Thursday 30 September 2021

(469) Bayntun (later Bayntun-Rolt and Starky) of Bromham House and Spye Park, baronets

Bayntun of Spye Park
The Bayntun family was of notable antiquity, and a Sir Henry Baynton was knight marshal to King Henry II in the late 12th century. However, the medieval pedigree is uncertain, and Sir Robert Baynton (c.1439-75) lost everything in the Wars of the Roses, when he was on the losing side at the battle of Tewkesbury in 1471, and was attainted. Although his life was spared, he died in custody. His son, Sir John Bayntun, succeeded in getting the attainder reversed in 1504 and recovered the family's manor of Falston (Wilts). He also inherited property at Bromham from his cousin, Richard Beauchamp (1453-1508), 6th Baron Beauchamp de St. Amand. Sir John died in 1516 and was succeeded at Bromham by his son, Sir Edward Bayntun (d. 1544), kt., with whom the genealogy below begins. It was Sir Edward whose career as a courtier (he served five of Henry VIII's queens as vice-chamberlain) and land acquisitions after the dissolution of the monasteries established the Bayntuns as one of the leading gentry families in Wiltshire. If his successors had consistently shown the same political acumen and business sense as Sir Edward, there can be no doubt that they would have secured a peerage and even greater estates, but they did not: even so, it was said of the Bayntuns that their eminency was ‘in no way inferior to the chiefs of the titular nobility’ and (some hyperbole here), that their properties were comparable to those of a duke.

Sir Edward was succeeded by his eldest son, Sir Andrew Bayntun (c.1515-64), who showed early promise in his studies, notably as a linguist. As a young man he was a protégé of Thomas Cromwell, but he had moved to work for the king as a diplomat before Cromwell fell. There are signs of some ineptness in his short diplomatic career, which he abandoned in 1546 in order to manage his large estates and fill local public offices.  Although the estates he inherited were large, they were burdened with debts and generous legacies left by his father. Sir Andrew set out to sell some lands to pay off these incumbrances, and to concentrate the estate in Wiltshire through exchanges, but he was several times taken advantage of by cunning rogues and let down by incompetent lawyers. As a result, he was seldom free of financial worries and was obliged to sell further lands at intervals. He had no male heir, and in 1560 his younger brother, Sir Edward Bayntun (c.1517-93), kt., fearing that his brother might run through the entire estate, persuaded him to settle the remainder of the estate on himself and their younger brothers: this made Sir Andrew a tenant for life only, and prevented him permanently alienating any more of the estate. As it happened, Sir Andrew lived only a few years longer, and when he died in 1564 the settlement brought the estate to his brother, Sir Edward.

Sir Edward Bayntun was much more in the mould of his father than Sir Andrew had been. Although he did not pursue a career at court, his careful husbandry of the family estates - helped by the income which his first wife derived from an interest in the Stourton family's estates - enabled him to build up the estate again. The most bizarre incident of his life was occasioned by the sudden and unexpected death of his eldest son in 1564, which it was claimed was due to sorcery. The witch responsible was identified as Agnes Mills, who was executed, but she was thought to have been the agent of Sir Edward's sister-in-law, Dorothy Bayntun, whose children stood to inherit the estates under the settlement of 1560 if Sir Edward died without male issue: Dorothy went unpunished for her role in the assumed crime.

When Sir Edward died in 1593 his estates passed to his surviving son, Sir Henry Bayntun (1574?-1616), who was brought up to be a young man with a strong Puritan beliefs under four guardians appointed in his father's will. His career and most especially his will show a great deal of charitable giving, and it is apparent that he took the public duties of his position seriously. He married the daughter of one of his guardians, and left a surviving son and daughter. His son and heir, a third Sir Edward Bayntun (1593-1657), kt., was as different from his father as can be conceived. Although he emulated, in certain public situations, the same Puritan standpoint as his father, in reality he was the landlord or neighbour from Hell. He was quarrelsome, self-interested and dissolute; he sought public office only for the power it gave him over others, and he used it without restraint for his personal advantage. If other means failed, he turned readily to violence, and this was as true within his own household as in his external relationships. In the Civil War, he was one of those urging Parliament to take up arms against the King, and although his actions in the Civil War brought him a measure of disgrace and led to the destruction of both his houses, he never suffered the severer penalties which he richly deserved. He did, however, severely dent the reputation and status of the Bayntuns in the county: from the mid 17th century they were no longer classed as one of the leading gentry families.

We cannot, at this remove, tell why Sir Edward behaved as he did. Was he simply rebelling against a stifling Puritan upbringing? Or was he mentally ill, perhaps as a result of the syphilis to which it seems likely his dissolute behaviour would have exposed him? At all events, his son and successor, a fourth Sir Edward Bayntun (1618-79) was a very different character. He was a parliamentarian in the Civil War but did not support the regicide, played a limited part in public affairs during the Commonwealth, and was readily rehabilitated at the Restoration, becoming a Knight of the Bath in 1661. His son, Henry Bayntun (1664-91), succeeded to the estate at the age of fifteen and came of age in 1685. Perhaps with a view to restoring the prestige of the family, he set about buying large blocks of property in Wiltshire and Somerset from the Hungerfords, who had hit hard times. He removed from the rather unsatisfactory house at Spye Park which his grandfather had built in the 1650s, and settled at Farleigh Castle, the old Hungerford family seat. His purchases were, however, all funded by debt. If he had lived long enough to pay off the debts his strategy might have been successful, but he did not, and his executors were obliged to sell off most of his newly acquired property and part of the family's core estate at Bremhill as well. By his wife - daughter of the famous rake and poet, the 2nd Earl of Rochester - he left one son (John Bayntun (1691-1716)), who died without issue, and a daughter, Anne Bayntun (c.1689-1734), who was his eventual heiress.

Legally speaking, the Spye Park estate passed from John Bayntun to Anne's second son, Edward Rolt (1710-1800), who was obliged to take the additional name Bayntun as a condition of his inheritance. But since Edward was a mere child when John died in 1716, it was in practice Anne and her husband, Edward Rolt (1684-1722) who came into possession of Spye Park. The Rolts actually lived at Sacombe House in Hertfordshire, but when Edward Rolt died unexpectedly of smallpox in 1722, his widow came to live at Spye Park. Two years later, she took a second husband, in the form of James Somerville (d. 1765), 13th Baron Somerville, who had estates in Renfrewshire, but they spent enough time at Spye Park to make it worth carrying out a major landscaping project under the direction of Stephen Switzer. Anne died in 1734, and it was probably at that time that her son came into possession of Spye Park. He was MP for Chippenham for the remarkably long period of forty-three years (1737-80), and his lengthy political service brought him a series of lucrative offices and in 1762, a baronetcy. He appears in the record books as Sir Edward Bayntun-Rolt, 1st bt., but in practice he was known for almost all purposes just as Sir Edward Bayntun, and his younger children all dropped the Rolt completely. His son, Sir Andrew Bayntun-Rolt (1755-1816), 2nd bt., was married to the eldest daughter of the 6th Earl of Coventry and they had a daughter, but after she had an affair with his own nephew, he turned her out of the house and eventually divorced her by act of parliament (the pamphlet writers had a lovely time with the juicy details of the evidence presented against her). She died soon afterwards, and since Sir Andrew still seems to have loved her despite his refusal to be reconciled to her, his agony of mind can readily be imagined. He married again some years later, but perhaps not surprisingly this marriage was not a success and he was soon separated from his second wife. It was only then that he embarked on a remarkable career as a serial adulterer, siring nineteen children in as many years by two different women. The elder and more prolific of the two seems to have lived at Spye Park as his wife in all but legal status; the younger lived in Corsham. All his children were acknowledged and provided for in his will, but of course none of the sons were able to inherit his title (which died with him) or his settled estate, and his property therefore all passed to his only legitimate child, his daughter, Maria Barbara Bayntun-Rolt (1779-1870), who had eloped with and married the Rev. John Starky in 1797. Her husband died in 1834 and her eldest son in 1843, so the Spye Park estate passed to her grandson, John Bayntun Starky (1834-72), who finally brought the family's ownership of their Wiltshire estate to an end. He was a gambler, and Spye Park was sold in 1863 to pay his debts. He did not reform, and in 1867 was declared bankrupt, after which he emigrated to Australia, leaving his wife and seven children to be supported by the charity of her relations.

Bromham House, Wiltshire

The manor of Bromham was given by King William II to Battle Abbey in or soon after 1087, and the abbey retained it until its dissolution in 1538. It was then purchased from the Crown by Sir Edward Baynton, who had held a lease of the estate since 1516. He was a major landowner in Wiltshire, and probably built Bromham House soon after he came into possession in 1516. The house - which stood close to the present Bromham House Farm - was sufficiently large and impressive to be well known in the 16th century: according to legend it was 'almost as large as the royal palace of Whitehall', which though it must be an exaggeration is a telling one. In the late 1530s Leland visited Corsham, where he found the 'ruines of an old maner place; and thereby a park wont to be yn dowage to the quenes of Englande', and noted that 'Mr Baynton yn Quene Anns dayes [i.e. 1533-36] pullid doun by licens a peace of this house sumwhat to help his buildinges at Bromeham'. The licence was perhaps granted when Sir Edward entertained King Henry VIII at Bromham in 1535. At the beginning of the 17th century, King James I visited on three occasions, but during the Civil War a later Sir Edward Bayntun sided with the Parliamentarians and the Royalists burned his house in May 1645.
The gatehouse of Bromham House as re-erected as a lodge to Spye Park c.1750.
The site was abandoned after that and a replacement house was built at Spye Park, by 1654, using building materials salvaged from the ruins of the old house. No illustration is known of Bromham House, but the gatehouse, which evidently escaped destruction in the 17th century, was taken down and rebuilt in an altered form as a gate lodge at Spye Park in about 1750.

