|Bankes of Winstanley|
When James Bankes died in 1617, his property passed to his eldest son, William Bankes (1593-1666), who had been educated at Grays Inn to equip him with the sort of legal knowledge useful in estate management (his younger brother, who entered the same inn at the same time, was called to the bar, and became a barrister in London). William is a shadowy figure by comparison with his father, but by dint of staying carefully out of politics, he seems to have managed to remain neutral during the English Civil War, and to have preserved his estate without impairment. His son, William Bankes (1631-76), by contrast, entered public life at the Restoration and was clearly sympathetic to the Court faction. He had a powerful sponsor in the form of Charles Stanley (d. 1672), 8th Earl of Derby, who found him a seat in Parliament and persuaded a reluctant King Charles II that he was of sufficient standing to become a Deputy Lieutenant. But it would seem that his religious sympathies were more radical than his political views, as he employed a deprived minister as tutor to his children: it may be that a similar ambivalence had motivated his father's neutrality.
William was succeeded by his son William Bankes (1658-90), whose public career was along much the same lines as his father's, but was cut short when he died aged 32. He was married but had no children, so the Winstanley estate passed to his younger brother, Thomas Bankes (1659-1728), who had a large family (many of whom died in infancy) but no public career. Thomas was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Robert Bankes (1699-1748), who went to Cambridge and evidently had scientific interests, as he later became a Fellow of the Royal Society, but who again died unmarried. He was followed by his younger brother, William Bankes (1709-75), about whom even less can be said, although it seems likely that he began the exploitation of the coal reserves on the estate for more than purely local consumption. His only surviving son, William Bankes (1751-1800), undertook the first recorded remodelling of Winstanley Hall in about 1780, but again had no children, and with him the continuous male line descent of the estate came to an end. He bequeathed his property to his first cousin, the Rev. Thomas Holme (1732-1803), who lived at Holland House, Upholland, and when he died soon afterwards the estate came to his eldest surviving son, Meyrick Holme (1768-1827), who took the name Bankes in 1804. Meyrick had a career as an officer in the Royal Navy, but retired some time in the 1790s as a lieutenant; he then served as a militia officer before inheriting Winstanley, and going on to become High Sheriff and a Deputy Lieutenant. He continued the process of developing coal working on the estate, and the profits of this enabled him to enlarge and remodel Winstanley Hall in 1818-19. It was, however, his son, another Meyrick Bankes (1811-81), who finally put coal mining on the estate onto a fully commercial basis, establishing coal depots in Liverpool and Manchester from which his coal was distributed directly to customers, and hugely increasing the scale of production.
In the 19th century, the profits of coal mining made the Bankes family a great deal richer than they had been before. In the 1830s, Meyrick Bankes, who took little part in public life and was 'of a retiring disposition', bought several large and contiguous properties in north-west Ross-shire to form the Letterewe estate, which was used as a late summer and autumn retreat for shooting and deer stalking. Over time, a series of large houses were built on this estate for members of his family. The earliest may have been Gruinard House, a curiously English neo-Tudor house which may have been built soon after Bankes purchased the property in 1835; Letterewe itself was rebuilt in about 1858; while Drumchork House at Aultbea was under construction for his eldest son in 1881-82; and was unfinished when first the father and then the son died within a few months of each other.
In later life, Meyrick Bankes became increasingly eccentric, and he left separate wills respecting his English and Scottish property which were extremely complex, highly manipulative of his children, and provided lucrative work for lawyers for years afterwards. One of his principal objectives seems to have been to separate the ownership of Winstanley and Letterewe, and this he achieved. What he did not foresee was that both his legitimate sons would die without issue within a year of his will being proved. The effect of the wills was therefore that his eldest daughter, Eleanor (1837-1907), inherited the Winstanley estate, while his second daughter, Maria Ann (1839-1904) received Letterewe. Eleanor was married to William John Murray (1835-84), who owned a small estate of his own in Ross-shire but who was already confined in an Edinburgh asylum by the time his wife came into Winstanley. After he died, Eleanor joined forces with her second son to buy Balconie Castle (Ross-shire), which took the place of Letterewe as a base for Scottish holidays from 1890 onwards and remained in the family until the Second World War. Maria Ann had married Lt-Gen W.C. Robertson Macdonald of Kinlochmoidart, but divorced him in 1881 and married a Frenchman of modest physical stature, Paul Liot, who took the name Bankes and threw himself rather improbably into Highland life, where he became known as the 'pocket French laird'. Maria sold Letterewe after his death in 1901.
Winstanley Hall and Balconie Castle passed on Eleanor's death in 1907 to her second but eldest surviving son, George Hildyard Bankes (1867-1949), who was the last person to fully occupy either house. During his lifetime, many of the coal mines which had sustained the prosperity of the estate in the 19th century were closed, and after the Second World War (when both Winstanley and Balconie were requisitioned for military use) he also sold Balconie to a local timber merchant who had no use for the house and let it rot until it became dangerous and had to be demolished. His estate was still comfortably over £400,000 when he died, however, so it is hard to see why his daughter, Joyce (1904-74), who wrote articles and a book about the history of the Winstanley estate and was clearly interested in the place, was apparently unable to afford to live in the house, even after paying the swingeing death duties of the time. In the 1950s, she and her husband, Ralph Vincent Bankes (who was no relation, but a member of the Bankes family of Soughton Hall in Flintshire), carved a family flat out of the house and more or less abandoned the rest of the building. By the 1980s the house was unoccupied and it has remained so ever since, sliding ever more rapidly into dereliction and ruin. The estate remains in the hands of the family, but the house and a small amount of surrounding land was sold in 2000 to a housing development company which first applied for permission to demolish the house and redevelop the site and then submitted a scheme for restoration that involved so much enabling development that it was rejected by Wigan Council. The house is now partly roofless and almost beyond economic repair, and one hopes a creative restoration solution - perhaps involving sale to a building preservation trust - can be found before a catastrophic collapse takes place.
