporary courtyard prodigy houses like Audley End, it was generously conceived and expensively finished. It was also complemented by a formal compartmented garden with statuary and a gazebo. 

John Bargrave's grandson sold the house in 1662 and it changed hands several times before being bought in 1694 by John Taylor (d. 1729), the son of a successful barrister who descended from a gentry family in Shropshire. It was very probably Taylor who commissioned the bird's eye view painting of the house. His grandson, the Rev. Edward Taylor (d. 1798), who inherited in 1770, rebuilt the Jacobean house, nearly on the same site, as a rather plain neo-classical two storey block of nine bays by three. The entrance front had a three bay pediment, and rusticated quoins defining the centre and angles. On the garden side, the two storeys were treated as a piano nobile and an attic; there was no stressed centre or pediment, but all the windows had architraves and those on the ground floor had pediments as well.

Bifrons, Patrixbourne: entrance front in the early 20th century.
Bifrons, Patrixbourne: the garden front as remodelled for the 2nd Marquess Conyngham. Image: Historic England.
Taylor was succeeded by his son, Edward Taylor (1774-1843), who was at one time the object of Jane Austen's affections, but in 1802 he married Louisa Beckenham, whose father was owner of the neighbouring estate of Bourne Park. For reasons which are unclear, they were perpetually short of money (having 12 children probably didn't help) and were forced to give Bifrons up from time to time and live more cheaply elsewhere, including stints on the continent and in a smaller house at Long Ditton in Surrey. Their tenants included (in 1828), Lady Byron and her daughter, the mathematician Ada Lovelace. In 1830 the Taylors sold Bifrons outright to Henry Conyngham, 1st Marquess Conyngham (1766-1832), reputedly for £100,000. The 2nd Marquess (1797-1876) made Bifrons his main English seat, and in the 1860s he undertook a remodelling, which added a new porch, the rather extraordinary miniature conservatory in the centre of the garden front, and possibly some other decorative details like the balustraded parapet, although this could have been part of the original design. The interiors were apparently more extensively altered, but I have not managed to find any internal photographs.
Bifrons, Patrixbourne: cottage ornee lodge. Image: Historic England
From 1882 onwards the house was let, with tenants including the cricketer Frank Penn (1851-1916), and at the outbreak of the Second World War it was taken over for military purposes. The mangled remains that were handed back to the family in 1945 were demolished soon afterwards, and nothing remains on the site today except for one rather charming cottage ornée lodge, probably built by Edward and Louisa Taylor in the first years of their marriage, soon after 1800, and some of the planting in the grounds. 

Descent: built 1607-11 for John Bargrave (1571-1624); to son, Robert Bargrave (1600-58); to son, John Bargrave (1637-68), who sold 1661/2 to Sir Arthur Slingsby (1623-66), 1st bt.; to son, Sir Charles Slingsby (d. after 1677), 2nd bt.; sold 1677 to Thomas Baker of London; to William Whotton of London, who sold 1680 to Thomas Adrian; sold 1694 to John Taylor (d. 1729); to son, Dr. Brook Taylor (d. 1731); to brother, Rev. Herbert Taylor (d. 1763); to son, Herbert Taylor (d. 1770); to brother, Rev. Edward Taylor (d. 1798), who rebuilt the house; to son, Edward Taylor (1774-1843); sold 1830 to Henry Conyngham (1766-1832), 1st Marquess Conyngham; to on, Francis Nathaniel Conyngham (1797-1876), 2nd Marquess Conyngham; to son, George Henry Conyngham (1825-82), 3rd Marquess Conyngham; to son, Henry Francis Conyngham (1857-97), 4th Marquess Conyngham; to son, Victor George Henry Francis Conyngham (1883-1918), 5th Marquess Conyngham; to brother, Frederick William Burton Conyngham (1890-1974), 6th Marquess Conyngham, who demolished it in 1948. The house was let after 1882 and occupied by the military, 1939-45.

Eastry Court, Kent

Eastry Court: the early 18th century entrance front hides a much earlier building behind.

The house now has the appearance of a long low ten-bay two-storey brick house with a hipped roof, but this masks an extremely complex story that is not fully understood. The manor belonged in Saxon times to the kings of Kent, who gave it to the monastery of Christ Church, Canterbury. The cellars below the house contain some coursed rubble walls once thought to be a survival from a Saxon royal palace, and although this is no longer accepted, the house may well stand on the palace site. A thatched hall house existed here in 1294-95 and was then pulled down and replaced by a timber-framed aisled hall with a tiled roof and a chamber at one end. A new kitchen was built in 1314-15, the upper end of the hall was reinforced in 1318-19, and more radical repairs were carried out in 1330-31, when stone walls were added. Parts of this walling may remain at the rear, where there are flint walls.

At some point, probably in the 14th century, a timber-framed cross wing was added at the lower (north) end of the hall. If, as seems likely, the chamber that formed part of the original building phase lay at the upper (south) end of the hall, the addition of a wing at the north end would have made this quite a substantial house. An 18th century engraving of unknown date shows a brick range with a steeply-pitched roof south of the present house, which could be the former upper-end wing, but this was demolished before the age of photography. In the early 16th century a further small extension was made at the east end of the low-end wing, the purpose of which is unknown, although it had a crown post roof, suggesting fairly high status. It is possible that this was the chapel, recorded as being on the east side of the house, and to have been made into a kitchen after the original kitchen was demolished in 1675; in 1800 the east window, though blocked, was still visible but it has gone since, and this range now shows evidence of truncation. Later in the 16th century, the hall range was updated: a chimney was built within it, a screen was erected to divide the hall from the entrance passage, and a floor was inserted in the hall to provide an upper chamber. In the early 19th century the initials T A N (for Thomas and Anne Nevinson, tenants at the end of the 16th century) could be seen picked out in the brickwork of the house, but these had disappeared by 1870.

Eastry Court: showing the house in relation to the parish church and village pond.

From the early 17th century, the house and its demesne lands were leased by Canterbury Cathedral to the Bargrave family, who extended the lower-end wing to the north by a three-storey block, and later infilled the space between this and the early 16th century addition. Despite all these changes, it is thought that the medieval origin of the house as an aisled hall would still have been quite apparent until, in the early 18th century, most of the hall was demolished for Isaac Bargrave (d. 1727) and a new brick structure was erected on its footprint, reputedly in 1723. At the same time, the top storey of the 17th century block was removed, and the house was given a new brick facade with sash windows and a low-pitched roof. A pine panelled room with raised and fielded panelling, dado rails and a moulded cornice is presumably of the same date. In the mid 18th century, the house is recorded to have been divided into two tenements, 'each with its own hall', but this arrangement came to an end in 1782, and in 1786 Isaac Bargrave (d. 1800) "pulled down a considerable part of the antient building, consisting of stone walls of great strength and thickness, bringing to view some gothic arched door ways of stone, which proved the house to have been of such construction formerly, and to have been a very antient building". It seems likely that this demolition involved the removal of the upper-end wing of the house which is shown in an 18th century engraving.

Descent: Canterbury Cathedral leased to Thomas and Anne Nevinson (d. 1594) and later to Very Rev. Isaac Bargrave (1587-1643); to son, Thomas Bargrave (1620-54); to son, Charles Bargrave (1651-1713); to son, Isaac Bargrave (1680-1727); to son, Isaac Bargrave (1721-1800); to niece, Christian Clare (1751-1806), wife of Robert Tourney (later Tourney-Bargrave) (d. 1825); to daughter, Christian (1782-1858), wife of William Bridger (c.1774-1855); sold c.1859 to George Gardener (d. 1900); sold to George Gunson; sold 1925 to Capt. Tordiffe... the Ecclesiastical Commissioners gained possession c.1940 and sold the house in 1946 to F.H. Shoobridge, who divided it into five was later reconverted into a single residence... sold 1981 to Marion Gear (fl. 1996)..sold before 2006 to David Anthony Freud (b. 1950), Baron Freud.