Descent: Battle Abbey leased to Sir Edward Bayntun (d. 1544), kt., who acquired the freehold from the Crown in 1538 after the dissolution of the abbey; to son, Sir Andrew Bayntun (c.1515-64), kt.; to brother, Sir Edward Bayntun (c.1517-93), kt.; to son, Sir Henry Bayntun MP (1571-1616), kt.; to son, Sir Edward Bayntun (1593-1657), kt.; burnt in 1645 by Royalist troops and subsequently abandoned.

Spye Park, Wiltshire

Spye Park may have originated as a hunting park established in association with Bromham House on the wooded upland at the northern end of Bromham parish. There is believed to have been a lodge here in the early 17th century, but the first house known as Spye Park was built for Sir Edward Bayntun (1593-1657) after the destruction of Bromham House during the Civil War. The diarist John Evelyn visited Spye in July 1654 and recorded that it was 'a place capable of being made a noble seat; but the humorous old Knight has built a long single [i.e. single-pile] house of two low stories on the precipice of an incomparable prospect, and landing on a bowling green in the park. The house is like a long barn, and has not a window on the prospect side'. Not only had Sir Edward wantonly ignored the view, he had sited his house so close to the edge of the 'precipice' that it was almost impossible to improve matters by extending it on that side, but fairly quickly - probably before 1700 - the house had been given regular fenestration of cross-windows on the formerly blind north-east side.

Spye Park: the courtyard front of the house, redrawn from a sketch of 1684.
In 1717 the estate came unexpectedly to Mrs. Anne Rolt, who was the sister and heiress of the last male Bayntun. She was living at Sacombe House (Herts) with her husband Edward Rolt, who had engaged Charles Bridgeman to improve the landscape there, although since he lost a lot of money in the South Sea Bubble, his improvements may never have been completed. Fortunately, the operation of the entail on Spye Park kept the estate out of the hands of Rolt's creditors (chief among whom was Bridgeman himself), and after Rolt's death from smallpox in 1722 his widow came to live at Spye Park. She at once engaged Stephen Switzer (1682-1745) to improve the grounds with terraces, cascades on both sides of the house and a grotto pavilion. In his book, An Introduction to a General System of Hydrostaticks and Hydraulicks (1734), Switzer recorded his work on an Italian cascade at Spye as 'equal to any in the French Gardens, the Falls of the Water being over Steps and rough Work of different Kinds and different Heights, of about 30 or 40 Foot Fall'. Switzer also formed a canal which fed little square basins for fish.

Spye Park: a view of the house in the late 18th century, showing the pedimented portico designed by Edward Stevens.
After Mrs Rolt died in 1734, her son, Sir Edward Bayntun-Rolt gained possession of the estate, and it was presumably he who took down the surviving Tudor gatehouse of Bromham House and reconstructed it as a gate lodge (the Spye Arch Lodge) at the end of the west drive into the estate. He also preserved the ancient trees in the park and remodelled the house, employing Edward Stevens in 1767 to construct a pedimented portico on the north-east front, overlooking the view. In 1792 a travel guide referred to the 'forest scenery' in the park and mentioned that the 'ancient building' had been modernised, 'and is ornamented by a handsome portico'. However, within ten years many of the trees had been removed and in 1801 the park was described as being 'as bare as Salisbury Plain', although some old trees clearly remained as an article in the Gardeners' Chronicle in 1891 refers to ancient trees in the park and trees on the lawn which were several hundred years old. This was probably the work of Sir Andrew Bayntun-Rolt (1755-1816), 2nd bt, who inherited in 1800 but was no doubt managing the estate for his elderly father for some years before that. The alterations to the park at this time have been attributed to William Emes (1730-1803).

Two views of the house and grounds at Spye Park, painted in 1863 and showing the short-lived castellated tower by the lake in the grounds.
Sir Andrew Bayntun-Rolt had nineteen illegitimate children but his only legitimate child and heiress was his daughter, Maria Barbara (1780-1870), the wife of the Rev. John Starkey (d. 1834). He was probably responsible for building a short-lived castellated tower which stood between the house and the lake, and which is recorded in two views of the park painted by Alexander Rolfe in 1863; it had evidently been demolished by 1885. 

Spye Park: the garden front of the Victorian house with the additions of 1871, from an old postcard.
In 1863 Maria's grandson sold the estate to J.W.G. Spicer, reputedly so that he could pay his gambling debts. Spicer built a new gabled two-storey Tudor-style house with dormer windows in the attics in 1863-68 to the designs of William Burn. This stood on a site slightly behind and above its predecessor, but which offered the same extensive views. When work was completed, the old house was completely taken down in 1868. The new house was L-shaped, with a rectangular main block containing the family accommodation and four service ranges arranged around a courtyard to one side of the entrance court. The entrance front of the main block had a three-storey asymmetrically placed tower towards the right-hand end, with a classical porch set in front of it. The garden front was apparently originally symmetrical, but in 1871, a short gabled single-storey block was built at its north-west end and a circular tower with a conical roof was added at the south-east corner; Burn having died in 1870 these additions were designed by his former partner and successor, MacVicar Anderson. 

Spye Park: the entrance front of the Victorian house after the fire of 1974. Image: Historic England.
In 1974 the house was seriously damaged by a fire which caused the roofs to collapse. It was already suffering from dry rot, the spread of which was greatly accelerated after the fire. After standing for some years as a ruin, the main part of the house was pulled down in 1977 and the remainder in the early 1990s. All that remains of the house today is the entrance porch and the house platform, from which there are excellent views to the south-west. To replace the house, the 17th and 19th century former stables and coach house were converted into a new main residence for the Spicer family.  Since the late 19th century there have been some minor additions to the pleasure grounds but few alterations have been made in the park. 

Descent: built for Sir Edward Bayntun (1593-1657), kt.; to son, Sir Edward Bayntun (1618-79), kt.; to son, Henry Bayntun (1664-91); to son, John Bayntun (1691-1716); to sister, Anne (c.1689-1734), wife of Edward Rolt (d. 1722) and later of James Somerville (d. 1765), 13th Baron Somerville; to second son, Sir Edward Rolt (later Bayntun-Rolt) (1710-1800), 1st bt.; to son, Sir Andrew Bayntun-Rolt (1755-1816), 2nd bt. (who let to the celebrated sportsman, Col. Thornton, c.1812-17); to daughter, Maria Barbara (1780-1870), wife of Rev. John Starkey (d. 1834); to son, John Edward Andrew Starkey (1799-1843); to son, John Bayntun Starkey (1834-72), who sold 1863 to Maj. John William Gooch Spicer (1817-83); to son, Capt. John Edmund Philip Spicer (1850-1928); to son, Capt. Frank Fitzroy Spicer (1893-1973); to nephew, Simon John Lanfear Spicer (1924-2005), who sold 2005 to Enthoven family.