Winstanley Hall, Wigan, Lancashire
There was probably a manor house of the eponymous Winstanley family here from the 13th century, for there is a moated site in the park which is likely to have been the location of a high status dwelling. However the present Winstanley Hall is essentially an Elizabethan stone house built for James Bankes (1542-1617) soon after he bought the estate in 1596. The main front faces east, and has a half-H plan with two projecting wings either side of a recessed centre, with square projections in the re-entrant angles, originally forming the entrance porch and hall bay. It is one of three houses in the Wigan area built in this form, the other two being Birchley Hall (1594) and Bispham Hall (c.1600-10).
|Winstanley Hall: an engraving of the house in 1817, showing it before the removal of the gables.|
The centre, wings, and the projections in between were originally all gabled, but the gables were taken down and replaced by a plain parapet in the early 19th century. The house was traditionally planned, with a great hall in the centre, a great chamber above, the porch leading into a screens passage at the lower end (to the right), and a bay window lighting the dais at the upper end. The original elevation may not have been entirely symmetrical but it had evidently become so by the 19th century, when the window lighting the dais end of the hall had evidently become a second porch.
|Winstanley Hall: the south front built by Lewis Wyatt in 1818-19, from an old postcard.|
Winstanley was extensively remodelled by Lewis Wyatt in 1818-19 for Meyrick Bankes (1768-1827). He created a new south front, clustered around a four storey central tower, which is quite convincingly in the same style as the original work, and is united with it by the continuous parapet. His new range must, however, incorporate earlier additions, for at the south-west corner is a canted bay of 1780, designed by L. Robinson but with an extra storey added by Wyatt. The west range is gabled and irregular, but some of it seems to date from the 1780 period. There were further extensions at the north end of the house (helpfully with datestones of 1843 and 1889), but again they incorporate some earlier work. The interior is, or perhaps more accurately was until recent dereliction, largely of the Lewis Wyatt period. The staircase hall has an elegant neo-classical ceiling rose and a delicate wrought iron balustrade, and what may have originally been a drawing room but was later used as a study retains a neo-classical chimneypiece and simple frieze.
To the north-east of the house stands a large stable yard, loosely enclosed by four free-standing ranges of different, mostly 19th century dates. In the centre of the yard is a big Neptune fountain of c.1830 by William Spence, with rearing horses executed in stone. The once secluded park was probably given its present form by Lewis Wyatt, who built the lodge and gatepiers on Pemberton Road in c.1818, and perhaps also the former walled garden. During the Second World War, Winstanley Hall was requisitioned for military use, and open-cast coal mining was begun in the park in 1942. The hall survived military occupation, although there was some vandalism, but the coal mining in the park caused subsidence which affected part of the house, even though coal was not taken from directly under the building. In the 1960s, the construction of the M6 motorway cut the park in two. However, the landscape of the park was reinstated after mining finished (and the Bankes family carried out some subsequent tree planting), and the motorway is sunk in a cutting, so the setting was not fatally compromised by these developments.
|Winstanley Hall: the current state of the building after|
a partial collapse of the roof.
Descent: sold 1596 to James Bankes (1542-1617); to son, William Bankes (1593-1666); to son, William Bankes (1631-76); to son, William Bankes (1658-90); to brother, Thomas Bankes (1659-1728); to son, Robert Bankes (1699-1748); to brother, William Bankes (1709-75); to son, William Bankes (1751-1800); to cousin, Rev. Thomas Holme (1733-1803); to son, Meyrick Holme (later Bankes) (1768-1827); to son, Meyrick Bankes (1811-81); to daughter, Eleanor Starkie Letterewe (1837-1907), wife of William John Murray (later Bankes) (1835-84); to son, George Hildyard Bankes (1867-1949); to daughter, Joyce Helena Murray (1904-74), wife of Capt. Edward William Jervis Bankes RN (1904-84) ....sold 2000 (with 10 acres) to Dorbcrest Homes. Much of the surrounding estate still belongs to the Bankes family.
Letterewe House, Ross & Cromarty
|Letterewe House: the house as it exists today|
Balconie Castle, Evanton, Ross & CromartyAn early 19th century castellated house, built on the site of a medieval tower house, and said to have incorporated part of its fabric. It was constructed for Alexander Fraser, who managed one of Evan Baillie's estates in Grenada and married his daughter; he purchased the estate in 1806 and later founded the adjoining village of Evanton. His house was a six-bay, three-storey block with a central tower and a service wing to one side. It was essentially a rather plain building with sash windows, but was given a touch of Gothick fantasy by a crenellated parapet all round, which was repeated on the top of the tower.
|Balconie Castle: the house in the early 20th century, from an old postcard.|
The house was altered internally and extended by Andrew Maitland & Sons for George H. Bankes in 1891-92, shortly after he and his mother jointly purchased the property, and was subsequently used as a holiday home and a base for shooting and fishing in the summer months. During the Second World War the house was requisitioned by the Army and troops were billeted there. After the War, George Bankes sold the estate to A.J.M. Munro, a timber-merchant from Alness, who allowed the house to remain empty. It gradually became derelict and a target for vandalism, and by 1968 it was deemed unsafe and was blown up. The stables and some outbuildings survived and were later converted into a private house.
Descent: built c.1806 for Alexander Fraser (1759-1837); sold 1838 to Hugh Munro of Teaninich; given to illegitimate daughter, Catherine (d. 1877), later wife of [forename unknown] Reid; to cousin, Mary Mackenzie, who sold 1890 to George Hildyard Bankes (1867-1949) and his mother, Eleanor Starkie Letterewe Bankes (1837-1907); he sold 1948 to A.J.M. Munro, who demolished the house in 1968.