Bargrave family of Bifrons

Bargrave, Robert (d. 1600). Son of John Bargrave of Bridge (Kent) and his wife Alice Kennard, who was later the wife of John Lukyn of Fordwich. Yeoman and tanner. He married, 1568, Joanna (d. 1598), daughter of John Gilbert of Sandwich, and had issue:
(1) John Bargrave (1571-1624) (q.v.);
(2) Anne Bargrave (c.1573-1615), born about 1573; married, 2 November 1592 at Patrixbourne, Robert Naylor (d. 1618), but may have had no issue; buried at Patrixbourne, 25 April 1615;
(3) Alice Bargrave (c.1575-1640), born about 1575; married, 11 January 1596/7 at Nonington (Kent), Robert Turnlie alias Tourner; buried at Speldhurst (Kent), 1 November 1640;
(4) Angela Bargrave (c.1577-1645), born about 1577; married, 4 October 1604 at Patrixbourne, Very Rev. John Boys (1571-1625), rector of Betteshanger (Kent) and Dean of Canterbury, son of Thomas Boys of Eythorne and Barston (Kent), but had no issue; buried in Canterbury Cathedral, 13 November 1645;
(5) George Bargrave (c.1578-c.1630), born before 1579; a sea captain employed in the trade between England, Bermuda and Virginia, who reputedly brought the first slaves to Bermuda from Africa to dive for pearls, although when this venture failed they were put to work planting and harvesting the first large crops of tobacco and sugar cane; in 1619 he settled land on the lower James River; married, 20 July 1615 at St Gregory by St Paul, London, Dorcas (who m2, Robert Adney of Hawkinge), daughter of Capt. John Martin, one of the earliest settlers on the James River, and had issue one daughter; he probably died in Virginia sometime after 1625;
(6) Isaac Bargrave (b. & d. 1580), baptised at Bridge, 12 June 1580; died in infancy and was buried at Bridge, 2 December 1580;
(7) Rev. Thomas Bargrave (1581-1621), baptised at Bridge, 2 January 1581/2; educated at Clare College, Cambridge (matriculated c.1596; BA 1599/1600; MA 1603; BD 1610; DD 1621); rector of Sevington (Kent), 1615-21, but went to Virginia in 1619 and settled as a minister at Henrico; died at Henrico, Virginia, 1621, and bequeathed his library to the newly-established college at Henrico (which closed in 1624);
(8) Richard Bargrave (b. 1583), baptised at Bridge, 21 December 1583; married, 15 September 1608 at Westbere (Kent), Alice Tournay, and had issue two daughters;
(9) Robert Bargrave (1585-1650), baptised at Bridge, 8 February 1584/5; married, 13 February 1614 at Hollingbourne (Kent), Frances (d. 1635??), daughter of [forename unknown] Ballard of Brenchley (Kent) and widow of Richard Wood of Hollingbourne; buried 24 January 1649/50 at Bridge, where he is commemorated by a portrait in the chancel;
(10) Very Rev. Isaac Bargrave (1587-1643) [for whom see below, Bargrave family of Eastry Court].
He inherited a freehold farm at Bridge (Kent) from his father.
He was buried at Patrixbourne, 14 January 1599/1600. His wife died in 1598.

Bargrave, John (1571-1624). Eldest son of Robert Bargrave (d. 1600) of Bridge (Kent) and his wife Joanna, daughter of John Gilbert of Sandwich, born at Bridge, 13 September 1571. Admitted to Lincoln's Inn (special admission), 7 November 1590. He was an officer in the Earl of Essex's regiment in wars against Spain during the 1590s, and in the 1610s became an investor in the Virginia Company (founded in 1606); he later claimed to be 'the first person who established a private plantation in Virginia' in about 1618, and to have a patent of free trade from the company; a claim which led to a lengthy and acrimonious dispute with Sir Thomas Smythe about the government of Virginia; in the end he lost heavily on his adventures in the colony and was obliged to sell his property there. In 1611 he obtained a grant of arms from William Camden, Clarenceux King of Arms. He married, 13 February 1597 at St Mary Woolchurch, London, a wealthy heiress, Jane (1574-1638), daughter and co-heir of Giles Crouch, citizen and haberdasher of London, and had issue:
(1) Giles Bargrave (b. & d. 1598), baptised at Patrixbourne, 3 November 1598 but died in infancy and was buried there 8 November 1598;
(2) Robert Bargrave (1600-58) (q.v.);
(3) Joan Bargrave (b. 1603), baptised at Patrixbourne, 3 May 1603; married 1st, 20 January 1627/8, Ven. Thomas Rayment alias Raymond (d. 1631), archdeacon of St. Albans, and had issue two sons; married 2nd, Mr. Hussey;
(4) Jane Bargrave (b. 1605), baptised at Patrixbourne, 7 April 1605; married, 1626, Rev. Lewis (or Ludovic) Wemyss (1608-59), sometime vicar of Gedney (Lincs) and rector of Finmere (Oxon) and prebendary of Westminster, probably fifth son of Sir James Wemyss of Bogie, and had issue;
(5) Rev. John Bargrave (1610-80), baptised at Nonington, 18 November 1610; educated at King's School, Canterbury and Peterhouse, Cambridge (matriculated 1629; BA 1633; MA 1636; DD 1660); Fellow of Peterhouse 1637-44 (ejected for his Royalist sympathies) and 1660-63 ; travelled in France, Italy, Germany and the Low Counties, 1645-60, sometimes acting as tutor to young gentlemen from Kent, and collecting small antiquities and momentoes of his travels; his diary and part of his collection are preserved at Canterbury Cathedral; he also played a major (and perhaps predominant) role in the compilation of the most famous English guidebook to Italy of the Civil War period, An Itinerary Contayning a Voyage Made Through Italy, in the Yeare 1646, and 1647, published under the name of his nephew, John Raymond in 1648; ordained, 1660; rector of Harbledown (Kent), 1661-70 and Pluckley (Kent), 1662-76; prebendary of Canterbury Cathedral, 1662-80; in 1662-63 he made his last journey abroad, at the request of King Charles II, taking £10,000 raised by public subscription, to ransom British subjects captured by Barbary pirates and held as slaves at Algiers; he married, 26 March 1665, a rich widow, Frances (1617-86), daughter of Sir John Wild and widow of Thomas Osborne of Nackington, and had issue one son; died 11 May 1680 and was buried in Canterbury Cathedral;
(6) Sarah Bargrave (b. c.1613), born about 1613; married, 1635 (licence 10 June), Partridge Rigdon of Gedney (Lincs);
(7) Anne Bargrave (b. 1614), baptised at Patrixbourne, 1 November 1614; died in infancy;
(8) Hester Bargrave (b. 1617), baptised at Patrixbourne, 20 July 1617.
He inherited an estate at Bridge and Patrixbourne from his father. He enlarged the estate and built Bifrons Place in 1607-11, developments which were made possible by his wife's large dowry.
He was buried at Patrixbourne, 24 October 1624, where he is commemorated by a monument erected by his grandson in 1663. His widow was buried at Patrixbourne, 18 December 1638.

Bargrave, Robert (1600-58). Eldest surviving son of John Bargrave (1571-1624) and his wife Jane, daughter and co-heir of Giles Crouche of London, baptised at Patrixbourne, 23 November 1600. Educated at Grays Inn (admitted 1618). In the 1620s and 1630s he was an officer in the Royal Navy and involved in ferrying troops to France for the disastrous Ile de Ré expedition. JP for Kent by 1641. He was an active supporter of the Kentish Rebellion of 1648, and travelled to Holland with Sir Henry Palmer to secure Dutch support, returning with 1500 soldiers; after the collapse of the insurrection he fled abroad and had to seek the permission of Parliament to return in 1649; his estates were sequestered and in 1651 he paid a fine of £350 to recover them. He married, 13 April 1635 at Canterbury Cathedral, Elizabeth (1617-72), daughter of Sir Samuel Peyton, 1st bt., and had issue:
(1) John Bargrave (1637-68) (q.v.);
(2) Robert Bargrave (1638-69), baptised at Patrixbourne, 14 September 1638; a proctor in Doctor's Commons; died in 1668 or 1669;
(3) Thomas Bargrave (1639-41); baptised at Patrixbourne, 3 September 1639; died in infancy and was buried at Patrixbourne, 28 May 1641;
(4) James Bargrave (1640-62), baptised at Patrixbourne, 15 December 1640; died unmarried; will proved 6 August 1662;
(5) Elizabeth Bargrave (1642-1703), baptised at Patrixbourne, 4 July 1642; married, 22 May 1684 at Otterden (Kent), John Fullager (d. 1715?) of Langley, but had no issue; buried at Patrixbourne, 6 January 1703;
(6) Thomas Bargrave (b. 1643), baptised at Patrixbourne, 20 October 1643; probably died young;
(7) Samuel Bargrave (b. 1646), baptised at Patrixbourne, 31 March 1646; probably died young;
(8) Isaac Bargrave (1648-79?), baptised at Patrixbourne, 30 April 1648; living in 1669; possibly the man of this name buried at Guildford (Surrey), 24 December 1679;
(9) Mary Bargrave (1650-53), baptised at Patrixbourne, 5 May 1650; died young and was buried at Patrixbourne, 28 December 1653;
(10) Jane Bargrave (1651-68), baptised at Patrixbourne, 17 June 1651; died unmarried and without issue and was buried at Patrixbourne, 20 November 1668.
He inherited the Bifrons estate from his father in 1624.
He was buried at Patrixbourne, 13 October 1658. His wife died in 1672.

Bargrave, John (1637-68). Elder son of Robert Bargrave (1600-58) and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Samuel Peyton, bt., baptised at Patrixbourne, 11 July 1637. Educated at Grays Inn (admitted 1654). He was unmarried, and was without issue.
He inherited the Bifrons estate from his father in 1658, but sold it to Sir Arthur Slingsby in 1662. He may have subsequently lived abroad or at Colchester (Essex).
His date of death is unknown, but administration of his goods was granted to his brother Robert, 23 July 1668, and after the latter's death to his brother Isaac, 5 August 1669.