Bayntun (later Bayntun-Rolt) family of Bromham House and Spye Park, baronets

Bayntun, Sir Edward (d. 1544), kt. Son of Sir John Bayntun (d. 1516), kt., of Bromham (Wilts) and his wife Jane, daughter of Thomas Digges of Chilham (Kent), born before 1495. He was an esquire of the body by the beginning of 1522, and was knighted later that year. He enjoyed a rapid rise to prominence as a courtier to King Henry VIII, who at the time of the royal divorce asked him to use his private friendship with Cardinal Pole to persuade that prelate to agree to the king's proposals. Although his endeavours proved unsuccessful, the King later appointed him vice-chamberlain to his last five queens, 1531-44. In 1544, he accompanied the King on his military campaign in France. He was High Sheriff of Wiltshire, 1522-23; JP for Wiltshire, 1523-45; was extensively employed on subsidy and other commissions, 1523-40; and was an officer of Clarendon Forest (keeper of the coney warren, 1524-38; warden, 1538-44) and Chippenham & Melksham Forest (warden, 1534-44); keeper of Old Sarum, 1531; doorward of Devizes Castle and keeper of Devizes park. MP for Wiltshire, 1529, 1539, and for Wilton, 1542. He acted as steward of the Earl of Warwick's lands in Wiltshire from 1522, of Malmesbury Abbey, 1531-35, of Langley Marish and Wyrardisbury (Bucks), by 1538, and of the city of Bristol, 1542-44. He was sympathetic to the King's religious policy, and profited enormously from the dissolution of the monasteries. He married 1st, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Sulyard, kt., of Wetherden (Suffk), chief justice of the common pleas; and 2nd, by 1531, Isabel (d. 1573), a lady in waiting to Queens Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard (who was her half-sister) and Catherine Parr, daughter of Sir John Leigh of Stockwell (Surrey), and had issue:
(1.1) Anne Bayntun; married 1st, Henry Poole, and 2nd, Edward Fabian;
(1.2) Bridget Bayntun (d. 1545); married, by 1542, Sir James Stumpe (d. 1563) of Malmesbury (Wilts) and had issue a daughter; died 1545;
(1.3) Andrew Bayntun (c.1515-64) (q.v.); 
(1.4) Sir Edward Bayntun (1517-93), kt. (q.v.);
(1.5) Jane Bayntun; married, by 1538, Sir William St. Loe (1518-65), kt. of Tormarton (Glos) (who m2, 1559, as her third husband, 'Bess of Hardwick'* (c.1527-1608)), son of Sir John St. Loe, kt. of Sutton Court, Chew Magna (Som.), and had issue two daughters;
(1.6) Henry Bayntun (b. c.1520); married Dorothy Mantill (fl. 1564) of Cambridgeshire, who was accused in 1564 of procuring the death of her nephew, William Bayntun, by sorcery; they had issue three sons and two daughters;
(1.7) Ursula Bayntun (c.1524-67), born about 1524; married 1st, by 1543, Edmund Thoresby (d. 1547) of Kings Lynn (Norfk), son of Thomas Thoresby, and had issue one son; married 2nd, Erasmus Spelman of Beeston (Norfk), fourth son of Sir John Spelman of Narborough (Norfk), and had issue three sons and four daughters; buried 9 September 1567;
(2.1) Henry Bayntun (b. 1536; fl. 1592), born 1536; married Anne, daughter of Sir Richard Cavendish of Nottingham and had issue four sons and one daughter; 
(2.2) Francis Bayntun (b. 1537);
(2.3) Ann Bayntun; died young.
In 1516 he inherited the manors of Falston and Market Lavington (Wilts), and Chilton Candover (Hants) from his father. From 1516 he leased the manor of Bromham from Battle Abbey and built a new mansion house there; the freehold was granted to him by the king in 1538. In January 1537 he secured the site of the Stanley Abbey, with 12 manors in Wiltshire, three in Berkshire and one in Somerset. After the dissolution of Malmesbury Abbey in 1539, he was given custody of its site and buildings, and in the following July its former manor of Bremhill near Chippenham was also granted to him and his wife. Finally, in January 1541 they were granted three further manors in Wiltshire as well as a lease of the manor of Paddington (Middx).
He died in France, 27 November 1544, and was buried there; his will was proved 21 May 1545 and an inquisition post mortem was taken in November 1545. His first wife died before 1531. His widow married 2nd, as his second wife, Sir James Stumpe (d. 1563) of Malmesbury (Wilts) (whose first wife had been her stepdaughter), and died 16 February 1573.
* 'Bess of Hardwick', the builder of Hardwick Hall (Derbys), was Elizabeth (1521/7-1608), daughter of John Hardwick of Hardwick (Derbys), who married 1st, 1541, Robert Barley or Barlow (d. 1544); 2nd, 1547, Sir William Cavendish (d. 1557), kt., of Chatsworth (Derbys); 3rd, 1559, Sir William St. Loe (1518-65) of Tormarton (Glos); and 4th, 1568, Gilbert Talbot (d. 1590), 6th Earl of Shrewsbury.

Bayntun, Andrew (c.1515-64). Eldest son of Sir Edward Bayntun (d. 1544), kt., and his first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Sulyard, kt., of Wetherden (Suffk), born about 1515. He was educated privately at court by Rev. John Palsgrave, one of Henry VIII's chaplains and a noted linguist, from whom he learned Latin, Greek and French. He then travelled abroad and while in Paris in 1535 he witnessed the burning of heretics, the horror of which made a deep impression on him, reflected in a letter to Thomas Cromwell in which he also offered his services to the minister. The offer was evidently accepted for by 1538 he was one of Cromwell's servants recommended to the royal household, where his father was already an established figure. He survived the fall of Cromwell and in the early 1540s was evidently employed on Crown affairs in Europe; in 1543 he was arrested in France and extensive diplomatic efforts had to be employed to secure his release. After 1546 he withdrew from court but was MP for Marlborough, 1545, 1555, Horsham, 1537, Westbury, 1553, and Calne, 1557. At his father's death he inherited substantial estates but had to pay generous legacies and his father's debts; as a result of which he fell into financial difficulties and was obliged to sell part of his estates. There are several indications that he may not have had a good head for business: a transaction with Thomas Seymour (d. 1549), Lord Seymour of Sudeley, which involved an exchange of property, almost ruined him, for on Seymour's attainder the Bayntun as well as the Seymour lands were seized by the Crown. Although during the reign of Queen Mary he recovered much of his inheritance, under Elizabeth his finances became so desperate that in July 1560 he entailed much of his remaining land on his brother and his heirs, with reversion to younger brothers, to keep the property ‘in the blood and name of the Bayntons’. He evidently displeased his father by marrying without parental consent. He married 1st, Philippa, daughter of Guillaume Brulet, a French embroider in the service of King Henry VIII, and 2nd, by 1550, Frances, daughter of John Lee, and had issue:
(2.1) Anne Bayntun (b. 1551), born 1551; married William Anslie, and had issue a daughter.
He inherited the Bromham House estate from his father in 1545, but sold parts of the estate. In 1563 he inherited some scattered properties from his aunt Margery Bayntun (sister of his father); these lands passed to his daughter.
He died 21 February 1564 and was buried at Chippenham, where he is commemorated by a (poorly preserved) tomb chest. His first wife's date of death is unknown. His second wife's date of death is unknown.

Bayntun, Sir Edward (c.1517-93), kt. Second son of Sir Edward Bayntun (d. 1544), kt., and his first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Sulyard, kt., of Wetherden (Suffk), born about 1517. JP for Wiltshire, 1559; High Sheriff of Wiltshire, 1571-72. MP for Wiltshire, 1563-67, Devizes, 1571 and Calne, 1572-83. He married 1st, c.1553, Agnes (d. 1574), daughter of Sir Griffith Rhys of Carew Castle (Pembs), and formerly the mistress of William Stourton (c.1505-48), 7th Baron Stourton, and 2nd, Anne (d. 1578), daughter of Humphrey Pakington of London and widow of Humphrey Style, Edward Jackman, and James Bacon, and had issue by his first wife thirteen children*, including:
(1.1) William Bayntun (d. 1564), reputedly murdered on 3 April 1564 by the sorcery of Agnes Mills, witch (who was hanged for the crime), at the instigation his aunt, Dorothy Bayntun, whose own heirs male stood to inherit by the failure of the senior line;
(1.2) Anne Bayntun (c.1557-87), born about 1557; married, 2 July 1576 at St Peter-le-Poer, London, Sir William Eyre (1556-1629), kt. (who m2, Elizabeth (d. 1622), daughter of John Jackman of London, merchant and had further issue two sons and three daughters; and who m3, c.1626, Anne, daughter of Michael Erneley of Bishops Cannings (Wilts) and widow of William Noyes), of Great Chalfield (Wilts) and had issue three sons and two daughters; died 19 June 1587;
(1.3) Margaret Bayntun; died young;
(1.4) Katherine Bayntun (d. 1582); buried at Bromham, 24 October 1582;
(1.5) Isobel Bayntun (b. 1568), baptised at Bromham, 13 April 1568; died young;
(1.6) Elizabeth Bayntun (fl. 1592); living, unmarried, in 1592;
(1.7) Anne Bayntun (b. 1572), baptised at Bromham, 21 December 1572; living in 1593;
(1.8) Sir Henry Bayntun (1574?-1616), kt. (q.v.).
He inherited the Bromham House estate from his elder brother in 1564 and substantially enlarged it by purchase over the next thirty years. His first wife had a life interest in part of the Stourton family estates but her right to these estates was challenged in the courts by Charles Stourton, 8th Baron Stourton, and she had peaceful possession only after he was executed for murder in 1557. He was involved in further litigation over his inheritance of the Bayntun estates from his brother in 1564-66.
He died 21 March 1593 and was buried at Bromham, where he is commemorated by a large standing monument erected after his second wife's death in 1578; his will was proved 13 November 1593. His first wife died 19 August 1574. His second wife died in 1578.
* The names of five of his children are unknown; they may have been born before the first surviving Bromham parish register begins in 1566.

Bayntun, Sir Henry (1574?-1616), kt. Second, but eldest surviving son of Sir Edward Bayntun (c.1517-93), kt., and his wife Agnes, daughter of Griffith Rice of Carew Castle (Pembs), baptised at Bromham, 3 January 1574/5*. Educated at Lincoln's Inn (admitted 1588). Knighted, 14 September 1601. An officer in the Wiltshire militia (Capt. of horse, by 1586 to 1597 or later; Col. of foot by 1605 to 1610). JP for Wiltshire, 1592-93, 1594-1616; DL for Wiltshire, by 1609-1611 or later; deputy warden of Melksham Forest, 1600-16; High Sheriff of Wiltshire, 1601-02. MP for Chippenham, 1588, for Devizes, 1593, 1604 and for Wiltshire, 1597. His father's will made provision for four overseers to bring him up ‘in virtuous and godly life’, and he retained strong Puritan convictions throughout his life: George Webbe, bishop of Limerick, dedicated A Poesie of Spirituall Flowers taken out of the Scriptures to him, and in his will he described himself as one of God's elect. In 1612 he founded an almshouse for six poor people at Bromham, and his will made further charitable bequests. He married, about 1590, Lucy (d. 1621), daughter of Sir John Danvers, kt., of Dauntsey (Wilts), and had issue:
(1) Sir Edward Bayntun (1593-1657), kt. (q.v.);
(2) Charles Bayntun (1594-95), baptised at Bremhill, 19 January 1594/5; died in infancy and was buried at Bremhill, 20 February 1594/5;
(3) Elizabeth Bayntun (1596-1648), baptised at Bremhill, 23 May 1596; married, 6 July 1619 at Bromham, John 'Crump' Dutton (1594-1658) (who m2, 1648, Anne, daughter of Rt. Rev. John King, bishop of London), son of William Dutton of Sherborne House (Glos), and had issue one son and three daughters; died 28 April 1648 and was buried at Sherborne.
He inherited the Bromham and Bremhill estate from his father in 1593. His widow was left Bremhill House for life.
He died 24 September 1616 and was buried at Bromham; an inquisition post mortem was held in 1617/8 and his will was proved in the PCC, 18 November 1616. His widow was buried at the entrance to St John's Chapel, Westminster Abbey, 14 June 1621; her will was proved 28 January 1621/2.
* The History of Parliament says he was born 'shortly before' his mother's death in August 1574. However, his recorded age at admission to Lincoln's Inn would suggest he was born in 1571 and the fact that he was a captain of militia by 1586 may indicate an even earlier date for his birth.

