Saturday 26 July 2014

(132) Anderson of Pendley Manor, baronets

Anderson of Pendley Manor
The founder of this family was Sir Henry Anderson (d. 1605), who appears to have been the only son of Thomas Anderson (d. 1553) of London, grocer, and his wife, Katharine Hopton. He was Warden of the Grocers Company in 1589 and 1590 and later became an Alderman of the City corporation and Sheriff of London; he was knighted by King James in 1603. When he died two years later he left property in London, Chiswick, Kensington and Shropshire. His son, Sir Richard Anderson (1585-1632) bought the manor of Pendley in Hertfordshire in 1607 and may have partly rebuilt the house there.  He also acquired further estates at Norton (Glos) and Corringham (Essex).  Sir Henry's children married well, cementing the family's place among the landed elite of the country.  Sir Richard himself married Mary, the youngest daughter of Robert Spencer (1570-1627), 1st Baron Spencer of Wormleighton, and they had a large family with thirteen known children.  Some of the family's outlying properties seem to have been sold to pay legacies and dowries in the 1630s, but the manor of Pendley passed to their eldest son, Sir Henry Anderson (c.1608-53), who was a strong if passive supporter of the Royalist cause in the Civil War.  This secured him a baronetcy in the early 1640s, but he paid a substantial penalty for his loyalty during the Commonwealth, when his estates were sequestrated.  Despite this he was able to purchase the Fleet Marston estate in Buckinghamshire.  

Pendley passed in 1653 to Sir Henry's only son, Sir Richard Anderson (c.1636-99), 2nd bt., whose two sons both predeceased him, although the younger, Richard Anderson (1659-95), lived long enough to create a separate house at Fleet Marston, marry and serve briefly as MP for Aylesbury in 1685-87.  When Sir Richard died, the Pendley estate therefore passed to the widower of his eldest daughter, Simon Harcourt (d. 1724), and so passed out of the Anderson family.  The baronetcy should have died with Sir Richard, but was claimed by Richard Anderson (d. 1724) of East Meon (Hants), who stated he was the son of an otherwise unrecorded younger brother of Sir Robert, and thus a grandson of Sir Henry Anderson.  The baronetcy title was used by him and his sons Kendrick (1705-35), Richard (d. 1738) and Francis (d. c.1760) until the latter's death, but not continued by future generations. It is more probable that Richard (d. 1724) was a grandson of one of Sir Henry's brothers, and thus not entitled to inherit the baronetcy unless by a special remainder.  Since the patent for the baronetcy was not enrolled in the troubled circumstances of the Civil War, however, there is no evidence to show whether there was such a remainder or not; it must be presumed not, as this was not the basis on which the title was claimed.

Pendley Manor, Tring, Hertfordshire

The manor of Pendley can be traced to the early middle ages, and Robert Whittingham had licence to impark 200 acres in the parish of Tring in 1440, which involved demolishing the village of Pendley. It is probable that the house developed as a gentry seat after that date.
Pendley Manor , as drawn by John Oliver for Chauncy's Hertfordshire, 1700.
Little is known for certain about the Pendley Manor that existed in the Andersons' day. The only illustration I have been able to find is the view above, which appears to show the outer court of a two-courtyard house with a view through the range facing the artist to a cloister of some sort in the inner courtyard, and ranges of service accommodation and lodgings enclosing the outer court. The form suggests a 16th century date but there is a tradition that the house was largely rebuilt by Sir Robert Anderson after he bought the estate in 1607. Apart from the first-floor sash windows in the cross-range, nothing in the details suggests the house was much altered later in the 17th century, but there were later changes.  In 1707 a visitor wrote "the alterations at Pendley are truly admirable and the new wife a piece of rich furniture; friend Simon [Harcourt] is much to be commended for labouring for his family" and by the mid 18th century the principal elevation to the north was of eleven bays and had a Palladian appearance, although some older work may have been incorporated behind the facade and in the wings projecting to the south.  In the late 18th century the house was let to the eminent physician, Dr. Richard Warren (d. 1797), but it was later occupied by the Harcourt family again.

Pendley Manor following the Palladian remodelling. Image: Hertfordshire Archives & Local Studies, DE/Of/1, p.58

When the Grand Union Canal was built in the early 19th century, it passed uncomfortably close to the house, and Henry Harcourt is said to have abandoned the house in the 1820s as a result. In about 1835 it was burned down and the ruins were demolished in 1847.

Pendley Manor: the house of 1872-75. Image: Richard Croft. Licenced under this Creative Commons licence.