Bargrave family of Eastry Court

Very Rev. Isaac Bargrave 
Bargrave, Very Rev. Isaac (1587-1643). Sixth son of Robert Bargrave (d. 1600) of Bridge [for whom see above], and his wife Joanna, daughter of John Gilbert of Sandwich (Kent), baptised at Patrixbourne, 20 December 1587. Educated at Pembroke College (BA 1607), Clare College, Cambridge (MA 1610; DD 1622) and Lincoln's Inn (admitted 1622). In 1612 he filled the office of junior taxor in Cambridge (a University post charged with supervising matters relating to trade in the town of Cambridge). Ordained deacon and priest, 1611; rector of Eythorne (Kent), 1612-43 and Chartham (Kent), 1628-43, but retained his Cambridge connections and performed at the university in George Ruggle's Latin comedy, Ignoramus, before James I on 8 March 1615; chaplain to Sir Henry Wotton while the latter was ambassador to Venice, 1616-18; he returned to England with Wotton's recommendation to the King, and was appointed rector of St Margaret, Westminster and prebendary of Canterbury Cathedral, 1622-25 and chaplain to Charles, Prince of Wales (later Charles I). In 1625, he succeeded his brother-in-law, John Boys, as Dean of Canterbury, a post he held until his death. In his sermons at Westminster, Bargrave struck a robustly independent line, seeking to position the Church of England as a middle way between extremes, which succeeded in satisfying neither the Puritans on the one hand nor his Archbishop, William Laud, on the other. Within the cathedral close, Bargrave engaged in disputes with both Laud and the cathedral clergy and diocesan registrar, and he stirred up further trouble by claiming precedence over the deans of London and Westminster. His unpopularity extended to Parliament, where he was attacked verbally and he was one of the targets of a 1641 bill to abolish deans and chapters, which he exerted himself to oppose successfully. On the outbreak of the Civil War, Bargrave hosted a meeting of gentry to put into effect Charles I's Commission of Array, but within a few weeks his deanery had been occupied by Parliamentarian forces commanded by Col. Edwin Sandys, and his wife and children were roughly treated; he himself was absent but he was arrested at Gravesend and imprisoned in the Fleet prison for three weeks. After being released without charge, he returned to Canterbury, but his health had been broken, and he died soon afterwards. He married, 1 October 1618 at Boughton Malherbe (Kent), Elizabeth (1593-1667), daughter of Sir John Dering, kt., of Pluckley (Kent), and had issue:
(1) Thomas Bargrave (1620-54) (q.v.);
(2) Anne Bargrave (1621-1701), baptised at Eythorne, 12 April 1621; married 1st, 27 December 1636 at Canterbury Cathedral, Rev. Thomas Coppin (d. 1639); married 2nd, 22 October 1640 at Eythorne, Sir Henry Palmer (d. 1659) of Howletts, Bekesbourne and later of Covent Garden, Westminster (Middx), an active supporter of the Kentish Rebellion of 1648, and had issue three daughters; married 3rd, 1669 (licence 15 November) in the chapel of Grays Inn, as his second wife, Sir Philip Palmer (1615-83), kt. of Dorney Court (Bucks), cupbearer to King Charles II; buried at Wingham (Kent), 29 July 1701;
(3) Edward Bargrave (c.1622-24), baptised at St Margaret, Westminster, 16 January 1622/3; died in infancy and was buried at St Margaret, Westminster, 8 April 1624;
(4) John Bargrave (1624-25), baptised at St Margaret, Westminster, 8 February 1623/4; died in infancy and was buried at Canterbury Cathedral, 25 July 1625;
(5) Isaac Bargrave (b. & d. 1626), baptised at Canterbury Cathedral, 17 November 1626, but died and was buried there the following day;
(6) Robert Bargrave (1628-61), born 25 March and baptised at Canterbury Cathedral, 30 March 1628; educated at Grays Inn (admitted 1640 at an unusually early age, perhaps so that he could witness the dramatic entertainments there), Clare College, Cambridge (admitted 1642) and Corpus Christi College, Oxford (matriculated 1643); in 1647 he left England (perhaps primarily for political reasons) with the embassy to Turkey of Sir Thomas Bendish, and established himself as a merchant trading with the Levant and Mediterranean ports, 1647-56; he kept a diary (now in the Bodleian Library, Oxford) of his travels by sea and over land, interspersed with his own poetry and the text of a masque complete with a musical setting and dance steps; personal secretary to Heneage Finch, Earl of Winchilsea, 1656-60, and on the Earl being appointed ambassador to Constantinople, he was appointed as Secretary to the Levant Company in Constantinople, 1660-61, but died en route to his posting; married, c.1653, Elizabeth (1632-1703), daughter and heiress of Robert Turner of Canterbury (Kent) and had issue two sons (who died young) and two daughters; died and was buried at Smyrna, between 7 January and 9 February 1661;
(7) Mary Bargrave (1629-86), baptised at Canterbury Cathedral, 31 May 1629; married, 5 March 1651, John Smythe (1615-93) of Lested Lodge, Chart Sutton (Kent), and had issue four sons and seven daughters (many of whom died young); buried at Chart Sutton, 3 February 1685/6;
(8) Jane Bargrave (b. & d. 1630), baptised at Eythorne, 4 June 1630; died in infancy and was buried at Canterbury Cathedral, 23 July 1630;
(9) Hester Bargrave (b. 1632), baptised at Canterbury Cathedral, 23 December 1632; married 1st, 7 May 1662 at St Bartholomew-the-Less, London, Francis Nowers (1631-70), herald painter, who died in a fire at his house in London, and had issue one son and three daughters (two of the children also died in the fire); married 2nd, 5 February 1680/1 at Canterbury Cathedral, Francis Turner of London; date of death not found;
(10) Elizabeth Bargrave (b. 1635), baptised at Canterbury Cathedral, 11 March 1634/5; married Edward Wilsford (perhaps the man of this name who was vicar of Lydd);
(11) Henry Bargrave (1636-37), baptised at home, 28 December 1636; died in infancy and was buried at Canterbury Cathedral, 8 January 1636/7.
He lived at Eythorne (Kent) until he purchased a lease of Eastry Court from the Dean & Chapter of Canterbury Cathedral in c.1618.
He was buried in the Dean's Chapel at Canterbury Cathedral, 25 January 1642/3, where a monument was erected by his nephew in 1679. His widow was buried in Canterbury Cathedral, 29 June 1667.

Bargrave, Thomas (1620-54). Eldest son of Very Rev. Isaac Bargrave (1587-1643) and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of John Dering, baptised at Patrixbourne, 7 May 1620. Educated at Grays Inn (admitted 1638). He married, 5 August 1647 at St Bartholomew-the-Less, London, Honora Estcott (c.1626-82), and had issue:
(1) Charles Bargrave (1651-1713) (q.v.);
(2) Thomas Bargrave (b. 1654), baptised at Eastry, 24 March 1653/4.
He inherited Eastry Court from his father in 1642.
He died in 1654; his will was proved 4 September 1654. His widow married 2nd, 20 January 1660 at St Mary Bredin, Canterbury, Joseph Roberts of Canterbury, and was buried at Eastry, 31 March 1682.

Bargrave, Charles (1651-1713). Elder son of Thomas Bargrave (1620-54) and his wife Honora Estcott, baptised at Eastry, 13 May 1651. He married, 18 November 1676 at Merstham-le-Hatch (Kent), Elizabeth (d. 1732), daughter of Robert Withwick of Frittenden (Kent), and had issue:
(1) Elizabeth Bargrave (1678-1746), baptised at Tenterden (Kent), 12 May 1678; married, 1 October 1702 at Littlebourne (Kent), Edward St. Leger (d. 1729) of Deal (Kent), surgeon, and had issue one son and five daughters; buried at Gt. Mongeham (Kent), 28 October 1746;
(2) Isaac Bargrave (1680-1727) (q.v.);
(3) Honora Bargrave (1682-1776), baptised at Eastry, 29 March 1682; married*, 21 August 1709 at Eastry, Charles Knowler (1678-1750) of Canterbury, and had issue one son and two daughters; died 9 March and was buried at St Alfege, Canterbury (Kent), 16 March 1776; will proved 16 April 1776;
(4) Martha Bargrave (1684-1750), baptised at Eastry, 27 March 1684; married, 6 April 1714 at Swingfield (Kent), Zouch Pilcher (1686-1762) of Swingfield, and had issue two sons and one daughter; died 4 October and was buried at Swingfield, 11 October 1750;
(5) Capt. Charles Bargrave (1686-1755), baptised 6 March 1686; an officer in the Royal Navy, 1701-43 (Lt., 1707/8; Capt., 1741), 'a gallant and veteran commander' who was apparently dismissed from the service in obscure circumstances, 27 February 1742/3; lived at Shurland, Eastchurch, Isle of Sheppey (Kent); married, 22 September 1719 at Lamb's Chapel, Monkwell St., London, Sarah Austen (d. 1772) of Eastchurch, and had issue two daughters; buried at Eastchurch, 4 August 1755; will proved 26 March 1765;
(6) Hester Bargrave (1692-1741), baptised 6 March 1691/2; married, 24 February 1717/8 at Swingfield, William Bridges (1687-1746) of Sandwich; buried at Eastry, 4 March 1741;
(7) Robert Bargrave (1695-1779), born 31 January 1695; married 1st, 10 May 1733 at St Margaret, Canterbury, Elizabeth (c.1705-37), daughter of Sir Francis Leigh of Hawley, and had issue one son; married 2nd, 30 June 1753, Elizabeth (d. by 1778), widow of Thomas Basset of London; died 17 December 1779; will proved 15 April 1780;
(8) Mary Bargrave (1697-1747), baptised 13 December 1697; married, 29 May 1718 at Knowlton (Kent), David Denn (d. 1774?) of Wingham (Kent), and had issue two sons; probably the Mary Denne buried at Eastry, 29 December 1747.
He inherited Eastry Court from his father in 1654. Through his marriage he also acquired the manor of Brockton in Charing (Kent).
He was buried, 7 November 1713 at Eastry, where he is commemorated by a monument. His widow was buried at Eastry, 26 December 1732.
* Some accounts show her as marrying 2nd, Joseph Roberts, but I have found no such marriage and she was buried as Honora Knowler.