Bankes family of Winstanley Hall
Bankes, James (1542-1617). Reputedly the son of William Bankes of Wigan, born 1542. Citizen, goldsmith and moneylender of London, in partnership with John Ballett until 1576; retired between 1590 and 1592; by industry and sharp practice he built a substantial fortune, which from 1576 onwards he increasingly salted away in the purchase of land, especially land with mineral resources in the form of coal. He was litigious, and the rector of Wigan noted that he was "of great wealth and riches, and by means thereof grown to be a very proud and insolent man". He married 1st, 6 June 1575 at St Vedast, Foster Lane, London, Elizabeth, daughter of his partner John Ballett, and 2nd, c.1590, Susan (d. 1627/8), daughter of William Sherrington of London, haberdasher, and had issue:
(1.1) A son, who died young;
(2.1) John Bankes (d. 1592); died in infancy and was buried at Wigan, 13 August 1592;
(2.2) William Bankes (1593-1666) (q.v.);
(2.3) Thomas Bankes (1595-1651), baptised at Wigan, 21 December 1595; educated at Grays Inn (admitted 1613); barrister-at-law in London; married, 1626, Elizabeth, daughter of William Bispham and widow of Edward Cotton of Cotton Hall (Cheshire); died 1651;
(2.4) Margaret Bankes (b. c.1600); married, 1625, George Hyde of Urmston (Lancs);
(2.5) Ralph Bankes (b. c.1600), born about 1600; living in 1617;
(2.6) James Bankes (1603-61), baptised at Wigan, 12 October 1603; buried at Wigan, 22 August 1661.
He purchased the manor of Winstanley in 1596 and built Winstanley Hall soon afterwards. His second wife inherited substantial property, including Wardley Hall, from her family before 1601, when she sold it to other members of her family.
He died 4 August 1617 and was buried at Wigan the following day; his will was proved at Chester, 29 October 1617 (effects £336). His first wife died before 1590. His widow died in 1627/8 and was buried at Wigan.
Bankes, William (1593-1666). Eldest surviving son of James Bankes (1542-1617) and his second wife Susan, daughter of William Sherrington of London, merchant, baptised at Wigan, 30 December 1593. Educated at Grays Inn (admitted 1613). He maintained a stance of neutrality throughout the Civil War and successfully preserved his property intact. He married 1st, 1613, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas Ireland, kt., of Bewsey Hall (Lancs) and 2nd, 20 May 1624 at Chastleton (Oxon), Sara (1590?-1668), daughter of Walter Jones of Chastleton House, and had issue:
(1.1) James Bankes (1614-59), baptised at Wigan, 15 May 1614; educated at Grays Inn (admitted 1634); died in the lifetime of his father and was buried at Wigan, 12? February 1658/9;
(1.2) Thomas Bankes (1615-57?), baptised at Wigan, 15 August 1615; died in the lifetime of his father, and was perhaps the man of this name buried at Wigan, 30 April 1657;
(1.3) William Bankes (b. & d. 1619), baptised at Wigan, 15 June 1619; died in infancy and was buried at Wigan, 29 June 1619;
(2.1) William Bankes (1630-76) (q.v.).
He inherited Winstanley Hall from his father in 1617.
He was buried at Wigan, 13 October 1666. His first wife was buried at Wigan, 2 April 1621. His widow was buried at Wigan, 25 June 1668.
Bankes, William (1630-76). Only recorded son of William Bankes (1593-1666) and his second wife, Sara, daughter of Walter Jones of Chastleton (Oxon), baptised at Wigan, 19 August 1630. MP for Newton, 1660 and Liverpool, 1675-76; JP for Lancashire, 1665-66, 1670-76; DL for Lancashire, 1660-62, 1663?-76; Vice-Admiral of Lancashire and Cheshire, 1673-76; Commissioner for Assessment, 1660-74; joint Farmer of the Excise for Lancashire, 1665-74; Freeman of Liverpool by 1670. He was a client of the Earls of Derby, who promoted his career and persuaded King Charles II to accept him as a Deputy Lieutenant. As an MP, he was a supporter of the Court, but in the early 1660s, he employed the deprived Presbyterian minister, Adam Martindale, as tutor to his children. He married, 23 October 1656, Frances (d. 1693?), daughter of Peter Legh of Bruche (Lancs), and granddaughter of Sir Peter Legh of Lyme Park, and had issue:
(1) William Bankes (1658-90) (q.v.);
(2) Thomas Bankes (1659-1728) (q.v.);
(3) Rev. James Bankes (1660-1742), born 1660; educated at St Paul's School, London, and Trinity College, Cambridge (matriculated 1679; BA 1682/3; MA 1686); Tutor and Librarian of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1691-1706; rector of Lilley (Herts), 1706-09; rector of Bury (Lancs), 1710-43 and vicar of Heywood (Lancs), 1729-42; died unmarried and was buried at Wigan*, 21 May 1743;
(4) Sarah Maria Bankes (1663-1748); died without issue;
(5) Frances Bankes (b. 1665), baptised at Wigan, 23 May 1665; died young before 1670;
(6) Legh Bankes (1666-1705), baptised at Wigan, 30 August 1666; educated at Grays Inn, London (admitted 1685); married, 19 August 1703 at Ashton-in-Makerfield (Lancs), Alice, widow of Thomas Launder of Newhall, Ashton; buried at Wigan, 5 October 1703;
(7) Charles Bankes (1667-71), baptised at Wigan, 20 February 1667/8; died young and was buried at Wigan, 8 August 1671;
(8) Anne Bankes (1669-72), baptised at Wigan, 28 October 1669; died young and was buried at Wigan, 18 June 1672;
(9) Frances Bankes (1670-1745), baptised at Wigan, 22 February 1670; married, Edward Morgan (b. 1669) of Golden Grove (Flints.) and had issue including Catherine (who married Robert Bankes (1699-1748) (q.v.)); died 1744/5;
(10) Piers Bankes (b. & d. 1673), baptised at Wigan, 6 February 1672/3; died in infancy and was buried at Wigan, 5 April 1673;
(11) Elizabeth Bankes (b. 1675), baptised at Wigan, 31 August 1675; married, 1711, her cousin Richard Legh (1679-1740), Captain of Horse, third son of Richard Legh of Lyme Park, but died without issue.