Bayntun, Sir Edward (1593-1657), kt. Elder and only surviving son of Sir Henry Bayntun (1571-1616), kt., and his wife Lucy, daughter of Sir John Danvers, kt., of Dauntsey (Wilts), baptised at Bremhill (Wilts), 5 September 1593. Educated at Christ Church, Oxford (matriculated 1610). Knighted 22 October 1613. A burgess of Devizes from 1614 and a common councilman of the town, c.1621-26; JP for Wiltshire, 1619-42, c.1650-57, and for Devizes, 1640-57; DL for Wiltshire, c.1626-31; High Sheriff of Wiltshire, 1637-38. MP for Devizes, 1614, 1624, 1625, for Wiltshire, 1621-24, and for Chippenham, 1626, 1640-48. He was a commissioner for the repair of St Paul's Cathedral, 1633, and served on numerous other commissions in the 1620s and 1630s. He was Colonel of the Wiltshire horse militia by 1626, and in the 1640s he was an active Parliamentarian. In Parliament, he was one of the Presbyterian party urging war on Parliament, and when war was declared he was appointed commander of the parliamentarian forces in Wiltshire. He then quarrelled with Sir Edward Hungerford, a fellow parliamentarian, and in 1642 each man successively arrested and escaped from the other. Hungerford subsequently accused Bayntun of negligence for not relieving the Cirencester garrison and in turn was accused of cowardice. In an anonymous open letter it was suggested that Bayntun ‘has lorded it with such an exquisite tyranny that he has converted more to the king’s side by persecution than I have been able to win ... by my rhetoric or reason'; Parliament supported Hungerford in this dispute, appointing him commander in Bayntun’s place in January 1643. Disgraced, Bayntun retired in the following July to the Isle of Wight, where one observer was so appalled by his coarse behaviour that he declared that ‘no man has a fouler mouth or worse tongue’. In 1643 he made overtures to the the Royalists, and being regarded with suspicion by his own side, he was arrested and sent to the Tower for a month in August of that year. His attempts to find favour with the king failed to prevent royalist soldiers from burning down both Bromham House and his other seat, Bremhill House, in 1645 and 1646 respectively, to forestall their future use by the parliamentarians. His private life was quarrelsome, self-interested and dissolute, and he fell out frequently with members of his family (including a bitter dispute with his widowed mother and her nephew, Sir John Danvers), his tenants and the neighbouring gentry. He displayed little respect for authority, and was frequently involved in litigation, when he thought nothing of intimidating witnesses, packing juries, seizing goods by force, and assaulting officers of the Crown. He was clearly a dangerous man to cross, especially as he did not lack personal courage and was a confirmed duellist: as late as August 1641 he fought with a fellow MP, Richard Rogers, and received ‘so dangerous a hurt in his body that it was reported he was dead’. In 1625, he was charged before the High Commission with having seduced his wife’s fifteen year-old maid; he subsequently fathered two illegitimate children by her, having promised to marry her when his wife died. Bayntun deserted the girl in 1629, and when her father petitioned the Crown for relief, at least one other child and several mistresses were brought to light, but he secured a royal pardon for his adulteries in the following December. He married 1st, 18 July 1613 at Little Easton (Essex), Elizabeth (d. 1635), daughter of Sir Henry Maynard, kt., of Easton Lodge, and 2nd, 1 August 1640 at St Peter, Paul's Wharf, London, Mary (d. 1664), sister of Nicholas Bowell of Cokethorpe (Oxon), and had issue:
(1.1) Elizabeth Bayntun (1614-16), baptised at Little Easton (Essex), 17 July 1614; died in infancy and was buried at Bremhill, 26 January 1615/6;
(1.2) Lucy Bayntun (1616-18), baptised at Bremhill (Wilts), 25 February 1615/6; died in infancy and was buried at Bromham, 30 August 1618;
(1.3) Henry Bayntun (1617-19), baptised at Bromham, 15 January 1617/8; died in infancy and was buried at Bromham, 25 October 1619;
(1.4) Sir Edward Bayntun (1618-79) (q.v.); 
(1.5) Henry Bayntun (1621-72), baptised at Bromham, 14 November 1621; educated at St John's College, Oxford (matriculated 1638) and travelled abroad, 1640-43; on returning from his travels he became an officer in the Royalist army (Capt.), although his father and elder brother were fighting on the other side, but he was apparently a civilian again when he surrendered to Gen. Massey at Calne in 1644; MP for Chippenham, 1661-72; lived latterly at Bath (Som.); married, by 1653, Joanna (d. 1675), daughter of Edward Trimnell of Bremhill, yeoman, and had issue one son (Edward Bayntun (1654-1720), who married his cousin Lucy, third daughter of his uncle, Sir Edward Bayntun (1618-79)) and two daughters; buried at Bromham, 18 November 1672;
(1.6) Anne Bayntun (1622-73?), baptised at Bromham, 21 November 1622; married*, 22 October 1640 at Bromham, Hugh Rogers (1621-53), perhaps the man who was MP for Calne in 1640 and a Colonel in the Parliamentary army, son of Sir Francis Rogers of Cannington (Som.), and had issue two daughters; possibly the 'Anne Rogers, widow' buried at Avebury (Wilts), 19 August 1673;
(1.7) Charles Bayntun (b. & d. 1624), baptised at Bromham, 3 June 1624; died in infancy and was buried at Bromham, 6 September 1624;
(1.8) William Bayntun (1625-29), baptised at Bromham, 6 November 1625; died young and was buried at Bromham, 6 December 1629;
(1.9) Mary Bayntun (1628-86), baptised at Bromham, 22 June 1628; died unmarried and was buried at Bromham, 3 March 1685/6;
(2.1) Anne Bayntun (d. 1650); died young and was buried at Bromham, 14 September 1650;
(2.2) Robert Bayntun (1644-95), baptised at St Mary-le-Strand, London, 19 October 1644; inherited Avebury manor; died unmarried and was probably the man of this name whose will was proved in the PCC, 25 June 1695 and made provision for 'my loveing friend, Sarah Riggs, singlewoman' and two illegitimate daughters;
(2.3) Nicholas Bayntun (c.1649-1700), born about 1649; educated at St John's College, Oxford (matriculated 1664); freeman of Woodstock, 1673 and Oxford, 1681-88; common councillor for Woodstock, 1674-88, 1688-1700; JP for Woodstock, 1685-87; MP for New Woodstock, 1679, 1681 and for Chippenham, 1689; keeper of Woodstock Park (Oxon) by 1674; an officer in the Wiltshire foot militia (Lt-Col.), c.1689-1700; successful racehorse owner; married, 4 November 1674 at Shipton-on-Cherwell (Oxon), Joanna Maria, daughter of Sir Littleton Osbaldeston of Chadlington (Oxon) and had issue four sons and seven daughters; buried at Bromham, 28 October 1700.
As noted above, he also two had illegitimate children by his first wife's maid, Katherine Gerrard and also a son by Anne Hardy; their names and dates have not been traced.
He inherited the Bromham House and Bremhill House estates from his father in 1616, but both houses were burnt by Royalist troops in 1645 and 1646 respectively. By 1651 he was living at Avebury, while he built a new house in Spye Park, which was completed before 1654. His widow was living in Bristol in 1658.
He died 18 December 1657 and was buried at Bromham, where he is commemorated by a monument; his will was proved in the PCC, 4 January 1657/8. His first wife died 30 March 1635. His widow's will was proved in the PCC, 14 July 1664.
* Their marriage was marked by the publication of Gamelia: poems on the happy marriage of the most accomplished paire: H.R. and the vertuous A.B. (Oxford, 1640).