Bargrave, Isaac (1680-1727). Eldest son of Charles Bargrave (1651-1713) and his wife Elizabeth Withwick, baptised at Tenterden (Kent), 25 April 1680. He married, 12 September 1717 at St Paul's Cathedral, London, Christiana (1698-1772), daughter of Sir Francis Leigh of Hawley, and had issue:
(1) Christian Bargrave (1718-96) (q.v.);
(2) Frances Bargrave (1719-95), baptised at Eastry, 1 November 1719; noted for her sound understanding and retentive memory, and for her piety and Christian charity; married, 26 December 1758 at Hythe (Kent), John Broadley (c.1705-84) of Dover (Kent), surgeon, but died without issue and was buried at Eastry, 17 March 1795;
(3) Isaac Bargrave (1721-1800) (q.v.).
He inherited Eastry Court and Brockton from his father in 1713, but sold Brockton to Humphrey Punder.
He died in March 1727 and was buried at Eastry. His widow was buried at Eastry, 14 October 1772.

Bargrave, Isaac (1721-1800). Only son of Isaac Bargrave (1680-1727) and his wife Christian, daughter of Sir Francis Leigh of Hawley, baptised at Eastry, 10 September 1721. Educated at Middle Temple (admitted 1737). Articled to Joseph Ashton, solicitor, 1738, and practised as an attorney in Cook's Court, Carey St., London for some years. JP for Kent. He married, 23 March 1750 at Canterbury Cathedral, Sarah (1723-87), daughter of George Lynch MD of Ripple (Kent), but had no issue.
He inherited Eastry Court from his father in 1727, and came of age in about 1744. At his death he bequeathed his leasehold at Eastry Court and his freehold property at Eastry, Worth, Joychurch, Newington (nr. Chatham) and Canterbury in Kent to Robert Tournay, the husband of his niece Christian.
He died 24 May 1800 and was buried at Eastry; his will was proved 12 June 1800. His wife died 16 April and was buried at Eastry, 24 April 1787.

Bargrave, Christian (1718-96). Elder daughter of Isaac Bargrave (d. 1727) and his wife Christian, daughter of Sir Francis Leigh of Hawley, baptised at Eastry, July 1718. She married 1st, Rev. Claudius Clare (1717-64) of Hythe (Kent), vicar of Lympne, 1748-64 and rector of Dymchurch 1752-64, and 2nd, 28 October 1785, Capt. Robert Kirk RN (c.1732-1802), and had issue:
(1.1) Christian Clare (1751-1806) (q.v.);
(1.2) Claudius Clare (b. & d. 1756), baptised at Hythe, 21 September 1756; died in infancy and was buried at Hythe, 24 October 1756;
(1.3) Frances Clare (b. & d. 1758), baptised at Hythe, 24 January 1758; died in infancy and was buried at Hythe, 21 June 1758.
She lived at Hythe (Kent).
She died after a long illness, 28 February, and was buried at Eastry, 12 March 1796. Her first husband was buried at Hythe, 24 December 1764. Her second husband was buried at Eastry, 26 May 1802.

Clare, Christian (1751-1806). Only surviving child of Rev. Claudius Clare of Hythe (Kent) and his wife Christian, elder daughter of Isaac Bargrave of Eastry Court, baptised at Hythe, 23 June 1751. She married, 10 January 1782 at Hythe, Robert Tournay (later Tournay-Bargrave) (c.1757-1825), attorney-at-law, son of Robert Tournay, and had issue:
(1) Christian Tournay-Bargrave (1782-1858) (q.v.);
(2) Sarah Tournay-Bargrave (1784-1832), baptised at Saltwood, 4 April 1784; married 1st, 20 May 1805 (div. 1817), Richard Halford of Canterbury, banker with Baker & Co., and had issue one son (who died young); married 2nd, 24 May 1819 at Eastry, Capt. Sir Thomas Staines RN* (1776-1830) of Dent-de-Lion, Garlinge (Kent), and had issue two daughters; married 3rd, 24 November 1831 at Margate, George Gunning (1783-1849) of Frindsbury (Kent), but continued to be known as Lady Staines; died 25 January 1832 and was buried at St John the Baptist, Margate (Kent); she is commemorated by monuments at both Margate and Frindsbury.
Her husband inherited Eastry Court and other estates in Kent from her uncle in 1800.
She died 23 September 1806 and was buried at Eastry. Her husband died 19 May and was buried at Eastry, 27 May 1825; his will was proved 16 November 1825.
* Sir Thomas Staines was the first cousin and former close friend of her first husband but was convicted of 'criminal conversation' with Sarah in 1817 and fined £1,000.

Tournay-Bargrave, Christian (1782-1858). Elder daughter of Robert Tournay (later Tournay-Bargrave) and his wife Christian, daughter of Rev. Claudius Clare of Hythe (Kent), baptised at Saltwood (Kent), 19 December 1782. She married, 30 September 1805 at Eastry, as his second wife, William Bridger (c.1774-1855) of Lympne (Kent), and had issue:
(1) Christina Bargrave Bridger (b. & d. 1808), baptised at Eastry, 28 June 1808; died in infancy and was buried at Eastry, 6 July 1808;
(2) Christian Bargrave Bridger (1809-90), baptised at Eastry, 25 July 1809; married 9 April 1844 at Eastry, Capt. Thomas Harvey RN of The Lodge, Upper Deal (Kent), but had no issue; died 2 August 1890; will proved 25 August 1890 (estate £11,592);
(3) Sarah Bargrave Bridger (1811-86), baptised at Eastry, 30 April 1811; married 1st, 25 October 1854 at Eastry, Capt. Augustus Charles May RN (1811-63), son of John May, solicitor; married 2nd, 7 August 1866 at St Luke, Lower Norwood (Surrey), as his second wife, Rev. George Rainier (c.1813-72), vicar of Ninfield (Sussex), but had no issue; died at Anerley (Surrey), 29 November 1886 and was buried at Kensal Green Cemetery (Middx); will proved 4 January 1887 (estate £8,035);
(4) Bargrave Bridger (1813-22), baptised at Eastry, 16 June 1813; died young, 13 August 1822 and was buried at Eastry, 21 August 1822;
(5) Mary Bargrave Bridger (1815-83), baptised at Eastry, 14 May 1815; married, 3 April 1856 at Eastry, as his second wife, Cmdr. Edward Bunbury Nott RN of Beach House, Deal, son of Rev. Edward Nott, but had no issue; died at Anerley (Surrey), 10 November 1878; will proved 29 November 1878 (effects under £5,000);
(6) Charlotte Frances Bargrave Bridger (1817-66), baptised at Eastry, 21 August 1817; married 1st, 17 July 1850 at Eastry, Capt. John Allen William Wade (1812-51), an officer in the Royal Marines, son of Col. Hamlet Nicholas Wade; married 2nd, 7 December 1854 at Eastry, as his second wife, Rev. Thomas Watkins (1805-75), rector of Llansantffraed (Brecons.), son of Thomas Watkins esq., and had issue one son; died 21 May and was buried at Llansantffraed, 25 May 1866.
She and her husband inherited Eastry Court from her father in 1825. After her death the lease was sold to George Gardener.
She died 9 September 1858; her will was proved 21 September 1858 (effects under £4,000). Her husband died 19 January 1855; his will was proved 21 February 1855.


W. Bristow, The history and topographical survey of the county of Kent, vol. 10, 1800, pp. 98-121; J. Phillimore, Reports of cases argued and determined in the ecclesiastical courts at Doctor's Commons, 1809-12, vol. 1, pp. 316-33; W. Berry, Pedigrees of the families in the county of Kent, 1830, pp. 106-07; W.F. Shaw, Liber Estriae, 1870, especially pp. 54-55; Anon., 'Captain John Bargrave's charges against the former Government of Virginia, 1622', The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Jan. 1899, vol 6, no. 3, pp. 225-28; S. Pearson, P.S. Barnwell & A.T. Adams, A gazetteer of medieval houses in Kent, 1994, pp. 51-53; P.S. Barnwell & A.T. Adams, The house within: interpreting medieval houses in Kent, 1994, pp. 140-41; S. Bann, Under the Sign: John Bargrave as collector, traveler and witness, 1994; M.G. Brennan, 'The exile of two Kentish Royalists during the English Civil War, Archaelogia Cantiana, vol. 120, 2000, pp. 77-105; J. Newman, The buildings of England: Kent - North-East and East, 3rd edn., 2013, pp. 338, 483; Channel 4, Time Team, series 13, episode 6;

Location of archives

No significant accumulation is known to survive. The diary and collection of John Bargrave is at Canterbury Cathedral (; the diary of his cousin Robert in the Bodleian Library.