He inherited Winstanley Hall from his father in 1666.
He died 6 July 1676 and was buried at Chastleton (Oxon); his will was proved in the PCC, 9 November 1676. His widow is said to have died in 1693.
* According to an entry in the Bury parish register.
Bankes, William (1658-90). Eldest son of William Bankes (1630-76) and his wife Frances, daughter of Peter Legh of Bruche (Lancs), born 24 August 1658. Educated at Christ Church, Oxford (matriculated 1676) and Grays Inn (admitted 1676). MP for Wigan, 1679, 1688-89 on the interest of the Earl of Derby. JP for Lancashire, 1683-88, 1689-90 and DL for Lancashire, 1689-90. Bailiff of Liverpool, 1685-88. He married, 31 March 1687 at Wigan, his cousin Lettice (1663-1719), daughter of Richard Legh of Lyme Park (Cheshire), but had no issue.
He inherited Winstanley Hall from his father in 1676 and came of age in 1679.
He died 10 January 1689/90 and was buried at Wigan. His widow married 2nd, 1700, Thomas Fleetwood, and died in 1719.
Bankes, Thomas (1659-1729). Second son of William Bankes (1630
-76) and his wife Frances, daughter of Peter Legh of Bruche (Lancs), born 1659. Educated at Christ Church, Oxford (matriculated 1676; BA 1680; MA 1682/83)*. He married, 1694, Anne, daughter of Thomas Cholmondeley MP of Vale Royal (Cheshire) and had issue:
(1) William Bankes (b. & d. 1695), baptised at Wigan, 23 May 1695; died in infancy and was buried at Wigan, 16 June 1695;
(2) Cholmondeley Bankes (1696-97), baptised at Wigan, 2 November 1696; died in infancy and was buried at Wigan, 11 October 1697;
(3) Thomas Bankes (1697-1704), baptised at Wigan, 28 October 1697; died young and was buried at Wigan, 20 May 1704;
(4) Elizabeth Bankes (b. & d. 1698); buried at Wigan, 4 October 1698;
(5) Robert Bankes (1699-1748) (q.v.);
(6) Elizabeth Bankes (1702-46?), baptised at Wigan, 15 September 1702; married, 1734 (licence 21 April), Rev. William Simon Warren (d. 1746), chaplain to Earl of Derby and curate of Upholland, third son of Edward Warren of Poynton (Cheshire), and had issue one daughter who died young; said to have died 1746;
(7) Frances Bankes (1703-64), baptised at Wigan, 30 September 1703; died unmarried and was buried at Wigan, 26 March 1764;
(8) Anne Bankes (1706-98) (q.v.);
(9) James Bankes (1707-11), baptised at Wigan, 13 November 1707; died young and was buried at Wigan, 7 February 1710/11;
(10) William Bankes (1709-75) (q.v.).
He inherited Winstanley Hall from his elder brother in 1690.
He was buried at Wigan, 15 February 1728/9. His wife's date of death is unknown.
* The Alumni Oxonienses conflates him with Rev. Thomas Bankes DD, who was vicar of Newport Pagnell (Bucks), 1689-1715, but he must be a different man.
Bankes, Robert (1699-1748). Fourth but eldest surviving son of Thomas Bankes (1659-1728) and his wife Anne, daughter of Thomas Cholmondeley MP of Vale Royal (Cheshire), baptised at Wigan, 7 November 1699. Educated at Peover and Trinity College, Cambridge (matriculated 1718). High Sheriff of Lancashire, 1742. Fellow of the Royal Society, 1736-46. He married, 1729/30 (licence 20 January), his first cousin, Catherine (1698-), only daughter of Edward Morgan of Golden Grove (Flints.), but had no issue.
He inherited Winstanley Hall from his father in 1728.
He was buried at Wigan, 30 September 1748. His wife's date of death is unknown.
Bankes, William (1709-75). Younger son of Thomas Bankes (1659-1728) and his wife Anne, daughter of Thomas Cholmondeley MP of Vale Royal (Cheshire), said to have been born 1709. He married, 1749 (licence 15 February) at Atherton (Lancs), Elizabeth (1721-71), daughter of Amos Meredith and sister of Sir William Meredith of Henbury (Cheshire), and had issue:
(1) William Bankes (1751-1800) (q.v.);
(2) Thomas Bankes (b. 1757), born 10 February and baptised at Upholland, 23 February 1757; died young.
He inherited Winstanley Hall from his elder brother in 1748.
He was buried at Wigan, 3 May 1775. His wife died in 1771.
Bankes, William (1751-1800). Only surviving son of William Bankes (1709-75) and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Amos Meredith and sister of Sir William Meredith of Henbury (Cheshire?), baptised 8 April 1751. Educated at Brasenose College, Oxford (matriculated 1768; created MA 1771). High Sheriff of Lancashire, 1784. He married, 25 November 1779 at St Mary, Leicester, Mary Ann (1748-98), daughter of Joseph Bunney of Leicester (Leics), and sister of Sir Edmund Cradock-Hartopp, 1st bt., but had no issue.
He inherited Winstanley Hall from his father in 1775 and undertook the first recorded alterations in 1780. At his death his estate passed to his first cousin, the Rev. Thomas Holme (1732-1803), with remainder to Holme's eldest surviving son, Meyrick Holme (later Bankes).