Bayntun, Sir Edward (1618-79), KB. Elder son of Sir Edward Bayntun (1593-1657) and his first wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Henry Maynard of Eston (Essex), baptised at Bromham, 2 December 1618. Educated at St John's College, Oxford (matriculated 1636) and Lincolns Inn (admitted 1638). MP for Devizes, 1640-47, 1648, 1654-55, 1675-79 and for Calne, 1659, 1660. Like his father, he was a Presbyterian and part of the faction that urged war in Parliament in 1640-41; once war was declared in 1642, he took an active part, serving in the Parliamentary army (Capt. 1642; Maj. by 1644) and acting as a commissioner with the Scots army, 1645. However, he seems not to have supported the regicide and was forced to withdraw from parliament by the army in 1647 (when his father conformed). He was a JP for Wiltshire, 1650-54, 1660-77 and for Devizes, 1669, and High Sheriff of Wiltshire, 1664-65. At the Restoration of the monarchy, he was made a Knight of the Bath, 23 April 1661 and became Colonel of the Wiltshire militia foot. He married, 30 May 1661 at St Bride, Fleet St., London, Stuarta (1643-80), daughter of Sir Thomas Thynne, kt., of Richmond (Surrey) and Longleat (Wilts), and had issue:
(1) Edward Bayntun (b. & d. 1662), baptised at Bremhill (Wilts), 5 June 1662; died in infancy and was buried at Bromham, 2 December 1662;
(2) Elizabeth Bayntun (1663-65), baptised at Bromham, 25 September 1663; died in infancy and was buried at Bromham, 8 February 1664/5;
(3) Henry Bayntun (1664-91) (q.v.);
(4) Ann Bayntun (1665-78), baptised at Bremhill, 7 November 1665; died young and was buried at Bromham, 3 July 1678;
(5) Edward Bayntun (1666-67), baptised at Bremhill, 11 December 1666; died in infancy and was buried at Bromham, 27 May 1667;
(6) Lucy Bayntun (1667-1730), baptised at Bremhill, 18 March 1667; married, by 1687, her first cousin, Edward Bayntun (1654-1720) and had issue nine sons and two daughters; buried at Bromham, 20 April 1730;
(7) Thomas Bayntun (1669-1719) of Little Chalfield (Wilts), baptised at Bremhill, 12 April 1669; educated at St John's College, Oxford (matriculated 1684); married, 28 June 1687 at Bishopstone (Wilts) (evidently sep. by 1705*), Elizabeth (1664-1712), daughter of George Willoughby, and had issue one son (who died young) and one daughter; nuncupative will proved 10 August 1719.
He inherited the Spye Park estate from his father in 1657.
He died suddenly on 26 July, and was buried at Bromham, 2 September 1679; his will was proved in the PCC, 26 November 1679. His widow is said to have died in 1680 and may be the 'Lady Benton' buried at Egham (Surrey), 11 November 1680.
* In her will, Elizabeth stated that she would 'freely forgive my husband and daughter, Elizabeth Bayntun all the injuries, unkindnesses and reflections done to me which were unjust and undeserved from either of them'. Elizabeth had a daughter by John Hall of the Hall, Bradford-on-Avon (Wilts), who went by the name of Rachel Bayntun and was heir to her natural father.

Bayntun, Henry (1664-91). Elder son of Sir Edward Bayntun (1618-79), KB and his wife Stuarta, daughter of Sir Thomas Thynne of Longleat (Wilts), baptised at Bromham, 17 November 1664. After his father died when he was fifteen, he was brought up with his brothers and sisters under the tutelage of George Johnson MP of Bowden Park, his mother having been forbidden ‘to intermeddle with their education or estate’ in his father's will. JP for Wiltshire, 1683-88, 1688-91; DL for Wiltshire, 1685-88, 1688-91; Tory MP for Chippenham, 1685, 1689 and for Calne, 1690-91. An officer in the Wiltshire militia (Col.), 1689-91. He married, 1 September 1685, Lady Anne (1669-1703), eldest daughter and co-heir of John Wilmot (1647-80), 2nd Earl of Rochester, and had issue:
(1) Edward Henry Bayntun (1686-88), baptised at Bromham, 15 October 1686; died in infancy and was buried at Bromham, 7 February 1687/8;
(2) Anne Bayntun (c.1689-1734) (q.v.);
(3) John Bayntun (1691-1716) (q.v.).
He inherited the Spye Park estate from his father in 1679 and came of age in 1685. In the 1680s he bought Hinton Charterhouse (Som.), Iford Manor (Wilts) and Farleigh Castle at Farleigh Hungerford (Wilts) from the Hungerford family, and Farleigh Castle became his principal residence. When he died he left debts of £22,000 secured on his estates. To clear his debts, his executors sold the Bremhill estate by 1694, Iford in 1700, and Farleigh Castle in 1705.
He was buried at Bromham, 11 July 1691; his will was proved 10 August 1691. His wife married 2nd, about 1692, the Hon. Francis Greville (1667-1710) of Warwick Castle, and had further issue two sons and two daughters; she died at Ditchley (Oxon), and was buried at Bromham, 8 August 1703.

Bayntun, John (1691-1716) Only son of Henry Bayntun (1664-91) and his wife Lady Anne, eldest daughter and co-heir of John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, baptised at Bremhill (Wilts), 4 March 1690/1. He married, 26 February 1711/2 at Erlestoke (Wilts), Katherine (1690-1717), daughter of Dauntsey Brouncker (d. 1693) of Erlestoke, but had no issue.
He inherited the Spye Park estate from his father a few months after he was born, and came of age in 1712.
He died 24 April 1716 and was buried at Bromham, where he is commemorated by a monument; his will was proved in the PCC, 2 May 1716. His widow was buried at Bromham, 23 January 1716/7.

Anne Baynton (1689-1734) 
Bayntun, Anne (c.1689-1734).
Only daughter of 
Henry Bayntun (1664-91) and his wife Lady Anne, eldest daughter and co-heir of John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, born about 1689 but baptism not traced. She married 1st, 13 July 1708 at Potterne (Wilts), Edward Rolt (1684-1722) of Sacombe Park (Herts), MP for Chippenham, 1722, son and heir of Sir Thomas Rolt, kt., and 2nd, 18 September 1724 at Bath Abbey (Som.), James Somerville (1698-1765), 13th Baron Somerville, and had issue:
(1.1) Thomas Rolt (1709-54) of Sacombe House; married without witnesses, May 1731, in the precincts of the Fleet Prison, London*, Anne (d. 1756), illegitimate daughter of Benedict Leonard Calvert (1679-1715), 4th Baron Baltimore, and had issue one son and two daughters; buried at Sacombe, 20 February 1754 [a full account of Thomas and his descendants is reserved for a future post on the Rolt family];
(1.2) Sir Edward Rolt (later Bayntun-Rolt otherwise Bayntun) (1710-1800), 1st bt. (q.v.);
(1.3) Rev. John Rolt (1711-93); educated at Clare Hall, Cambridge (admitted 1730) and Merton College, Oxford (matriculated 1736; BA 1737; MA 1737); ordained deacon and priest, 1735; rector of Yatesbury (Wilts), 1735-93, Rode with Woolverton (Som.), 1739-42, and Bromham, 1741-93; married 1st, 19 November 1746 at Yatesbury, Mary Pope, and had issue two sons; married 2nd, 8 September 1772 at Bromham, Jane (1746-1808), daughter of George Vince, and had issue three daughters; he also had an illegitimate daughter (b. 1763) by Sarah Sheffard between his two marriages; died 25 October 1793 and was buried at Bromham; will proved in the PCC, 25 November 1793;
(1.4) Henry Rolt (1713-44); an officer in the Horse Guards (Cornet, 1737; Capt. by 1743); died unmarried; will proved in the PCC, 10 January 1743/4;
(1.5) Wilmot Rolt (1717-51?), born 1 January and baptised at St Martin-in-the-Fields, Westminster (Middx), 12 January 1717; died unmarried, reputedly in 1751;
(1.6) Elizabeth Rolt (1719-89?), born 20 September and baptised at St James, Piccadilly, Westminster (Middx), 11 October 1719; married, 24 November 1746 at St George's Chapel, Mayfair, Westminster (Middx), Brig-Gen. John Prideaux (1718-59), son of Sir John Prideaux, 6th bt., and had issue three sons and three daughters; said to have died at Flushing (Netherlands), 1789; 
(1.7) James Rolt (1721-95), of Bagden Lodge, Savernake Forest (Wilts), born 16 June and baptised at St James, Piccadilly, Westminster, 23 June 1721; an officer in the Horse Guards (Brigadier, 1749; Capt., 1761; Maj. 1768; Lt-Col., 1770; retired c.1778); Gentleman Usher to HRH Princess Amelia, daughter of King George II, 1760-86; JP for Wiltshire; married, c.1743, Jane (c.1727-43), daughter of Charles Bucher of Bagden Lodge; after she died in childbirth he apparently had illegitimate daughters by his servants Jane Pike and Betty Hoait, for whom he made provision in his will; he died of a stroke, 5 March and was buried at Marlborough, 11 March 1795; will proved 19 March 1795;
(1.8) Anna Maria Rolt (b. & d. 1723); died in infancy and was buried at Bromham, 4 December 1723;
(2.1) Hon. Ann Whichnour Somerville (1725-78), born 30 August and baptised at Bromham, 28 September 1725; married, after an elopement, 23 December 1748 in Edinburgh, George Burges (1725-86), commissioner of the Scottish excise, 1761-68 and comptroller of Scottish customs, 1768-86, son of James Burges of Sulhamstead (Berks), and had issue one son and one daughter; died 29 October 1778;
(2.2) Maj. James Somerville (1727-96), 14th Lord Somerville, born at Drum, 22 June 1727; educated at Westminster School, 1742-43 and at Caen (France), 1744-45; an officer in the 2nd Dragoon Guards (Cornet, 1743) and the Marines (2nd Lt, 1744; Capt. 1751; Maj. 1761; retired 1763), he took part in the battles of Prestonpans, Falkirk and Culloden in 1745 and served under the Marquis of Granby in Germany, 1760-63; a representative peer for Scotland in the House of Lords, 1793-96; died unmarried and intestate in London, 16 April 1796 and was buried at Weston near Bath (Som.); administration of his goods was granted 7 May 1796;
(2.3) Lt-Col. the Hon. Hugh Somerville (1729-95); an officer in the army (Lt-Col.); lived at Fitzhead Court (Som.); married 1st, 23 November 1763 at Bishops Lydeard (Som.), Elizabeth Cannon (1738-65), daughter of Christopher Lethbridge of Pilton (Devon), and had issue one son (who succeeded his uncle as 15th Lord Somerville); married 2nd, 26 October 1778 at St Swithin, Walcot, Bath (Som.), Mary (1749-94), daughter of the Hon. Wriothesly Digby, and had further issue three sons and three daughters; died 7 May and was buried at Weston, nr Bath (Som.), 14 May 1795; will proved in the PCC, 30 May 1795.
She lived at Spye Park which her second son inherited from her brother in 1716/17, and carried out improvements to the landscaping in the 1720s. Her first husband inherited Sacombe Park (Herts) from his father. Her second husband inherited the Drum estate (Renfrews.) from his father in 1709 and the Edstone (Oxon) and Aston Somerville (Glos, now Worcs) estates of his distant cousin, the poet William Somerville, in 1742.
She died at Drum, 24 October 1734; administration of her goods was granted 31 March 1735. Her first husband died of smallpox at Bath, 22 December 1722. Her second husband married 2nd, 27 April 1736 at St Gregory, London, Frances (d. 1755), a rich widow, the fifth daughter and co-heiress of John Rotherham of Much Waltham (Essex) and widow of Peter Curvengen, an East India merchant; he died at Drum, 14 December 1765 and his will was proved 9 April 1766.
* A note in the register says 'An old gentlewoman gave £1 1s and a gent from Lord Baltimore £2 2s. He had cert[ificate] 20 day'. The Lord Baltimore in question would have been Anne's half-brother, the 5th Baron. His involvement suggests that a clandestine marriage was necessary because Thomas' parents did not approve of the match.