Coat of arms

Or, on a pale gules a sword erect argent, hilted and pomelled gold, on a chief azure three bezants.

Can you help?

  • Can anyone provide a view of the entrance front of the Jacobean Bifrons Place, or any internal photographs of the Georgian and Victorian house there?
  • I refer above to an 18th century engraving of Eastry Court which I have not, in fact, been able to find. Can anyone supply me with an image of this view?
  • I should be most grateful if anyone can provide photographs or portraits of people whose names appear in bold above, and who are not already illustrated.
  • As always, any additions or corrections to the account given above will be gratefully received and incorporated.

Revision and acknowledgements

This post was first published 22 April 2019.

Sunday, 14 April 2019

(371) Bardwell of Bolton Hall

The early history of this family is unusually obscure, partly because they seem to have supplied misleading information to the editors of Burke's Landed Gentry. According to the descent given there, John Bardwell (1743-1826), with whom the genealogy below begins, was himself of West Harling Hall (Norfolk) and succeeded his father, another John, who was also seated there. This seems to be a complete fiction. Although an estate at West Harling had belonged to the Bardwell or Berdewell family in the medieval period, the family had long since ceased to hold any property there before the 18th century, and West Harling Hall - which was rebuilt after 1725 - was in other hands. John Bardwell seems, in fact, to have lived in London and to have started his career as a dealer in china, who also acted as a common carrier specialising in the transport of delicate goods. By 1785 he had moved to Sheffield, where he set up as an auctioneer. He was succeeded in this business by his son, Thomas Newman Bardwell (c.1787-1862), who in due course was joined in partnership by his sons, Thomas Newman Bardwell (1815-60) and Frederick Bardwell (1818/9-90). The business was evidently successful, and in 1845 the elder Thomas retired from the concern. At the end of his life, in 1858, he bought Bolton Hall near Fangfoss (Yorks ER). His intention may have been to hand this on to his elder son, but Thomas junior died in 1860. Frederick Bardwell, whose interests had become focused more on the cutlery trade, then had to take up the reins of the auctioneering business too, and when he inherited Bolton Hall in 1862 he let it out, perhaps because he felt the need to live nearer to Sheffield. His only son, Thomas Newman Frederick Bardwell (1850-1931) was however educated as a gentleman, and although he retained his father's interests in the cutlery trade, he lived a gentry lifestyle at Bolton. Most of the land was sold after the First World War, but the house was retained until his death, after which his son, Maj. Thomas Garnett Newman Bardwell (1883-1957) quickly sold it, perhaps to make financial provision for his younger siblings. Major Bardwell, who was a career soldier and racehorse owner, never married and lived subsequently in a villa at Royston (Herts), which he named 'The Boltons', presumably in reference to the name of his father's house rather than the exclusive residential district of London of that name.

Bolton Hall, Fangfoss, Yorkshire (ER)

Bolton Hall, near Fangfoss: the house after rambling additions of c.1882. Image: Historic England.

A well-proportioned two-storey five bay hipped-roofed house of rendered brick, built c.1760 for John Nicoll. The central three bays are stepped slightly forward under a three-bay pediment containing an oculus. When it was offered for sale in 1802 the house was said to consist of 'a Drawing Room and a Dining Room, each about 24 feet by 18, and proportionably high, two small rooms, a large Kitchen, back kitchen, pantry etc.' on the ground floor and 'seven bedrooms with closets etc.' on the upper floor, while a leasing advertisement of 1828 noted that it had recently undergone a thorough repair. The house had apparently already have been enlarged by 1836 when an advertisement referred to an entrance hall and library as well as a drawing room 33 feet by 21 and a dining room 30 feet by 21, and it was further enlarged and altered by T.N.F. Bardwell in about 1882. However, most of the 19th century additions were removed in 1969-73 when the house was restored by Ferrey & Mennim for Col. Worsley.

Bolton Hall: the house after reduction by Ferrey & Mennim in 1969-73.
Descent: John Nicoll... sold 1802...John Preston (fl. 1814-28)... Cook Cooper Taylor (d. 1835); to son, Isaac Taylor; sold 1858? to Thomas Newman Bardwell (c.1790-1862); to son, Frederick Bardwell (1818-90), who gave it to his son, Thomas Newman Frederick Bardwell (1850-1931); to son, Thomas Garnett Newman Bardwell (1883-1957), who sold c.1931?... Col. George Oliver Worsley (1927-2010); sold c.1987... Julian Richer (b. 1959).

Bardwell family of Bolton Hall

Bardwell, John (d. 1826). Parentage unknown. He may possibly be identifiable with the John Bardwell, 'dealer in china' who also acted as a carrier of other delicate goods between London and Norwich, and who invited custom in the press in 1780. By 1785 he was an auctioneer in Sheffield. He married Honor Newman and had issue including:
(1) John Bardwell (b. 1776), baptised at St Mary, Whitechapel (Middx), 28 August 1776;
(2) Hannah Bardwell (b. 1780), baptised at St Mary, Whitechapel (Middx), 28 May 1780;
(3) Elizabeth Bardwell (b. 1783), baptised at Christ Church, Spitalfields (Middx), 20 July 1783;
(4) Thomas Newman Bardwell (c.1787-1862) (q.v.).
He died in Sheffield, 21 August 1826. His wife's date of death is unknown.

Bardwell, Thomas Newman (c.1787-1862). Eldest son of John Bardwell (d. 1826) and his wife Honor Newman, baptised at Sheffield, 13 January 1788. JP for Yorkshire. Auctioneer in Sheffield (retired 1845). Trustee of the Rotherham & Four Lane Ends Turnpike Trust. He married, 29 June 1814 at Sheffield (Yorks), Martha Eadon (d. 1865) and had issue:
(1) Thomas Newman Bardwell (1815-60), born 2 June and baptised at Sheffield, 29 June 1815; auctioneer in Sheffield in partnership with his father and brother until 1845; also stockbroker, in partnership with his brother and John Fawcett until 1845; died without issue, at Scarborough (Yorks), 1 May 1860; administration of his goods granted to his father, 13 August 1860 (effects under £100).
(2) Frederick Bardwell (1818/9-90) (q.v.).
He bought Bolton Hall near Fangfoss (Yorks) in 1858.
He died 18 June, and was buried at Ecclesall (Yorks WR), 23 June 1862; his will was proved 9 July 1862 (effects under £4,000). His widow died in Scarborough, 2 September 1865; administration of her goods was granted 25 October 1879 (effects under £50).

Bardwell, Frederick (1818/9-90). Only surviving son of Thomas Newman Bardwell (c.1787-1862) and his wife Martha Eadon, born 15 July 1818/9* and baptised at Sheffield, 6 December 1826. He began as an auctioneer in Sheffield, in partnership with his father and brother, and was also a stockbroker, in partnership with his brother and John Fawcett, until 1845. He seems then to have broadened his interests, becoming an original promoter of Joseph Rodgers & Son Ltd., the cutlery manufacturers and one of the managing directors of that firm until shortly before his death; he was also a director of Samuel Fox & Co. Ltd. He played little part in public affairs apart from being a JP for the West Riding of Yorkshire and serving as a member of Sheffield Town Council, 1870-71, a position from which he resigned after finding the work uncongenial. He was a director of the Sheffield Water Co., 1874-76 and 1881-90. He paid for the building of St. Thomas, Wincobank, Sheffield, and the associated rectory and schools, 1876, in memory of his parents and brother. He married 1st, 27 March 1850 at Sheffield (Yorks), Anne (1820-50), daughter of Maurice Rodgers and 2nd, 7 November 1860 at St Martin, York, her sister Elizabeth Rodgers (1818-93), and had issue:
(1.1) Thomas Newman Frederick Bardwell (1850-1931) (q.v.).
He lived at Lynton (Devon) and Scarborough (Yorks) in the 1850s; he inherited Bolton Hall from his father in 1862 but let it from 1864 and lived at Woodleigh (Notts) and latterly at Park Villa, Worksop (Notts). He owned an estate at Wincobank, Sheffield, which he seems to have developed for housing.
He died 3 May 1890; his will was proved 4 June 1890 (estate £48,709). His first wife died in 1850. His widow was buried at Ecclesall (Yorks WR), 5 June 1893.
*The entry for his baptism in the parish register gives the date as 1818; the plate on his coffin said 1819 (as reported in the local press).