He was buried at Billinge, 18 February 1800; his will was proved 21 July 1800. His wife was buried at Billinge, 11 April 1798.
Bankes, Anne (1706-98). Younger daughter of Thomas Bankes (1659-1728) and his wife Anne, daughter of Thomas Cholmondeley MP of Vale Royal (Cheshire), baptised at Wigan, 15 July 1706. She married, 14 February 1731/2, Hugh Holme (1707-40) of Holland House, Upholland (Lancs), son of Edward Holme (b. 1683), and had issue:
(1) Rev. Thomas Holme (1732-1803) (q.v.);
(2) Edward Holme (1733-1801) of Ardwick, Manchester, born 25 October and baptised at Upholland, 5 November 1733; married, 17 July 1760 at Manchester Collegiate Church (now Cathedral), Elizabeth (b. 1734; fl. 1801), daughter of George Shelmerdine of Manchester, and had issue three sons and seven daughters (who all died unmarried except for the youngest daughter); buried at St Ann, Manchester, 30 June 1801; will proved 1 December 1801;
(3) Diana Frances Holme (1734-35), baptised at Upholland, 20 November 1734; died in infancy and was buried at Upholland, 25 May 1735;
(4) Anne Holme (1735-63), born 24 December 1735 and baptised at Upholland, 6 January 1735/6; died unmarried, 14 June and was buried at Upholland, 17 June 1763;
(5) Elizabeth Holme (1736-78), born 13 December and baptised at Upholland, 28 December 1736; married, 20 November 1767 at Billinge (Lancs), Rev. Richard Prescott (d. 1797), vicar of Upholland 1767-98 and rector of Margaret Roding (Essex), 1762-90, and had issue two daughters; buried at Upholland, 14 January 1778;
(6) Catherine Holme (1740-1820), born 12 February and baptised at Upholland, 4 March 1740; married, 11 April 1771 at Upholland, Rev. Edward Lally (c.1742-1826), vicar of Whitegates (Cheshire), 1770-1826, and had issue (including Anne, who married Meyrick Bankes (1768-1827) of Winstanley Hall (q.v.)); buried at Whitegates, 13 January 1820.
She and her husband lived at Holland House, Upholland, which he inherited from his father.
She died aged 93 on 2 June 1799. Her husband died in November 1740 and was buried at Wigan.
Holme, Rev. Thomas (1732-1803). Only son of Hugh Holme (1707-41) of Upholland (Lancs) and his wife Anne, younger daughter of Thomas Bankes (1659-1728) of Winstanley Hall (Lancs), baptised at Wigan, 21 November 1732. Educated at Brasenose College, Oxford (matriculated 1751; BCL 1759). Ordained deacon, 1758; presumably the man of this name who was chaplain of Upholland (Lancs), 1758-67. He married 1st, 21 August 1759 at St James, Piccadilly, Westminster (Middx), Mary (1737-97), daughter of Richard Meyrick of Bodorgan (Anglesey), and 2nd, 26 August 1800 at St. Alkmund, Shrewsbury (Shrops.), Anne (1749-1820), daughter of Capt. Baldwin Leighton of Alberbury (Shrops.), and sister of Gen. Sir Baldwin Leighton, 6th bt., and had issue:
(1.1) Jane Holme (1760-1839), born 30 June and baptised at Upholland, 10 July 1760; married, 15 December 1800 at Upholland (sep. 14 January 1802), her step-uncle, Lt-Col. Burgh Leighton (1760-1836), fifth son of Capt. Baldwin Leighton of Alberbury (Shrops.), but had no issue; lived after her separation with her unmarried sisters at Holland House, Upholland and later at Leamington Spa (Warks); buried at Leamington, 19 March 1839; will proved 16 April 1839;
(1.2) Anne Holme (1761-1844), born 27 July and baptised at Upholland, 23 August 1761; married, 10 November 1800 at Upholland, Rev. George Borlase BD (1743-1809), vicar of Cherry Hinton (Cambs) and Professor of Casuistry in the University of Cambridge, but had no issue; died at Little Heath, Charlton, Greenwich (Kent), 21 April 1844 and was buried there; will proved 6 May 1844;
(1.3) Hugh Holme (1762-69), born 13 October and baptised at Upholland, 5 November 1762; died young and was buried at Wigan, 13 August 1769;
(1.4) Mary Meyrick Holme (1764-1834), born 5 January and baptised at Upholland, 2 February 1764; died unmarried and was buried at Upholland, 19 April 1834;
(1.5) Henrietta Dorothy Holme (1765-66), born 24 August and baptised at Upholland, 21 September 1765; died in infancy and was buried at Upholland, 15 January 1766;
(1.6) Thomas Holme (1767-97), baptised at Upholland, 17 January 1767; an officer in the 18th Foot (Ensign, 1791; Lt., 1793); died unmarried while serving with his regiment at Porto Ferrajo, Elba (Italy), 20 January 1797;
(1.7) Meyrick Holme (later Bankes) (1768-1827) (q.v.);
(1.8) Harriet Cholmondeley Holme (1770-71), baptised at Upholland, 25 July 1770; died in infancy and was buried at Upholland, 24 June 1771;
(1.9) Rev. Frederick William Holme (1772-1853), born 12 January and baptised at Upholland, 1 February 1772; educated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford (matriculated 1789; BA 1792; MA 1796; BD 1804); ordained deacon and priest, 1797; Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, c.1793-1812; rector of Meyseyhampton (Glos), 1809-53; married, 1 May 1811 at Moreton Say (Shrops.), Mary Elizabeth (1783-1862), daughter of Thomas Pigot of Almington Hall (Staffs), and had issue two sons (one of whom became vicar of Marston Maisey (Glos) in 1840) and two daughters; died 17 January and was buried at Meyseyhampton, 26 January 1853; will proved 30 March 1853;
(1.10) Diana Frances Holme (1774-95), baptised at Upholland, 29 May 1774; died unmarried and was buried at Wigan, 31 December 1795;
(1.11) Harriet Holme (1776-1848), baptised at Upholland, 13 September 1776; died unmarried at Leamington Spa (Warks) and was buried there, 8 July 1848;
(1.12) Cholmondeley Holme (1779-93), born 23 January and baptised at Upholland, 24 February 1779; died young, 12 August 1793.