A new house was built on a different site, further from the canal, for Joseph Grout Williams in 1872-77. His architect was Walter Fitzgerald Knox Ryan, and the grounds were landscaped by William Marnock. It is a loosely neo-Tudor house of brick with lavish stone dressings and displays the excessive busyness of much Victorian design. The aesthetic impact has not been improved by the positive congregation of wastepipes in the centre, which were no doubt added after the Second World War, when the last of the Williams family owners, Dorian Williams, who was a showjumping commentator for the BBC, developed the house as an adult education centre and inaugurated the Pendley Open Air Shakespeare Festival in the grounds; the stables became the permanent Court Theatre in 1978. The theatre and festival continue, but the house was sold in 1983 and converted into an hotel in 1989.

Descent: Robert Whittingham; under attainder 1461-72, when returned to his daughter, Margaret, wife of John Verney (d. 1505); to son, Sir Ralph Verney (d. 1525); to son, Ralph Verney (d. 1546); to son, Edmund Verney (1528-58); to younger brother, (also) Edmund Verney (d. 1600); to sons, Sir Francis Verney (d. 1615) and Edmund Verney, who sold 1607 to Sir Richard Anderson, kt. (c.1585-1632); to son, Sir Henry Anderson, 1st bt. (c.1608-53); to son, Sir Richard Anderson (c.1636-99); to daughter, Elizabeth (d. 1694), first wife of Simon Harcourt (1653-1724); to son, Henry Harcourt (d. 1741); to son, Richard Bard Harcourt; to son, Henry Harcourt; to sister, Elizabeth, wife of Col. Charles Amadees Harcourt, Marquis d'Harcourt (d. 1831); to son, William Bernard Harcourt (d. 1847); to three daughters, who sold 1868 to Rev. James Williams (d. 1871); to son, Joseph Grout Williams (1848-1923); to widow (d. 1944) and then nephew, Vivian Dunbar Stanley Williams; to son, Dorian Williams (1914-85), who sold 1983.

Anderson family of Pendley Manor, baronets

Anderson, Sir Henry (d. 1605), kt. Son of Thomas Anderson of Shropshire and his wife Katherine Hopton. A London grocer; Warden of the Grocers Company, 1589, 1590; alderman of Aldersgate Ward, 1601-05; Sheriff of London, 1602. Knighted, 26 July 1603. He married, 11 February 1576/7, Elizabeth (b. 1561), daughter of Francis Bowyer of London, grocer, and sister of Sir William Bowyer, kt. and is said to have had eight children, including:
(1) Katharine Anderson (1581-1616), baptised 8 October 1581; married Sir Thomas Dereham (d. 1645), kt. of West Dereham (Norfolk); buried at West Dereham, 21 June 1616;
(2) George Anderson (1582-97), baptised 7 December 1582; died young and was buried 23 August 1597 at St Olave, Old Jewry;
(3) Sir Richard Anderson (c.1585-1632), kt. (q.v.);
(4) Elizabeth Anderson (b. 1587), baptised 31 July 1587; married Thomas Cowley esq. of London but died without issue;
(5) Frances Anderson (d. by 1630); married Robert Needham (d. 1653), later 2nd Viscount Kilmorey, of Sharington Hall (Shropshire);
(6) Sarah Anderson (c.1592-1615); married, about 1610, Sir Charles Wilmot, kt., 1st Viscount Athlone and had issue three sons and one daughter; buried 8 December 1615;
(7) Mary Anderson (b. 1595/6; fl. 1630), baptised 29 February 1595/6; married, c.1618, Sir John Spencer (d. 1633), 1st bt. of Offley (Herts) and had issue a daughter, Alice (who married Sir James Altham (1614-76)).
He owned the manor of Knotting Barnes at Kensington (Middx) and also property at Bitterley (Shropshire) and Chiswick (Middx).
He died 13 April and was buried at St Olave, Old Jewry, 15 April 1605 where he was commemorated by a monument; his will was proved 23 May 1605. His wife died 9 July 1599 and was buried at St Olave, Old Jewry, London.