Bardwell, Thomas Newman Frederick (1850-1931). Only son of Frederick Bardwell (1818/9-90) and his wife Anne, daughter of Maurice Rodgers, born 3 July 1850. Educated at Malvern College, Pembroke College, Oxford (matriculated 1869; SCL and BA 1873; MA 1876) and the Inner Temple (admitted 1873; called 1877). Chairman of Joseph Rogers & Sons, cutlery manufacturers, of Sheffield, 1918; Barrister-at-law; JP and DL for East Riding of Yorkshire; County Councillor and Commissioner of Taxes for East Riding. He married, 29 April 1880 at Shifnal (Shrops.), Lucy Sophia (c.1854-99), eldest daughter of Rev. William Bishton Garnett-Botfield of Decker Hill and Bishop's Castle (Shrops.), and had issue:
(1) Grace Frederica Bardwell (1882-1960), born 30 June 1882; married, 4 January 1905, Percy Ayscough Willis (1882-1946), youngest son of Gen. Sir George Harry Smith Willis GCB and had issue two sons and two daughters; died 13 March 1960; will proved 9 May 1960 (estate £2,754);
(2) Thomas Garnett Newman Bardwell (1883-1957) (q.v.);
(3) Sybil Augusta Bardwell (1885-1954), born 2 February 1885; served with ARP in Second World War; married, 2 January 1908, Sir Geoffrey Arnold Ripley (1883-1954), 3rd bt., but had no issue; died 11 August 1954;
(4) Margery Sophia Bardwell (1886-1968), born 6 May 1886; married, 20 February 1906, Maj. William John Corbett-Winder (1875-1950) of Vaynor Park (Montgomerys.) and had issue one son and two daughters; died 20 December 1968; will proved 4 March 1969 (estate £805);
(5) Capt. Tatton Botfield Bardwell (1888-1928), born 18 August 1888; educated at Eton and Royal Military College, Sandhurst; an officer in Montgomeryshire Regt. (Capt.); married, 25 June 1914 at Holy Trinity, Chelsea (Middx), Mary Margaret (d. 1946), younger daughter of Alexander James Henry Campbell of Dunstaffnage, and had issue two sons and one daughter; died 14 March 1928;
(6) Mary Myrtle Bardwell (1891-1974), born 7 April and baptised at Full Sutton (Yorks), 10 May 1891; married, 11 February 1915 at St Saviour, Walton St., Chelsea (Middx), Rev. Edmund Henry Corbett-Winder (1882-1960), rector of West Stafford (Dorset), and had issue two sons and one daughter; died 28 January 1974; will proved 1 August 1974 (estate £5,853);
(7) Capt. William Scott Bardwell (1892-1968), born 18 April 1892; educated at Cheam School, Royal Naval Colleges, Osborne and Dartmouth; an officer in the Royal Navy, 1909-46 (2nd Lt., 1912; Lt., 1913; Cmdr., 1924; Capt., 1940); served in Second World War; awarded DSO and bar, 1942, 1944; appointed MVO, 1929; married, 18 October 1921, Ellen Louise, daughter of Dr. C. Manville Pratt of Towanda, Pennsylvania (USA) and had issue one son and one daughter; died 24 October 1968.
He inherited Bolton Hall from his father in 1890.
He died at Folkestone (Kent), 28 March 1931, and was buried at Bishop Wilton (Yorks ER), 31 March 1931; his will was proved June 1931 (estate £56,626). His wife died 20 November 1899.

Capt T.G.N. Bardwell (1883-1957).
Some rights reserved.
Bardwell, Maj. Thomas Garnett Newman (1883-1957). Eldest son of Thomas Newman Frederick Bardwell (1850-1931) and his wife Lucy Sophia, eldest daughter of Rev. William Bishton Garnett-Botfield of Decker Hill and Bishop's Castle, born 30 December 1883. Educated at Eton, Jesus College, Cambridge and the Inner Temple (admitted 1913). An officer in the East Yorkshire Yeomanry (2nd Lt., 1903; Lt., 1912; Capt., 1914; Maj.) and the Camel Corps; seconded to Egyptian Army and served in the Sudan as a district commissioner and DASC, Khartoum, 1920-21. Racehorse owner. He served in the Second World War with the War Office, 1939-41 and Intelligence Corps (Maj.), 1941-46. Appointed MBE, 1946. He was a keen cricketer and Master of Foxhounds. He was unmarried and had no issue.
He inherited Bolton Hall from his father in 1931 but sold it soon afterwards. He lived latterly at The Boltons, Royston (Herts).
He died 25 April 1957; his will was proved 3 June 1957 (estate £30,538).


Burke's Landed Gentry, 1952, p. 109.

Location of archives

No significant accumulation is known to survive.

Coat of arms

None recorded

Can you help?

  • Can anyone supply more information about the ownership history of Bolton Hall after its sale by the Bardwells in 1931?
  • I should be most grateful if anyone can provide photographs or portraits of people whose names appear in bold above, and who are not already illustrated.
  • As always, any additions or corrections to the account given above will be gratefully received and incorporated.

Revision and acknowledgements

This post was first published 14 April 2019.

Saturday, 6 April 2019

(370) Barclay of Ury House

Barclay of Ury
The Barclays have been established in Scotland from a very early date, though their origins are disputed: a summary of the conflicting views can be found on Wikipedia. One Alexander de Berkeley was granted the estate of Mathers on the Kincardineshire coast  in 1351, and his descendants continued to hold that estate down to the time of David Barclay (1580-1660), with whom the genealogy below begins. Having acted as surety for his father-in-law, David Barclay was plunged into debt and was obliged to sell more and more of his patrimony between 1611 and 1632. His third son, David Barclay (1610-86) became a soldier of fortune on the Continent, fighting for Protestant causes in the Swedish and later Prussian armies in the Thirty Years War. He seems to have demonstrated considerable military prowess and was well rewarded by his employers, so that when he was recalled by his family in 1638 because of the increasingly troubled situation in Scotland, he may have harboured the hope of recovering possession of Mathers. The property had, however, been much divided by his father's dispersal and subsequent re-sales, and the troubled years of the Civil War meant that he was occupied with military affairs at home. In 1647-48, however, he seized the opportunity to buy the Ury (or Urie) estate not far from his ancestral home, where the original fortified house had been burnt by Royalist troops in 1645. Here he was eventually successful in putting down new roots, building a new house in 1670 and apparently improving it a few years later. 

In the 1660s, David Barclay and his son, Robert Barclay (1648-90) embraced Quaker beliefs, and Robert emerged in the 1670s as one of the leaders of the Society of Friends and one of its most active and effective literary advocates. Although both he and his father experienced periods of imprisonment for their faith, Robert managed to secure the effective intercession of a number of powerful people on their behalf. He seems to have had the knack of making friends even with those who did not share his religious views, and his unlikely friendship with James, Duke of York (later James II) no doubt helped to shape the Duke's views on religious toleration.

Robert died aged just forty-two, and was succeded at Ury by his eldest son, Robert Barclay (1672-1747), while his second son, David Barclay (1682-1769) went to London to seek his fortune in about 1698, and founded the great banking and brewing families which I have written about in my previous posts. The Quaker faith was now an established part of the family's identity and both Robert and David adhered to it, without achieving the national profile and reputation of their father. It remained the faith of their descendants well into the 19th century and in some cases into the 20th century. In later life, Robert (1672-1747), who stayed in Scotland and lived quietly at Ury, became increasingly interested in the history of his own family, and wrote a book on the subject which was published in 1740. At his death he was succeeded by his eldest son, Robert Barclay (1699-1760), who was noted more for his size and physical strength than for anything else. Although he was brought up to assist in the management of the Ury estate, however, he was not much interested in agriculture, and his son, yet another Robert Barclay (1732-97) inherited a badly run-down property. Fortunately,  this Robert, was an energetic and enlightened agricultural improver, and quickly turned the situation round. Through his second marriage in 1776 he acquired control (at least until they divorced in 1793) of his wife's family Allardice Castle estate and he added her surname to his in recognition of this. He was also able to contemplate additions to Ury House, although these were never carried out, perhaps because his marriage broke down. When he died in 1797 the estate passed to his son, Robert Barclay-Allardice (1779-1854), who preferred to live at a rented property in England, and Ury was sold after his death to Alexander Baird, who demolished the Barclays' house and built a new one.

Ury House, Kincardineshire

This house was written up in 2018 in my post on the Baird family, who purchased Ury from the Barclays after death of Capt. Robert Barclay-Allardice in 1854.