Rolt (later Bayntun-Rolt), Sir Edward (1710-1800), 1st bt. Second son of Edward Rolt MP (1684-1722) and his wife Anne, only daughter of Henry Bayntun (1664-91) and heiress of her brother, John Bayntun (d. 1716/17), baptised at Hunsdon (Herts), 23 June 1710. MP for Chippenham, 1737-80, where he owned extensive property (sold before his death) and had in consequence a large electoral interest. His re-election in 1741 was the subject of a petition by the defeated Government candidates, and the Government's failure to overturn the result was instrumental in the downfall of Sir Robert Walpole's Government. For his political support to later administrations, he was appointed Groom of the Bedchamber to the Prince of Wales, 1745-46 (but was dismissed after voting with the opposition), Surveyor-General of the duchy of Cornwall, 1751-96; and and was created a baronet 7 July 1762. He assumed the additional surname of Bayntun in 1717; and thereafter seems usually to have been known as Sir Edward Bayntun for most purposes; among his children only his eldest legitimate son ever used the name Bayntun-Rolt. He married, 15 January 1750/1 at Shoreham (Kent), Mary Poynter (c.1718-99) of Herriard (Hants), by whom he had already had several illegitimate children (who were not eligible to inherited the baronetcy and estates). Their children were:
(X1) Edward Bayntun (1739-77), baptised at Bromham, 10 September 1739; HM Consul-General at Tripoli, 1772-76 and Algiers, 1776-77; married, 10 September 1759 at St George the Martyr, Bloomsbury (Middx), Susanna (1741-1819), youngest daughter of Sir John Werden, 2nd bt., and had issue four sons and three daughters; died at Algiers, 1 November 1777; 
(X2) Mary Bayntun (1740-84), baptised at Bromham, 2 October 1740; married 1st, 12 November 1759, John Cooper (d. 1766) of Cumberwell (Wilts), and had issue one son (the John Allen Cooper whose relationship with Lady Mary Baynton-Rolt broke up her marriage to Sir Andrew Baynton-Rolt, 2nd bt.: see below) and one daughter; married 2nd, 3 June 1766 at St James, Piccadilly, Westminster (Middx), Charles Cooper*; buried at Wingfield (Wilts), 15 April 1784;
(X3) Ann Bayntun (1742-98?), baptised at Bromham, 25 March 1742; married, 24 February 1763 at St Andrew, Holborn (Middx), James Furness (1744-1816), and had issue; said to have died in 1798;
(X4) Rev. John Bayntun (1743-c.1806), baptised at Bromham, 9 April 1743; educated at Eton and St John's College, Oxford (matriculated 1766); ordained deacon, 1767, and priest, 1769; rector of Charlinch (Som.), 1769-1806; married, by 1775, Mary [surname unknown] and had issue one son and three daughters (of whom only one daughter survived to adulthood); died in or after 1806; 
(X5) Rev. Henry Bayntun (1744-1812), baptised at Bromham, 14 November 1744; educated at St Alban Hall, Oxford, as a mature student (matriculated 1773); ordained deacon, 1772, and priest, 1773; rector of Rode and Woolverton (Som.), 1773-1812; married, 6 October 1770 at St Luke, Chelsea (Middx) (sep. before 1800), Anne Allen (c.1747-1828), and had issue at least three sons and one daughter; after his separation he had a relationship with Ann, daughter of Jeffrey Flower of Burnham, and had further (illegitimate) issue five sons and three daughters; buried at Bromham, 1 February 1812; will proved in the PCC, 17 April 1812;
(X6) Lucy Bayntun (1747-65); married, 18 April 1764 at St James, Piccadilly, Westminster, Rev. Edward Yescombe (d. 1773), rector of Rode with Woolverton (Som.), 1764-73, and had issue one son; probably died following childbirth and was buried at Bromham, 18 May 1765;
(1) Constantia or Constance Bayntun (1752-1842), eldest legitimate child, born 4 January 1752; married, 23 January 1773 at Charlinch (Som.), Richard Foster alias Forster (1747-1835), and had issue five sons and two daughters; died aged 90 at her house in Bedford Sq., London, 21 or 27 May 1842, and was buried at Bromham, where she is commemorated by a monument; her will was proved in the PCC, 9 June 1842;
(2) Sir Andrew Bayntun-Rolt (1755-1816), 2nd bt. (q.v.);
(3) Elizabeth Bayntun (1758-98), born 13 March and baptised at Bromham, 15 March 1758; married, 1 January 1779 at St. Marylebone (Middx), Henry Stone (1756-1843) of Goldwell Hall (Berks) and Bath, and had issue three sons and one daughter; buried at Bromham, 25 September 1798.
He inherited the Spye Park estate on the death of his uncle in 1716/7 and came of age in 1731.
He died aged 89 on 3 January and was buried at Bromham, 10 January 1800; his will was proved in the PCC, 5 March 1800. His wife died 26 March and was buried at Bromham, 30 March 1799.
* Charles Cooper, who she married only a month after her first husband's death, is said to have been no relation to him, but rather an illegitimate son of Henry Fox (1705-74), 1st Baron Holland.