Anderson, Sir Richard (c.1585-1632), kt. Only son of Sir Henry Anderson (d. 1605), kt. and his wife Elizabeth, sister of Sir William Bowyer, kt, baptised 23 January 1585/6 at St. Olave, Old Jewry, London. The date of his knighthood is unknown. He married, about 1606, Mary (1588-1658), daughter of Robert Spencer, 1st Baron Spencer of Wormleighton, and had issue including:
(1) Elizabeth Anderson (c.1607-59); married, 6 June 1633 at St Gregory by St Pauls, London, Robert Peyton (d. 1658) of Doddington (Cambs) but died without issue, 26 April 1659;
(2) Sir Henry Anderson (c.1608-53), 1st bt. (q.v.);
(3) Robert Anderson (1609-88) of Chichester (Sussex), baptised at Aldbury (Herts), 2 November 1609; educated at Lincolns Inn (admitted 1628; called to bar); barrister-at-law; married, 1st, Katherine, daughter and co-heir of Nicholas Tompson, and 2nd, 16 July 1659 at St Bride, Fleet St., London, Anne (1616-97), daughter of Sir Henry Astrey, kt., of Harlington Woodend (Beds) and widow of Col. Thomas Peart; his will was proved 18 May 1688;
(4) Mary Anderson (b. 1610; fl. 1630); baptised 21 February 1610; married [forename unknown] Warren;
(5) John Anderson (fl. 1653);
(6) William Anderson (fl. 1630); probably died young;
(7) Richard Anderson (fl. 1630); died young;
(8) Frances Anderson (fl. 1630); under 21 in 1630;
(9) Margaret Anderson (b. 1614; fl. 1630), baptised 10 March 1614; died unmarried;
(10) Katherine Anderson (b. 1616; fl. 1630), baptised 23 October 1616;
(11) Penelope Anderson (c.1617-52); died unmarried in 1652; will proved 9 July 1652;
(12) Ann Anderson (b. c.1618; fl. 1630); under 21 in 1630; married, c.1639, Thomas Seymour, son of Sir Edward Seymour, 2nd bt., of Berry Pomeroy (Devon), and had issue two sons and three daughters;
(13) Bridget Anderson (b. c.1623; fl. 1653); under 21 in 1630; married, 11 October 1643, Sir Joseph Seymour, sixth son of Sir Edward Seymour, 2nd bt., of Berry Pomeroy (Devon), and had issue one son and one daughter (but she is named as Bridget Anderson in the wills of her sister, 1652 and brother, 1653, suggesting she was then unmarried).
He purchased the Pendley Manor estate in 1607 and also owned the manors of Bitterley (Shropshire), Bishop Norton (Glos) and Corringham (Essex), as well as house property in London. After his death his widow lived at Richmond (Surrey).
He died 3 August 1632; his will was proved 27 August 1632. His widow died in 1658; her will was proved 1 July 1658.

Anderson, Sir Henry (c.1608-53), 1st bt.  Son of Sir Robert Anderson (c.1585-1632), kt. and his wife Mary, daughter of Robert Spencer, Baron Spencer of Wormleighton, born about 1608. Educated at Pembroke College, Oxford (matriculated 1625) and Lincolns Inn (admitted 1628). He was an ardent but passive Royalist, and was created a baronet, 3 July 1643; during the Commonwealth his estate was sequestrated and he was obliged to pay £1,730 to recover it, besides other fines. He married 1st, about December 1632 in the Rolls Chapel, London, Jacomina (1615-39), daughter of Sir Charles Caesar, kt. of Benington (Herts), Master of the Rolls, 2nd, c.1642?, Mary (b. 1620), daughter of Sir William Lytton, kt. and 3rd, Gertrude (d. 1669), daughter of Ambrose Elton of Hazel, Ledbury (Herefs) and widow of Abraham Blackleech (d. 1639) and had issue including:
(1.1) Sir Richard Anderson (c.1636-99), 2nd bt. (q.v.);
(1.2) Elizabeth Anderson (c.1637-1707); married, 8 April 1656 at Benington (Herts), John Hatcher; buried at Stamford (Suffolk), 30 November 1707;
(1.3) Anne Anderson (b. c.1639); probably died in infancy;
(1.4) Mary Anderson (b. c.1639); probably died in infancy.
He inherited the Pendley Manor estate from his father in 1630. Despite his Civil War fines, he was able to purchase a secondary estate at Fleet Marston (Bucks) which became the home of his grandson.
He died 7 July 1653, aged 45, and was buried at Tring; his will was proved in PCC, 12 August 1653. His first wife died in October 1639 and was buried at Tring. His widow died in 1669 and was buried with her first husband under a splendid monument attributed to Epiphanius Evesham or Edward Marshall in Gloucester Cathedral; her will was proved in the PCC 15 February 1669/70.