Barclay family of Ury (or Urie)

Barclay, David (1580-1660). Son of Thomas Barclay and his wife Janet Straiton of Lauriston, and grandson of George Barclay (d. 1607) of Mathers, born 1580. According to his great-grandson, he was 'a very polite well-bred man, but by the easiness of his temper, and living much at Court, he brought himself into such difficulties as obliged him to sell his estates, first Mathers, after they had kept it near 300 years and then the old estate after they had kept upwards of 500 years'. In fact, his embarrassments, which were real enough, derived partly from acting as surety for his father-in-law, Sir John Livingstone. In 1617 he was accused of a violent assault on George Ogilvie and when he did not appear to defend himself was 'denounced as a rebel', but this seems to have been quickly reversed or forgotten because he had become a JP for Kincardineshire by 1623. In 1634 he was finally 'put to the horn' for debt (i.e. made bankrupt), but the debt was still owed in 1643 when he was briefly imprisoned. He was admitted as a burgess of Glasgow, 1651. He married 1st, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Livingstone of Dunipace, and 2nd, Margaret, daughter of John Keith, and had issue:
(1.1) John Barclay (b. c.1607), born about 1607; he became embroiled in his father's financial woes and was himself proceeded against for debt in February 1643; he was probably unmarried and may have died soon after this as he does not appear in the records again;
(1.2) Alexander Barclay (b. c.1608), born about 1608; married, before 1631, Anna, perhaps the daughter of Matthew Ross of Haining Ross, but died without issue before 1652;
(1.3) David Barclay (1610-86) (q.v.);
(1.4) Rev. Robert Barclay (1611/2-82); educated at Aberdeen University (MA 1633), the Scots College in Paris anthe College of St Nicolas du Chardonnet; became a Roman Catholic priest in about 1640; rector of the Scots College in Paris, 1655-82, and rebuilt the college buildings; had the reputation of being rather difficult and quarrelsome; died 7 February 1682 and was buried at the Scots College, Paris;
(2.1) Capt. James Barclay (d. 1645); an officer in his brother David's troop of horse (Capt.); died unmarried when he was killed at the Battle of Philliphaugh, 1645;
(2.2) Anne Barclay; married 1st, John Douglas of Tilliwhilly, and had issue one daughter; married 2nd, Robert Irvine of Drum; and married 3rd, 1649, Rev. David Strachan, afterwards Bishop of Brechin.
He inherited the Mathers estate in Kincardineshire and his family's ancient lands in the Mearns from his grandfather in 1607 but sold it all between 1611 and 1632.
He died in Edinburgh in 1660, and was buried in Canongate kirkyard, Edinburgh. His first wife's date of death is unknown. His second wife's date of death is unknown.

Barclay, David (1610-86). Third son of David Barclay (1580-c.1660) and his first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Livingstone of Dunipace, born at Kirktounhill on the estate of Mathers in 1610. Educated at King's College, Aberdeen (admitted 1628 but did not graduate) and then travelled abroad, visiting Germany. He then became a soldier of fortune and served in the army of Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden (Captain, 1630) in fighting against Ferdinand of Styria during the Thirty Years War, and later in the Prussian army (Maj., 1632/3). In 1638 he was summoned home to Scotland but his arrival was delayed by his arrest off the coast of Yorkshire by a Royalist privateer in May 1639; he was apparently still in custody in October 1641. Soon afterwards, however, he gained his freedom and joined the moderate Presbyterian army in the three-way struggle of the Civil War in Scotland (Maj., c.1642; Lt-Col.; Col. by 1646). When the Scots again took up arms against the English parliament in 1648 he was made responsible for recruiting cavalry in Caithness, Sutherland and Ross-shire, and although he had not been actively engaged in the fighting he lost his position in the army when the Scots were defeated. He then retired to Gordonstoun. In 1651 he was deprived of his lands at Ury for his support of the Royalist cause in the second Civil War, but he recovered his property in 1654 after getting himself appointed as one of the Scottish MPs at Westminster (first for Sutherland and later for Kincardineshire and the Mearns) and as Commissioner for Forfeited Estates; in the latter capacity he succeeded in persuading the Government 'to restore all the Nobility and Gentrey to their fortunes, which made him so popular... that he had their publick thanks'. He seems to have withdrawn from public life in 1658 and lived quietly at Edinburgh or Gordonstoun until 1665, when he was arrested and imprisoned for acting as a commissioner under Cromwell. Although this was technically true, he might have expected that his use of the role to assist Royalists and his own sufferings under Cromwell might have protected him, and the real reasons for his arrest have never been satisfactorily explained. He was at first in Edinburgh Castle and was later under house arrest in Edinburgh, at Montrose and finally at Ury, but he was released only in 1670 after the intervention of the Earl of Middleton. He joined the Society of Friends in 1666, and his refusal as a Quaker to swear a 'bond of peace' extended his imprisonment by at least three years. He then lived peacefully at Ury until in 1676 he and many others were arrested at the instigation of the provost and clerics of Aberdeen for holding conventicles at Ury, and he was held prisoner for a further year. He married, 26 January 1648/9, Katherine (1620-63), daughter of Sir Robert Gordon, 1st bt., of Gordonstoun, and had issue:
(1) Robert Barclay (1648-90) (q.v.);
(2) John Barclay (1659-1731); emigrated in about 1684 to East New Jersey (USA), where he  received from his elder brother the grant of an estate of 500 acres called Plainfields; married, c.1700  in New Jersey, Catherine [surname unknown] (d. 1703) and had issue one son, from whom descended the Barclays of New York; died in April 1731;
(3) David Barclay (d. 1685); merchant; emigrated in 1685 to East New Jersey (USA) on board the 'America', but died at sea during the voyage;
(4) Lucy Barclay (d. 1686); died unmarried, October 1686;
(5) Jean Barclay; married, 1685, as his 3rd wife, Sir Ewan Cameron (c.1629-1719), kt., of Lochiel, and had issue.
He purchased the lands and barony of Ury (Kincardineshire) in 1647-48 (where the old tower had been burned by Royalist troops in 1645). Although the old castle may have been repaired in the 1650s sufficiently for him to occupy it, he did not build a new house until 1670. As soon as it was finished, he handed it over to his eldest son, although he seems to have lived there too, and in 1679 employed James Smith to 'cover with freestone the house of Urie'.
He died on or about 10 October, and was buried in the Quaker burial ground he established at Ury, 12 October 1686. His wife died in March 1663.

Barclay, Robert (1648-90). Eldest son of David Barclay (1610-86) and his wife Katherine, daughter of Sir Robert Gordon, 1st bt., of Gordonstoun, born at Gordonstoun (Morays.), 23 December 1648. He was brought up at Gordonstoun by his grandparents on strict Presbyterian principles, but as he showed academic promise he was in 1659 sent to Paris to be educated by his uncle, the rector of the Scots College there; he was younger than the other pupils but studied alongside them, learning French and Latin, rhetoric and divinity, honing his debating skills, and acquiring fencing and other gentlemanly accomplishments. In 1663, reputedly at the request of his ailing mother, he was brought home by his father and returned to the household at Gordonstoun. When his father was imprisoned in 1665, he visited him at Edinburgh castle, and was exposed to the conversation and beliefs of the Quaker, John Swinton. Although his father is said not to have tried to influence him in his religious beliefs, believing this should be a matter of individual conscience, he followed his father into the Society of Friends in 1666. He soon began publishing pamphlets containing reasoned defences of the Quaker position, the earliest of which was Truth Cleared of Calumnies (1671), and these led him on to write what came to be regarded as the text-book of Quaker theology, An apology for the true Christian divinity...preached by the people... called Quakers (1676); a collected edition of his writings was published in 1692. In 1672, he helped to found the Quaker meeting house in Aberdeen, and four years later he went with George Fox, William Penn, George Keith and other Quaker leaders on a mission to organise Yearly Meetings of the Society of Friends in Holland and Germany; while there he met Princess Elizabeth, Princess Palatine of the Rhine, and they remained friends until she died in 1679. In 1676-77, when his father and later Robert himself were imprisoned for 'holding conventicles' at Ury, she secured the help of Prince Rupert in persuading the King to order their release.  In 1677 he struck up a rather unexpected friendship with the Catholic Duke of York (later King James II), and he no doubt encouraged James' inclination to religious toleration; although he took no part in politics, he remained an informal counsellor to the king, and after the revolution of 1688 was a rather suspect figure to the new regime because of this friendship, and even had to defend himself from attacks that he was a closet Papist.  In 1681, William Penn purchased East New Jersey in America and made Barclay one of the council of 24 proprietors of the scheme, settlement of the new lands beginning in 1682. Robert was appointed Governor of East Jersey in that year, but made it a condition that he should not be required to go to America himself, instead appointing one of the other proprietors as his deputy. Some of the land he was allotted he assigned to his two brothers, who went to America in 1684 and 1685. He married, February 1669, Christian (c.1651-1723), daughter of Gilbert Mollison of Aberdeen, and had issue:
(1) David Barclay (1670-71), born 8 September 1670; died in infancy, 1671;
(2) Robert Barclay (1672-1747) (q.v.);
(3) Margaret Barclay (1673-85), born 4 October 1673; died young, 1685;
(4) Patience Barclay (1676-1757), born 25 November 1675/6; married, 8 April 1707, Timothy Forbes (d. 1743), son of Alexander Forbes of Aquorthes; died 22 June 1757;
(5) Katherine Barclay (1678-1758), born 26 June 1678; married, 17 June 1703, James Forbes (d. 1734), son of Alexander Forbes of Aquorthes; died 9 November 1758;
(6) Christian Barclay (1680-1751), born 15 May 1680; married, 1700 (contract 10 April),  Alexander Jaffray of Kingswells; died 1751;
(7) David Barclay (1682-1769) [for whom see my previous post]
(8) Jean Barclay (b. 1683), born 27 December 1683; married, 12 April 1707, Alexander Forbes (d. 1740), son of John Forbes; living in 1740;
(9) John Barclay (1687-1751), born 20 October 1687; settled in Dublin; married 1st, 26 June 1709, Margaret Wilson and 2nd, 19 May 1713, Anne (1694-1771), daughter of Amos Strettell of Dublin, merchant, by who he had two sons and nine daughters; died in Dublin, 8 June and was buried at Corke St. burial ground, 11 June 1751;
He was given the Ury House estate by his father in c.1672, and in 1679 King Charles II erected the lands of Ury into a free Barony.
He died at Ury, 3 October, and was buried in the Quaker burial ground there, 6 October 1690. His widow died in March 1723.