Bayntun-Rolt, Sir Andrew (1755-1816), 2nd bt. Only legitimate son of Sir Edward Rolt (later Bayntun-Rolt) (1710-1800), 1st bt., and his wife Mary Poynter of Herriard (Hants), born 28 September and baptised at Bromham, 31 October 1755. He succeeded his father as 2nd baronet, 3 January 1800. He entered Parliament as a Pittite Tory on the interest of Lord Weymouth and was MP for Weobley (Herefs), 1780-86; he was clearly a placeholder as he vacated his seat when Lord Weymouth's heir came of age. High Sheriff of Wiltshire, 1802-03. Like his father, he often abbreviated his surname to Bayntun only. He married 1st, 28 June 1777, by special licence at 148 Piccadilly, Westminster (Middx), Lady Mary Alicia (1754-84), eldest daughter of George William Coventry of Croome Court (Worcs), 6th Earl of Coventry, but was separated from her in 1781 on the grounds of her adultery with her husband's nephew, John Allen Cooper (who is said later to have cruelly treated her and abandoned her to die alone), and subsequently divorced by act of parliament, 24 June 1783. He married 2nd, 18 May 1787 at St Botolph, Aldersgate, London, Anna Maria (1754-1827), daughter of John Maud of Bath, but this marriage apparently also collapsed. By his first wife he had issue:
(1.1) Mary Bayntun-Rolt (d. 1778); died in infancy and was buried at Bromham, 5 October 1778;
(1.2) Maria Barbara Bayntun-Rolt (1779-1870) (q.v.);
After the collapse of his second marriage he had a large family of illegitimate children by Harriet Maria Poynter (b. 1764) of Woodrow, Melksham (Wilts), who seems to have been generally regarded as his wife:
(X1.1) Lucy Bayntun (1791-1837), born 19 February 1791 and baptised at Bromham; lived at Bromham; died unmarried, 31 July 1837; will proved 21 November 1837;
(X1.2) Ann Bayntun (1792-1805), born 11 March 1792 and baptised at Bromham; died young and was buried at Bromham, 18 March 1805;
(X1.3) Harriet Bayntun (1793-1838), born 19 February 1793 and baptised at Bromham; married, 22 February 1813 at Bromham, Rev. Henry Faulkner (d. 1864), later perpetual curate of Norton and rector of North Piddle (Worcs), and had issue; buried at Norton-juxta-Kempsey (Worcs), 29 November 1838;
(X1.4) Edward Bayntun (b. & d. 1795), born 26 February 1795 and baptised at Bromham; died in infancy and was buried at Bromham, 17 March 1795;
(X1.5) Mary Bayntun (b. 1796), born 14 April 1796 and baptised at Bromham; married, 15 July 1821 at Temple Church, Bristol, Henry Alleyne, grocer in Weston-super-Mare (Som.) and later in Liverpool; emigrated to the United States after 1826; death not traced;
(X1.6) Andrew Bayntun (b. 1797); educated at Queen's College, Oxford (matriculated 1815); Assistant Keeper of Records and Asst Clerk of the Courts in Honduras; probably died unmarried in that colony;
(X1.7) Edward Thomas Bayntun (b. 1798), born 26 June 1798 and baptised at Bromham; lived at Weston-super-Mare; married, 29 September 1817 at Temple Church, Bristol, Hannah Davis (d. 1868?); living in 1849;
(X1.8) John Bayntun (1799-1801), born 28 December 1799 and baptised at Bromham; died in infancy, 26 January 1801 and was buried at Bromham, 30 January 1801;
(X1.9) Sally Rosalie Bayntun (b. & d. 1801), born 28 January and baptised at Bromham, 11 September 1801; died in infancy and was buried at Bromham, 20 October 1801;
(X1.10) Elizabeth Bayntun (1802-09), born 20 November 1802 and baptised at Bromham, 13 January 1804; died young and was buried at Bromham, 1 June 1809;
(X1.11) John Charles Bayntun (1805-30), born 10 January 1805 and baptised at Bromham, 8 January 1806; after being rejected by a young woman to whom he was paying his addresses, he became mentally disturbed and set fire to two hayricks at Batheaston (Som.), in 1829; for this crime he was sentenced to transportation for life, but he died of consumption in Ilchester gaol (Som.) while awaiting transportation, 6 July 1830, and was buried the following day;
(X1.12) Henry Bayntun (1807-08), born 2 March and baptised at Bromham, 27 April 1807; died in infancy and was buried at Bromham, 10 June 1808;
(X1.13) Mary Constantia Bayntun (b. 1808), born 13 April and baptised at Bromham, 15 June 1808; apparently travelled in France and had an illegitimate daughter (Henriette Bayntun) in 1841; death not traced;
He also had a second illegitimate family by Anne Power (c.1781-1844) of Lambridge, Bath (Som.):
(X2.1) Wilmot Robert Bayntun Power (1801-89), born 7 September and baptised at Bromham, 16 November 1801; surgeon; he took Bayntun in lieu of Power as his surname; married, 18 June 1823 at Bath Abbey (Som.), Elizabeth Camplin (1802-88), and had issue at least two sons and five daughters; died 28 February 1889; will proved 2 January 1890 (effects £178);
(X2.2) Charles Bayntun Power (b. 1802), born 24 November 1802 and baptised at Corsham (Wilts), 19 July 1803;
(X2.3) Martha Bayntun Power (1804-81), born 21 March and baptised at Corsham, 21 August 1804; married, 18 March 1822 at St Swithin, Walcot, Bath (Som.), Rev. Edwin Eastcott (1790-1840) of Exeter and Bradninch (Devon), and had issue one son and four daughters; died 30 December 1881; will proved 14 November 1882 (effects £233);
(X2.4) Anne Bayntun Power (1808-54), born 27 January and baptised at Corsham, 16 October 1808; married, 8 April 1829 at St Swithin, Walcot, Bath, and on the same day at East Tytherton Moravian Chapel, Lewis West of Chippenham, wine and spirit merchant and later Moravian minister at Brockweir (Glos) (who m2, 27 July 1858 at St George, Brandon Hill, Bristol, Mary Anna, daughter of Rev. Henry Samuel Livins of Bristol), son of Rev. Lewis Renatus West, Moravian minister, and had issue one daughter; died 10 June 1854; administration of goods granted 1 April 1858 (effects under £200) and again 5 February 1890 (effects £173);
(X2.5) Francis Bayntun Power (1809-78), born 12 January and baptised at Corsham, 19 October 1809; dentist in Bath (in partnership with William Gover Gray) who was bankrupted 1842, and later in London and Sheffield (Yorks WR); married 1st, 1832, Ann Williams (d. 1866) and had issue two sons (who died in infancy) and one daughter; married 2nd, apparently bigamously, Jul-Sept 1861, Ellen (1837-1932), daughter of Thomas Costello, (who married 2nd, 15 August 1880 at St Philip, Sheffield, Thomas Crookes of Sheffield), and had further issue one son and one daughter; died 28 September 1878; administration of goods granted 14 June 1890 (effects £150);
(X2.6) George Bayntun Power (1810-88), born 2 March 1810 and baptised at Corsham, 28 April 1811; resident dispenser to the Royal Eye Infirmary, Plymouth and later to the Royal Eye Infirmary, Bath; married, 3 October 1831 at St Andrew, Plymouth, Eliza Gammage (1812-91), daughter of Robert Luscombe of Modbury (Devon); died 23 August 1888; will proved 15 September 1888 (effects £252).
He inherited the Spye Park estate from his father in 1800, but by 1806 was living at Bathampton (Som.) and leased Spye Park to tenants, including Col. Thomas Thornton (c.1752-1823), the famous sportsman.
He died at Dawlish (Devon), 12 August 1816, when the baronetcy became extinct, and was buried at Bromham, where he is commemorated by a monument; his will was proved in the PCC, 31 October 1816. His first wife died 8/18 January 1784, reputedly of lead poisoning contracted from her cosmetics. His second wife died at Sunbury (Middx) (where she is commemorated by a mural tablet), 19 July 1827, and was buried at Swainswick (Som.); her will was proved 25 October 1827. His first mistress married, 4 September 1820 at Wyke Regis (Dorset), Aristeus Lovel, but had no further issue; her death has not been traced. His second mistress married, 17 October 1822 at Walcot, Bath (Som.), Robert M. Gomery (1778-1853), actor and singer, but had no further issue; she died at Bath, 8 May 1844; her will was proved in the PCC, 31 August 1844.

Bayntun-Rolt, Maria Barbara (1779-1870). Only surviving legitimate child of Sir Andrew Bayntun-Rolt (1755-1816), 2nd bt. and his first wife, Lady Mary Alicia, eldest daughter of George William Coventry, 6th Earl of Coventry, born 28 December 1779 and baptised at St George, Hanover Sq,, Westminster (Middx), 30 January 1780. She married 1st (reputedly after an elopement), 9 August 1797 at St James, Piccadilly, Westminster (Middx), the Rev. John Starky DD JP (1770-1834), rector of Charlinch (Som.), 1803-34, son of Samuel Starky of Heywood (Lancs), and 2nd, 19 June 1834 at St George, Bloomsbury (Middx), John Lowe, and had issue (with at least two others who died in infancy):
(1.1) John Edward Andrew Starky (1799-1843) (q.v.);
(1.2) Elizabeth Starky (c.1800-34), born 18 April 1800 and baptised at Bradford-on-Avon (Wilts), 18 June 1801; died unmarried, 12 October, and was buried at Bromham, 20 October 1834;
(1.3) George William Starky (1801-16), born 5 April and baptised at Bradford-on-Avon, 4 June 1801; died young, 30 April, and was buried at St Martin-in-the-Fields, Westminster, 4 May 1816;
(1.4) Maria Barbara Starky (1802-23), born 11 September 1802 and baptised at Bromham, 28 December 1813; died unmarried at Ryde (IoW), 31 May 1823, and was buried at Newchurch (IoW), 4 June 1823;
(1.5) Jane Starky (1805-94), born 24 February 1805 and baptised at Bromham, 28 December 1813; married, 9 December 1833 at Bromham, Cuthbert Johnson (d. 1854) of Wallingtons, Kintbury (Berks), and had issue four sons and four daughters; died aged 89 on 26 February 1894; 
(1.6) Rev. Samuel Starky (1806-68), born 13 August 1806 and baptised at Bromham, 28 December 1813; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge (matriculated 1825; BA 1831); succeeded his father as rector of Charlinch (Som.), 1834-46, but joined his brother-in-law, Rev. Henry James Prince and others in founding the Agapemonite church, which formed a community at Spaxton (Som.); he was deprived of his living in 1846; married, 15 May 1845 at Melcombe Regis (Dorset), Ellen Puddy (d. 1892), daughter of Edward Perry; died Oct-Dec 1868;
(1.7) Augusta Starky (1808-99), born 14 January 1808 and baptised at Bromham, 28 December 1813; married, 4 August 1835 at Bromham, Rev. George Wells (1803-72), rector of Boxford (Berks), 1842-72, and had issue four sons and five daughters; died aged 91 on 1 October 1899 and was buried at Boxford;
(1.8) Coventry Starky (1809-71), born 5 July 1809 and baptised at Bromham, 28 December 1813; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge (matriculated 1829); married 1st, 15 April 1845 at St Pancras (Middx), Mary Anne Emma (c.1816-51), daughter of William McGrath, and had issue one daughter; married 2nd, 6 August 1853 at St Paul, Hammersmith (Middx), Charlotte (1833-88), daughter of Richard Quelch, farmer, and had issue three sons and two daughters; died 2 April and was buried at Thatcham (Berks), 6 April 1871;
(1.9) Somerville Starky (1812-55), born 6 February 1812 and baptised at Bromham, 28 December 1813; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge (matriculated 1830); married, 6 April 1836 at Northam (Devon), Hannah, daughter of William Delbridge of Lynmouth (Devon), and had issue one daughter (who died young); died 26 November 1855; will proved in the PCC, 6 September 1856;
(1.10) Julia Starky (1813-72), born 26 May 1813 and baptised at Bromham, 28 December 1813; married, September 1842, Rev. Henry James Prince (1811-99), leader of the Agapemonite church; died Apr-Jun 1872 and was presumably buried in the Agepemonite graveyard at Spaxton (Som.);
(1.11) A son (b. 1815), born 11 November 1815.
She and her husband inherited the Spye Park estate from her father in 1816.
She died aged 90 on 26 April and was buried at Hampton (Middx), 30 April 1870; her will was proved 1 November 1870 (effects under £200). Her first husband died at Bath (Som.), 1 April 1834. Her second husband's date of death is unknown.