He inherited Winstanley Hall from his cousin, William Bankes, in 1800.
He died 17 August and was buried at Upholland, 24 August 1803; his will was proved 20 December 1803. His first wife died 25 March and was buried at Upholland, 1 April 1797. His widow was buried at St Alkmund, Shrewsbury, 30 August 1820; her will was proved 22 September 1820.
|Meyrick Holme (later Bankes)|
(2.1) Meyrick Bankes (1811-81) (q.v.);
(2.2) Thomas Holme Bankes (1812-31), born 2 November and baptised at Billinge (Lancs), 19 November 1812; an officer in 6th Dragoon Guards (Cornet); died unmarried at Cork Barracks, 17 May 1831.
He inherited Winstanley Hall from his father in 1803, and carried out a major remodelling in 1818-19 to the designs of Lewis Wyatt. He was renting Cromwell House, Old Brompton (Middx) at the time of his death.
He died at Cromwell House, Old Brompton, 1 March 1827, and was buried at Upholland; his funeral was attended with considerable pomp and cost over £500. His first wife died in April 1809. His widow died at Rostherne Hall (Cheshire), 1 April 1850 and was buried at Upholland.
* The entry for this baptism in the parish register is however for 'Meyrick, the son of Thomas Holme, gentleman and Alice, daughter of John Birchall, weaver, both of Upholland', which implies he was illegitimate.
|Meyrick Bankes (1811-81)|
(1) Eleanor Starkie Letterewe Bankes (1837-1907) (q.v.);
(2) Maria Ann Bankes (1839-1904) of Letterewe, baptised at Southport (Lancs), 6 April 1839; inherited Letterewe from her father in 1881 but sold it in about 1901; married 1st, 28 November 1857 at St John's Chapel, Inverness (div. 1880), Lt-Gen. William Charles Robertson Macdonald CB of Kinlochmoidart and had issue one daughter; married 2nd, 19 January 1882 at St George, Hanover Square, London, Paul Auguste Liot, who took the name of Bankes, bank director, son of Alexander Liot; died 19 March 1904; will confirmed 27 April 1904 (effects £7,835);
(3) Ada Jane Bankes (1841-1914), baptised at Southport (Lancs), 7 March 1841; married, 16 July 1861 at St John's Chapel, Inverness, William Anderson, an officer in Madras Army (Capt.), second son of Col. Thomas Anderson, and had issue three sons; died 20 April 1914; will proved 16 May 1914 (estate £4,646);
(4) William Meyrick Bankes (1844-82); reputedly born 24 February 1844; an officer in the 3rd Battn, Cameron Highlanders (Capt., 1865; Maj., 1873); JP for Lancashire; built Drumchork House, Aultbea (Ross & Cromarty), which was incomplete at his death; married, 28 February 1871, Helen (c.1851-1936), daughter of Sir David Louis Macpherson KCMG of Chestnut Park, Toronto (Canada), and had issue one son and two daughters; died 21 February 1882 and was buried at Upholland (Lancs); will confirmed 23 May 1882 (estate £5,823);
(5) Kate Gruinard Bankes (1846-1912), baptised at Poolewe, 27 September 1846; married 1st, 22 May 1866 at Rhyl (Flints.), James Dannett Anderton (1831-75), only son of Peter Anderton of Ashfield, Wrexham (Flints.), and 2nd, 28 July 1878 at the British Consulate in Florence (Italy), Angelo Favaron (d. 1903), son of Luigi Favaron of Venice (Italy); died in Florence (Italy), 8 April 1912; will confirmed 20 September 1912 (estate £12,896);
(6) Thomas Holme Bankes (1847-82), born 31 May and baptised at Gairloch, 8 August 1847; an officer in 91st Foot (Ensign, 1867; Lt., 1870; Instructor of Musketry, 1873; retired, 1875); bankrupt, 1878; cut out of his father's will; died unmarried, 2 October 1882; will proved 11 October 1882 and confirmed in Scotland, 13 October 1882 (estate in Scotland £1,009);
(7) Anne Holme Bankes (1849-63), born 17 December 1849 and baptised at Poolewe, 24 November 1850; died young, of diphtheria, 24 January 1863.
He also appears to have had three acknowledged illegitimate children by Kate, the wife of Michael Cooke Banks of Liverpool, book-keeper, who are mentioned in his will with no indication of their illegitimacy:
(X1) William Cooke Bankes (1849-92); seaman (second mate, 1867; first mate, 1880) and later hotel proprietor at Douglas (Isle of Man); married, 8 May 1882 at St Catherine, Liverpool (Lancs), Adeline Mary (1857-1910), daughter of Edward Joseph Sears of Liverpool, cabinet maker, but had no issue; died in Douglas (Isle of Man), 20 December 1892; after his death it was found that his debts exceeded his assets;
(X2) Kate Cooke Bankes (1853-98), baptised at St Peter, Liverpool, 15 November 1853; died unmarried at Peel (Isle of Man), 24 February 1898; will proved 18 March 1898 (estate £950);
(X3) Jane Cooke Bankes alias Starkey (1856-1910), born 5 February and baptised at St. Peter, Liverpool, 19 February 1856; cut out of her father's will when she married, 26 December 1878 at St Catherine, Liverpool, Isaac Speakman of Runcorn (Cheshire), chemist, son of Thomas Speakman, coal merchant; died 3 July 1910 and was buried at Leigh (Lancs).