Barclay, Robert (1672-1747). Eldest surviving son of Robert Barclay (1648-90) and his wife Christian, daughter of Gilbert Mollison, born 25 March 1672. Educated at Theobalds Palace, Cheshunt (Herts), 1683-88. Like his father and grandfather, he became a Quaker in religion.  In 1698 he was briefly imprisoned after a friend sought to involve him in a Jacobite plot which was reported to the authorities, but he was soon released through the intervention of the Earl of Huntly with the king. In 1714 he became a burgess of Aberdeen. In his later years he became interested in the history and genealogy of his family, and published A genealogical account of the Barclays of Urie (1740; 2nd edn, 1812), which also contained a biographical sketch of his father and grandfather. He married, 1696 (contract 6 July), Elizabeth, daughter of John Brain, merchant of London, and had issue:
(1) Margaret (1697-1707), born 23 March 1697; died young, 13 May 1707;
(2) Robert Barclay (1699-1760) (q.v.);
(3) John Barclay (1701-14), born 19 July 1701; died young, 16 July 1714;
(4) Mollison Barclay (b. 1703), born 21 November 1703; married 1st, 1724, John Doubleday (1695-1736), son of John Doubleday of Alnwick Abbey (Northbld), and had issue one son and two daughters; married 2nd, 19 July 1739, Abel Strettell of Manchester; living in 1758;
(5) Elizabeth Barclay (b. 1708), born 11 May 1708; married, by 1729, Sir William Ogilvie (d. 1791), 4th bt., of Barras, and had issue two sons and several daughters;
(6) David Barclay (1710-83), born 29 April 1710; apparently a merchant in London, he was obliged in 1761 to stop payment, but his debts were discharged by his creditors without being paid in full, after which, 'by unremitting attention to business, and the strictest economy, he acquired, late in life, a competency', the greatest part of which he bequeathed to his former creditors; he married, 10 January 1737, Mary (1712-72), daughter of John Pardoe of Worcester, by whom he had issue one daughter; died 10 October 1783;
(7) Katharine Barclay (b. 1713), born 1 April 1713; died unmarried;
(8) Jean Barclay (1719-20), born 23 April 1719; died in infancy, 12 June 1720.
He inherited the Ury estate from his father in 1690, and enlarged the property by repurchasing lands known as Finlayson and Redcloak which had formerly been part of the estate. He also laid out 'very fine gardens' around the house before 1722.
He died 27 March 1747. His wife's date of death is unknown.

Barclay, Robert (1699-1760). Eldest son of Robert Barclay (1672-1747) and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of John Braine, merchant, of London, born 20 May 1699. He possessed a physical strength that led him to be known as "Robert the Strong", and which was demonstrated in a number of picaresque episodes recorded by the family historian. He was a Quaker in religion, and author of several religious tracts and essays. Although he assisted his father with the management of the Ury estate he was not much interested in agriculture, and the by the time of his death the estate was in poor condition. He married, 28 July 1725, his cousin, Une (1701-62), daughter of Sir Ewan Cameron of Lochiel, and had issue:
(1) Jean Barclay (1726-50), born 22 March 1726; died unmarried, July 1750.
(2) Robert Barclay (1731-97) (q.v.);
(3) David Barclay (1737-62), born 24 September 1737; brought up as a Quaker but left the Society of Friends on joining the army as an officer in the 42nd Highlanders; died unmarried when he was killed at the taking of Martinique in 1762;
(4) Ewan (aka Evan) Barclay (1738-1805), born 1 October 1738; lived in Marylebone (Middx); died unmarried, 23 August, and was buried at Winchmore Hill, 28 August 1805;
(5) Alexander Barclay; probably died in infancy;
He inherited the Ury estate from his father in 1747.
He died 10 October 1760 and was buried in the Quaker burial ground at Ury. His widow died in March 1762 and was also buried at Ury.

Barclay (later Barclay-Allardice), Robert (1732-97). Eldest son of Robert Barclay (1699-1760) and his wife Une, daughter of Sir Ewan Cameron of Lochiel, born 17 November 1732. Like his father he was over six feet tall and very strong, but unlike him he was ‘possessed of an enterprising spirit and extensive knowledge in agriculture, which he acquired by reading ... and by his own observations in the different tours which he made on foot in his younger years through Scotland and a great part of England’. He became a pioneer of the new farming methods in Scotland and 'was the first man who ever sowed a turnip in a field or artificial grasses north of the Firth of Forth'; he brought 2,000 acres into a high state of cultivation, reclaimed 800 acres from moor, and planted 1,200 acres with forest trees. A popular and philanthropic landlord, he laid out a new town at Stonehaven, and during the famine of 1783 organized ‘a benevolent society for purchasing meal and grain to be retailed at an underprice’. Despite being a Quaker, he became MP for Kincardineshire, 1788-97, and must have had to bend his Quaker principles to take the parliamentary oath. He was a keen pedestrian, and is said to have walked from Ury to London (some 510 miles) to take his place in Parliament, on one occasion accomplishing this feat in ten days. In 1776, on his second marriage, he formally took his wife's surname in addition to his own, although he seldom seems to have used the double-barrelled form. In 1785 his wife’s claim for recognition as heir of line to her ancestor the Earl of Airth and Menteith was successful and thereafter Barclay’s ‘great object’ was to secure the peerage for his family, although he never achieved this and he and his wife were divorced in 1793. His portrait was painted by Raeburn and perhaps also by Beechey. He married 1st, 3 June 1756 at Tottenham Monthly Meeting (Middx), Lucy (1737?-57), daughter of David Barclay (1682-1769) of London, and 2nd, December 1776 (div. 1793), Sarah Anne (1757-1833), only daughter and heiress of James Allardice, and had issue:
(1.1) Lucy Barclay (1757-1817), born 22 March 1757; married, 7 October 1777 at Hertford, Samuel Galton FRS (1753-1832) of Duddeston House, Aston juxta Birmingham (Warks), banker, and had issue six sons and four daughters; died 16 November and was buried at Quaker burial ground, Birmingham, 21 November 1817;
(2.1) Anne Barclay-Allardice (1777-82), born 13 September and baptised 30 November 1777; died young, 29 October 1782;
(2.2) Une Cameron Barclay-Allardice (1778-1809), born 13 September and baptised 27 September 1778; married 25 July 1802, John Innes (1776-1832) of Cowie (Kincardines.) and had issue; died 26 September 1809;
(2.3) Capt. Robert Barclay-Allardice (1779-1854) [for whom see my post on the Allardice family];
(2.4) twin, Margaret Barclay-Allardice (1780-1855), born 14 October and baptised 16 November 1780; married, 27 September 1809, Hudson Gurney (1775-1864) of Keswick Hall (Norfolk); died without issue, 16 December 1855;

(2.5) twin, Mary Barclay-Allardice (1780-99), born 14 October and baptised 16 November 1780; died unmarried, 28 June and was buried at the Quaker burial ground, Birmingham, 5 July 1799;
(2.6) Rodney (f.) Barclay-Allardice (1782-1853), born 29 April and baptised 6 June 1782; died unmarried, 1853;
(2.7) James Barclay-Allardice (1784-1804), born 3 July 1784; collector of customs at Trincomalee (Ceylon); died at Madras, 3 March 1804;
(2.8) Maj. David Stuart Barclay-Allardice (1787-1826), born 3 and baptised 29 March 1787; an officer in 42nd Highlanders and later the 28th Foot (Lt., 1811; Capt., 1813; Maj. 1822); died unmarried at Otranto (Italy), 1826.

He inherited the Ury estate from his father in 1760. Soon afterwards, he bought the property of Arduthie and laid out the new town of Stonehaven on this estate. In 1789 he obtained plans from James Playfair for enlarging Ury House but nothing was done.
He died 8 April 1797. His first wife died 23 March and was buried at Winchmore Hill, 29 March 1757. His second wife married 2nd, 1795, John Nudd (c.1764-1828), and was buried at Sprowston (Norfk), 12 July 1833.


Burke's Landed Gentry - The Kingdom in Scotland, 2001, pp. 55-59; H.F. Barclay, A history of the Barclay family, vol. 3: the Barclays in Scotland and England from 1610-1933, 1934; ODNB entry for Robert Barclay (1648-90).

Location of archives

Barclay family of Ury and Allardice: title deeds, estate papers, genealogical and misc family papers, 1201-20th cent. [National Records of Scotland, GD49]; miscellaneous estate and family papers, 1724-1843 [Norfolk Record Office, RQG]

Coat of arms

Azure, a chevron ermine, in chief three crosses patée argent.

Can you help?

  • Is anyone able to provide fuller or more detailed genealogical information about David Barclay (1580-1660) and his children?
  • I should be most grateful if anyone can provide photographs or portraits of people whose names appear in bold above, and who are not already illustrated.
  • As always, any additions or corrections to the account given above will be gratefully received and incorporated.

Revision and acknowledgements

This post was first published 6 April 2019.