Starky, John Edward Andrew (1799-1843). Eldest son of Rev. John Starky DD, rector of Charlinch (Som.), and his wife Maria Barbara, only daughter and heiress of Sir Andrew Bayntun-Rolt, 2nd bt., of Spye Park, born 6 March 1799 and baptised at St Swithin, Walcot, Bath (Som.), 6 March 1800. Educated at Queen's College, Oxford (matriculated 1818). He married, 17 April 1833 at Dinton (Wilts), Charlotte (1806-96), fifth daughter of William Wyndham of Dinton, and had issue:
(1) John Bayntun Starky (1834-72) (q.v.);
(2) Edward Starky (b. & d. 1835), born 28 November 1835; died in infancy, 2 December 1835, and was buried at Bromham, where he is commemorated by a ledger stone in the Bayntun chapel;
(3) Rev. Andrew Beauchamp Starky (1838-71), born 1 June and baptised at Bromham, 21 August 1838; educated at Wincanton (Som.), Winchester College, and Magdalene College, Cambridge (mat. 1857; BA 1861; MA 1864); ordained deacon, 1861 and priest, 1862; curate of Aylesbury, 1861-64; vicar of Rowde (Wilts), 1864-71; died unmarried, 16 September 1871; will proved 28 October 1871 (effects under £9,000);
(4) Constance Bayntun Starky (1839-1930), born 10 December 1839; married, 15 July 1871 at Bromham, as his second wife, Rev. William Charles Willimott (1824-1902), rector of St Michael Caerhayes, 1852-78 and later vicar of Quethiock (both Cornw.), and had issue three sons and three daughters; died aged 90 on 27 November 1930; will proved 23 December 1930 (effects £409).
He inherited the Spye Park estate from his father in 1834. After his death his widow lived at Battle House, Bromham until her death.
He died 12 January 1843 and was buried at Bromham; his will was proved 18 February 1843. His widow died aged 90 on 20 October 1896; her will was proved 7 December 1896 (estate £2,186).

John Bayntun Starky (1834-72) 
Starky, John Bayntun (1834-72).
Eldest son of John Edward Andrew Starky (1799-1843) and his wife Charlotte, fifth daughter of William Wyndham of Dinton (Wilts), born 30 May 1834 and baptised at Bromham, 20 February 1835. Educated at Eton. He was made bankrupt in 1867, and subsequently emigrated to New South Wales (Australia), leaving his wife and children in England. He married, 14 July 1857 at Berrynarbor (Devon), Frances Anne 
(1834-1921), daughter of the Rev. James Andrew Hunt-Grubbe, and had issue:
(1) George Bayntun Starky (1858-1926), of Pertenhall Manor (Beds), born 4 April 1858; evidently emigrated to New Zealand; married, 20 April 1881 at Cherhill (Wilts), Maud Mary Lefevre (1859-1943), second daughter of the Rev. William Charles Plenderleath, rector of Cherhill, and had issue six sons; died 31 March 1926; will proved in New Zealand and sealed in London, 16 November 1926 (estate in England, £5,115);
(2) Eleanor Bayntun Starky (1859-1946), born 7 November 1859 and baptised at Chittoe (Wilts), 8 April 1860; married, 31 August 1886 at Bromham, the Rev. Frederick Ware Glyn (1857-1918), vicar of Lanchester (Co. Durham), son of Canon Henry Thomas Glyn, rector of Fontmell Magna (Dorset), and had issue three daughters; died 3 November 1946; will proved 27 January 1947 (estate £7,124);
(3) Walter Bayntun Starky (1861-1947), born 18 March and baptised at Chittoe, 11 May 1861; engineer in Indian Civil Service; married, 5 April 1909 in Bombay (India), Beatrice Geraldine (1886-1975), daughter of Arthur Sellon Cowdell, but had no issue; died 23 December 1947; will proved 24 February 1948 (estate £408);
(4) Beauchamp Bayntun Starky (1863-1912), born 14 March and baptised at Chittoe, 26 April 1863; emigrated to USA before 1885 and later moved to Canada; married, 8 June 1886 at Orange City, Sioux, Iowa (USA), Kate Legget (1869-1962) and had issue three sons; died at Vernon, British Columbia (Canada), 1 January 1912, and was buried at Kelowna, British Columbia;
(5) Mildred Bayntun Starky (1865-1947), born 5 April 1865; married, 13 February 1893 at Nagpore (India), Lt-Col. Charles Joseph Windham (1867-1941), eldest son of Maj. John Smith Wyndham, and had issue two sons; died 12 February 1947; will proved 6 August 1947 (estate £12,733);
(6) Francis Bayntun Starky (1867-1947), born 25 May and baptised at Charney (Berks), 11 July 1867; married, 1892 at Grafton, New South Wales (Australia), Mary Alicia Rose Huxham (1864-1945), and had issue four sons and three daughters; died at Charleville, Queensland (Australia), 16 December 1947;
(7) Beatrice Starky (1869-1954), born at Longworth (Berks), 7 March 1869; married, 13 November 1895 at Bombay Cathedral (India), Capt. Horace Robert Francis Anderson (1863-1903), son of Lt-Gen. Horace Searle Anderson CB, and had issue three daughters; died 18 September 1954; will proved 3 November 1954 (estate £1,461).
He inherited the Spye Park estate from his father in 1843 and came of age in 1855. He sold the estate in about 1863, reputedly in order to pay his gambling debts, and lived subsequently at Faringdon and Longworth (Berks) until his bankruptcy.
He died at Beaufort House, Newcastle, New South Wales, 30 September 1872, and is commemorated by the east window of the Bayntun chapel in Bromham church and on his wife's monument at Instow (Devon); his will was proved 5 June 1873 (effects in England under £5,000). His wife died 29 March 1921 and was buried at Instow; her will was proved 9 July 1921 (estate £2,394).

Principal sources

Burke's Landed Gentry, 1833-37, vol. 4, pp. 684-86; J. Foster (ed.), The royal lineage of our ancient and noble families, 1887, vol. 1, p. 172; VCH Wiltshire, vol. 7, 1953, pp. 179-86; H. Bayntun-Coward, Notes on the Bayntun family, 1977; R. Trafford-Roberts, A Survey of the Historic Landscape at Spye Park, Wiltshire, 2001; W.A. Brogden, Ichnographia Rustica: Stephen Switzer and the designed landscape, 2017, pp. 142-49; J. Orbach, Sir N. Pevsner & B. Cherry, The buildings of England: Wiltshire, 3rd edn., 2021, pp. 192, 232; History of Parliament articles on the various members of the family who served as MPs;

Location of archives

Bayntun of Bromham: the estate deeds and papers of earlier generations of the family were destroyed when Bromham House was burnt down in 1645.
Starky of Spye Park: miscellaneous estate papers, 18th-19th cents. [Wiltshire & Swindon Record Office, 45; 776/427-428]

Coat of arms

Bayntun of Spye Park: Sable, a bend lozengy argent.
Bayntun-Rolt, baronets: Quarterly, 1st and 4th, sable, a bend lozengy argent (for Bayntun); 2nd and 3rd, argent, on a bend sable, three dolphins embowed of the first (for Rolt).

Can you help?

  • I should be most grateful if anyone can provide photographs or portraits of people whose names appear in bold above.
  • If anyone can offer further information or corrections I should be most grateful. I am always particularly pleased to hear from current owners or the descendants of families associated with a property who can supply information from their own research or personal knowledge for inclusion.

Revision and acknowledgements

This post was first published 30 September 2021 and was updated 2 October 2021, 23 March and 3 May 2022, 6 September 2023 and 13-14 April 2024. I am most grateful to Felix Rolt for corrections and additions.


  1. I'm afraid you've made a mistake with the daughter of Thomas Bayntun (1669-1719) of Little Chalfield, his natural daughter Rachel Bayntun married William Pierrepont, Earl of Kingston, only son of Evelyn Pierrepont, Marquess of Dorchester, later 1st Duke of Kingston. Their son Evelyn became 2nd Duke of Kingston age 15 after William predeceased the 1st Duke.

    1. Thank you: now corrected above.

    2. I'm afraid you have also made a mistake with a name. It was Sir Robert Bayntun and not Sir Henry who was captured at the battle of Tewkesbury. Sir Henry was Sir Robert's brother. Sir Robert was my 17th Great- Grandfather. His cause of death is unknown. Hope that helps. Neil Harvey.

    3. Thanks again; also incorporated above.


Please leave a comment if you have any additional information or corrections to offer, or if you are able to help with additional images of the people or buildings in this post.