He inherited Winstanley Hall from his father in 1827, and made further changes to the house in 1843. He purchased the Letterewe and Gruinard (Ross-shire) estates in 1835, and partially rebuilt Letterewe House in 1858.
He died, apparently of a stroke, in Liverpool, 16 June 1881 and was buried at Upholland; his unusual will and codicil were proved in England, 25 February 1882 (effects £47,964), and a separate will was confirmed in Scotland, 16 January 1882 (effects £9,777); there was subsequently much litigation beween his children. His widow died 25 January 1899; her will was proved 10 February 1899 (effects £15,012).
Bankes, Eleanor Starkie Letterewe (1837-1907). Eldest daughter of Meyrick Bankes (1811-81) and his wife Eleanor, daughter of Richard Starkie of Knutsford (Cheshire), baptised at Gairloch (Ross & Cromarty), 9 November 1837. She and her husband assumed the name and arms of Bankes by royal licence in 1882, although by that time her husband was already a patient in Morningside Asylum. She married, 19 December 1861 at St George, Hanover Square, London, William John Murray (later Bankes) (1835-84) of Rosemount, Tain (Ross-shire), son of George Murray of Tain, and they had issue:
(1) Louisa Mary Murray (later Bankes) (1863-1952), born at Shandwick (Ross-shire), 18 January 1863; married, 17 November 1891 at Billinge (Lancs), Maj. William Vaughton Pennefather (1862-1939) of Lakefield (Co. Tipperary), son of Richard Pennefather, and had issue three sons and one daughter; died 24 November 1952; will proved 19 February 1953 (estate £13,516);
(2) Eleanor Sarah Murray (later Bankes) (1864-1953), born 22 April 1864; married 1st, 19 April 1888 at Westminster, Hon. Robert Joseph Gerrard (later Gerard-Dicconson) (1857-1918) of Wrightington Hall (Lancs), younger son of Sir Robert Tolver Gerard, 13th bt. and 1st Baron Gerard, and had issue one son and two daughters; married 2nd, 12 November 1925, Mark Fenwick (c.1861-1945) of Abbotswood House, Nether Swell (Glos); died 3 March 1953; will proved 11 June 1953 (estate £9,174);
(3) Frances Holme Murray (later Bankes) (1865-1940), born 7 June 1865; married, 17 April 1904, Maj. Harry Adair Thompson (c.1863-1923) of 3rd Dragoon Guards, son of Hugh Thompson, but had no issue; died 30 April 1940; will proved 12 September 1940 (estate £10,366);
(4) Meyrick Blair Murray (later Bankes) (1866-99), born at Row (Dumbartons.), 27 June 1866; died without issue, 14 February 1899 and was buried at Upholland (Lancs); administration of goods granted to his mother, 1 May 1899 (estate £5,884);
(5) George Hildyard Murray (later Bankes) (1867-1949) (q.v.);
(6) William Hugh Murray (later Bankes) (1869-1905), born at Row (Dumbartons.), 31 January 1869; bankrupt, 1893; died unmarried, 18 March 1905, leaving an estate valued at £1,500;
(7) Charlotte Maria Murray (later Bankes) (1873-1967), born 21 June 1873; married, 7 January 1904, Capt. John Ruttledge (c.1865-1931) of Cornfield (Co. Mayo) and had issue; died aged 94 on 22 July 1967; her will was proved 23 October 1967 (estate £4,801).
She inherited Winstanley Hall from her brother in 1882, and purchased Balconie Castle (Ross-shire) jointly with her second son in 1890.
She died 5 December 1907; her will was proved April 1908 (estate £51,117). Her husband died at Morningside Asylum, Edinburgh, 17 July 1884 and was buried at Tain; his will was confirmed, 19 May 1885 (estate in Scotland, £937).
Murray (later Bankes), George Hildyard (1867-1949). Second, but oldest surviving, son of William John Murray (later Bankes) and his wife Eleanor Starkie Letterewe, daughter of Meyrick Bankes of Winstanley Hall (Lancs), born at Helensburgh (Dumbartons.), 28 September 1867. Landowner and coal owner. He took the name Bankes from 1882. JP (from 1894) for Ross-shire and (from 1909) for Lancashire; DL for Lancashire; High Sheriff of Lancashire in 1921-22. A Conservative in politics, he served as joint Chairman of Ince Conservative Association. He gave a 20-acre site for a new Grammar School at Upholland, and also bought Bispham Hall for the Girl Guides. He married, 22 December 1898, Amy Orkney Stracathro JP (1871-1955), daughter of Charles Robertson of Kindeace (Ross-shire) and had issue:
(1) Joyce Helena Murray Bankes (1904-74) (q.v.).
He purchased Balconie Castle jointly with his mother in 1890 and remodelled it in 1891. He inherited Winstanley Hall from his mother in 1907. He sold Balconie Castle after the Second World War to A.J.M. Munro, who allowed it to become derelict.
He died 5 December 1949; his will was proved 23 May and 18 July 1950 (estate £439,572). His widow died 6 September 1955; her will was proved 18 October 1955 (estate £25,408).