Anderson, Sir Richard (c.1636-99), 2nd bt.  Son of Sir Henry Anderson (c.1608-53), 1st bt., and his first wife, Jacomina, daughter of Sir Charles Caesar, kt., born about 1636.  He succeeded his father as 2nd baronet, 7 July 1653, and was a benefactor to Tring church, paying for the panelling of the chancel. JP for Buckinghamshire. He married 1st, 22 April 1656 at St Martin-in-the-Fields, London, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas Hewett, bt. of Pishiobury (Herts) and sister and co-heir of George Hewett (1652-89), 1st Viscount Hewett, and 2nd, c.1699, Mary (b. 1673), elder daughter of Rt. Hon. John Methuen, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, and widow of Humphrey Simpson (1664-94) of London, merchant, and had issue:
(1.1) Henry Anderson (d. 1677); died unmarried;
(1.2) Richard Anderson (1659-95) of Fleet Marston (Bucks), born April 1659; educated at Lincoln's Inn, 1675/6; JP for Buckinghamshire, 1685-89; Tory MP for Aylesbury (Bucks), 1685-87 but was rejected as a candidate in 1688 'for his morals'; married, 22 July 1679, Elizabeth (1662-1724) (who m2, as his second wife, Simon Harcourt, 1st Viscount Harcourt), daughter of Richard Spencer esq. of London, vintner, but died without issue in the lifetime of his father;
(1.3) Elizabeth Anderson (d. 1694) (q.v.).
He inherited the Pendley Manor estate from his father in 1658. At his death it passed to his daughter and her husband.
He died 16th August* and was buried at Albury, 20th August 1699; his will was proved 5 March 1699/1700.  His first wife died 25 December 1698; his widow married 3rd, c.1700, Sir Brownlow Sherard (1668-1736), 3rd bt.
On his death the baronetcy became extinct, although it was claimed by Richard Anderson (d. 1724) of East Meon (Hants).

Anderson (later Harcourt), Elizabeth (d. 1694).  Only surviving child of Sir Richard Anderson, 2nd bt., and his first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas Hewett of Pishiobury (Herts). She married, 3 January 1677/8, Simon Harcourt (1653-1724), Clerk of the Crown, 1704-24, Clerk of the Peace for Middlesex 1689-1724 and MP for Aylesbury 1702-05, 1710-15, son of Ven. Vere Harcourt DD, Archdeacon of Nottingham, and had issue:
(1) Henry Harcourt (d. 1741); married, 17 November 1711 in the chapel of Lincolns Inn, London, Sarah Frances, only daughter and heir of Nathaniel Bard esq. and had issue three sons and six daughters; died and was buried at Aldbury, 9 November 1741;
(2) Richard Harcourt (1680-c.1727), baptised 10 September 1680; married 1st, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Richard Harcourt, kt and had issue one son and one daughter; married 2nd, [forename unknown], daughter of [forename unknown] Bannister and had issue two further daughters;
(3) Elizabeth Harcourt (b. 1681), baptised 4 August 1681; died unmarried;
(4) Margaret Harcourt; died unmarried;
(5) Simon Harcourt; died unmarried;
(6) Arabella Harcourt; died unmarried.
Her husband inherited Pendley Manor from her father in 1699, and on his death in 1724 it passed to their eldest son and descended in the Harcourt family.
She died 29th March 1694 and was buried at Aldbury (Herts). Her husband married 2nd, 9 July 1696, Elizabeth (d. 1706), daughter of John Canon of Kilgetty (Pembs.) and widow of Edward Philipps of Picton Castle (Pembs.); 3rd, 22 July 1707, Elizabeth (d. 1724), daughter of George Morse of Henbury (Glos) and widow of Sir Samuel Astry of Henbury; and 4th, 1724, Mary, daughter of Sir Philip Harcourt of Stanton Harcourt (Oxon); he died 22 March 1724 and was buried at Aldbury, 30 March 1724.


Burke's Extinct & Dormant Baronetcies, 1841, pp. 9-10; G.E. Cokayne, Some account of the Lord Mayors and Sheriffs of the city of London during the first quarter of the seventeenth century, 1601-1625, 1897, pp. 8-10; J.T. Smith, English Houses, 1200-1800: the Hertfordshire evidence, 1992, p.22; J.T. Smith, Hertfordshire Houses: a select inventory, 1993, pp. 191-2; B. Little, A perspective on Pendley: a history of Pendley Manor, 2014; Hertfordshire Archives & Local Studies, C/DE/Of9/65.

Location of archives

No significant archive is known to survive.

Coat of arms

Argent a chevron between three crosses bottonée sable.

Revision and acknowledgements

This account was first published 26 July 2014 and was revised 12 August 2014, and 10 August 2016 and 28 September 2019.

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