Bankes, Joyce Helena Murray (1904-74). Only child of George Hildyard Bankes (1867-1949) and his wife Amy Orkney Stracathro, daughter of Charles Robertson of Kindeace (Ross-shire), born 21 June and baptised at St Peter, Cranley Gardens, Kensington (Middx), 10 August 1904. She was interested in the history of the estate and wrote most of a history of the property before her death. She married, 23 April 1929 at Billinge (Lancs), Edward William Jervis Bankes RN (1904-84), an officer in the Royal Navy (midshipman, 1922; S/Lt 1924; Lt., 1926; Lt Cmdr, 1934; Cmdr, 1939; Capt., 1945; retired, 1955), younger son of Ralph Vincent Bankes KC of Soughton Hall, and had issue:
(1) John Jervis Murray Bankes (1931-2005) (q.v.);
(2) Maryanne Bankes (1934-2012), born 28 April 1934; educated at St Anne's College, Oxford (MA 1962) and Stanford University, California (USA); lived latterly in Bath (Somerset); married, 6 September 1958, Peter John Anthony Chandor (1932-2014), bookseller, son of Peter Chandor of Texas (USA) and had issue one son and one daughter; died 1 November 2012 and was buried at Bitton (Glos);
(3) Elizabeth Joyce Bankes (b. 1938), born 26 February 1938; educated at Queen Mary College, University of London (BA 1959); completed her mother's history of Winstanley Hall; married, 25 April 1964, Harry Julian Pocklington Garland (b. 1940) of Sheffield (Yorks WR), son of Rev. Col. Harry Garland of Woodbridge (Suffk), and had issue two sons and one daughter;
(4) James George William Bankes (1941-2016) (q.v.);
(5) George Henry Andrew Bankes (1945-2015), born 23 April 1945; educated at Bolton GS, Worcester College, Oxford (BA, 1966), Institute of Archaeology, University of London (PhD, 1971) and University of California, Berkeley (USA); archaeologist and museum curator; Keeper of Ethnography, Manchester Museum, 1980-2003; married, 12 April 1969, Catherine Mary, only daughter of W. Chadwick of Chorley (Lancs), and had issue one son and one daughter; died after a long illness, 15 June 2015.
She inherited Winstanley Hall from her father in 1949 and divided her time between Winstanley and a home at Haslemere (Surrey). In 1957, to reduce costs, part of Winstanley Hall was closed up and the furniture dispersed (an Elizabethan bed made for James Bankes was given to the National Trust for Rufford Hall), and the remainder made into a family flat. Her husband lived latterly at Padley Croft, Grindleford (Derbys).
She died 15 September 1974; her will was proved 14 November 1974 (estate £22,164). Her husband died 26 August 1984; his will was proved 14 December 1984 (estate £78,918).
Bankes, John Jervis Murray (1931-2005). Eldest son of Capt. Edward William Jervis Bankes RN (1904-84) and his wife Joyce Helena Murray, daughter of George Hildyard Bankes of Winstanley Hall, born 9 September 1931. Educated at Winchester and Worcester College, Oxford (BA 1954); an officer in the Royal Signals (2nd Lt., 1950); admitted a solicitor, 1958; married, 19 December 1959, Margaret Christine (1933-2017), only daughter of Lt-Cmdr. Reginald Forbes RN, and had issue:
(1) Caroline Margaret Bankes (b. 1964), born 10 March 1964; lives at Alresford (Hants); married, 1993, Jonathan Piers Young (b. 1959), editor of The Field and other sporting magazines, and had issue one son and one daughter;
(2) Henry Francis John Bankes (b. 1966), born 19 March 1966; admitted a solicitor, 1995; company director in the travel and leisure sector; married, 2000, Francesca Rachel Oakley, and had issue two daughters.
He lived at Hinton Ampner and later at Horndean (Hants).
He died in August 2005. His widow died 7 October 2017; her will was proved 19 December 2017.
Bankes, James George William (1941-2016). Second son of Capt. Edward William Jervis Bankes RN (1904-84) and his wife Joyce Helena Murray, daughter of George Hildyard Bankes of Winstanley Hall, born 14 February 1941. Educated at Pangbourne College and Shuttleworth Agricultural College, Old Warden (Beds). He married, 12 June 1965 at Chester Cathedral, Eleanor Constance Jane (b. 1943), younger daughter of Dr. Lawrence Pilkington, and had issue:
(1) Thomas Austin Bankes (b. 1968), born 16 November 1968; lives in Swindon (Wilts); married, May 2005, Andrea L. Gough;
(2) Timothy Guy Bankes (b. 1969), born 11 December 1969; director of Winstanley Hall Development Co. since 1996; lived until recently in lodge to Winstanley Hall, but now in Bristol;
(3) Martin James Bankes (b. 1971), born December 1971; now manages Copsegrove Farm, Bisley; married, Jul-Sep 1998, Katherine E. Benn PGCE, and had issue one son and one daughter.
He lived at Copsegrove Farm, Bisley (Glos).
He died 18 October 2016; his will was proved 17 May 2017. His wife is now living.
Burke's Landed Gentry, 1972, pp. 40-41; J.H.M. Bankes, 'James Bankes and the manor of Winstanley, 1595-1617', Proceedings of the Historical Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 1941, pp. 56-93; E. Beaton, Ross & Cromarty: an illustrated architectural guide, 1992, p. 98; G. Miller, Historic Houses in Lancashire: the Douglas valley 1300-1770, 2002, p. 201; R. Pollard & Sir N. Pevsner, The buildings of England: Lancashire - Liverpool and the south-west, 2006, pp. 35, 677-78; http://www.wiganworld.co.uk/stuff/furtherhistory.pdf
Location of archives
Bankes of Winstanley Hall: deeds, manorial records, estate, family and household papers, 14th-20th cent. [Lancashire Archives, DDBa]; deeds, legal and estate papers relating to Yorkshire property, 1659-1939 [Sheffield Archives, no ref. known]
Coat of arms
Notes about missing information and help wanted with this entry
- Can anyone explain the descent of Winstanley Hall after 1974, or provide fuller information about the reasons for the abandonment of the house and the rapid deterioration of the family's finances, for which death duties and the nationalisation of the coal industry seem not fully to account?
- I would be most grateful if anyone can provide additional genealogical or career information about the earlier generations of this family, or portraits of any members of this family whose names appear in bold above who are not already illustrated.
- As always, any additions or corrections to the account given above will be gratefully received and incorporated.
Revision and acknowledgements
This post was first published 8 January 2019.